The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of expenditure on private education and stress caused by private education on the parental efficacy of mothers of junior and senior high school students. The subjects were 300 mothers of students who were enrolled in the junior and senior high school in Seoul and its suburbs. The results were as follows: First, the level of stress from private education was found to be higher than the degree of parental efficacy. Second, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed by using expenditure on private education and stress caused by private education as independent variables and the socio-demographic characteristics of mothers as control variables in order to identify their effect on the parental efficacy of mothers of junior and senior high school students. The results show that stress from private education and monthly income were significantly related to parental efficacy. That is, the lower the level of stress from private education and the higher the monthly income, the higher was the degree of parental efficacy. These findings suggest that expenditure on private education seems to be determined by the household income level; thus, income may affect psychological stress and parental efficacy of mothers with respect to the process of providing private education.
The purpose of this study was to explore the patterns of private education, investigate the characteristics of private education patterns, and analyze the differences in study habits and academic achievement of youth on the basis of private education patterns. In this study, we used the data from the 2012 Panel of the Korea Children and Youth Panel Study by the National Youth Policy Institute. The subjects of this study were ninth-grade students and their parents. The statistical methods used for the analysis were two-step clustering, Chi-squared test, analysis of variance, and multiple regression. The major findings were as follows: first, private education was classified into three patterns, namely financial investment, time investment, and reduction of investment; and four categories, namely; private education methodology, private education time, private education expenses, and number of youth with access to private education. Second, the statistically significant socio-demographic characteristics of private education patterns were parents' education, parents' job type, father's working hours, sex of children, housing form, and income. Third, the study found that financial investment and a reduce of investment led to better study habits and academic achievement than time investment and no investment. Fourth, private education and study habits showed statistically meaningful effects on academic achievement; in particular, study habits had strong effects on academic achievement. Based on the results, a variety of educational programs for the improvement of the study habits of the youth were suggested.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the expenditure on private education and stress from private education, and the role conflicts of the mothers of junior and senior high school students. The subjects were 300 mothers of students who are enrolled in junior and senior high school and receiving private education in Seoul and its suburbs. The results were as follows: First, the level of stress from private education was found to be higher than the scale range of the median, whereas the degree of role conflicts was slightly lower than the scale range of the median. Second, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed by using the expenditure on private education and stress from private education as independent variables and the socio-demographic variables of mothers as the control variables in order to identify their effect on the role conflicts of the mothers of the junior and senior high school students. The results show that the age of the mother, the household monthly income, the monthly expenditure on private education, and stress from private education were significantly related to the role conflicts of the mothers. That is, the older the age of the mother, the lower the level of monthly income, the lower the level of the monthly expenditure on private education, and the higher the level of stress from private education, the greater the degree of the role conflicts of the mother.
The purpose of this study is to examine current situations about and factors related to expenditures of private education among pre-school children and to provide policy implications useful for future pre-school children education. The subjects of the study were parents of pre-school children under seven years of age, who lived in Seoul and Incheon area. The survey was conducted using parent questionnaire. The major findings of the study are: First, 86.8% of parents of pre-school children use private education and the average expenditure on it was 154, 446 won. Second, major factors determining their private education expenditure are educational level of parents, parents' job characteristics, household income, and region. Third, the most important reason for using private education among parents is to improve and excel in academic performance of their children. Forth, the higher the parents' expected returns from private education are, the higher the expenditure level of private education is. Fitth, the results of the logistic regressions showed that parents' attitudes toward private education was the most important factor in determining household economic burden associated with private education. The odds were 5 times greater for the parent group with strong desire for private education than for the parent group without it and 1.2 times greater for the parent group with high-expected returns from private education than the parent group without it. In conclusion, systematic, universal educational policies need to be developed to provide and support all the parents with pre-school children, given that their current economic burden is substantial. By providing such support, we can help parents focus on public education. This study examining current situations about and determining factors related to private education expenditures among pre-school children collected data limiting only Seoul and Inchoen area, therefore, future studies need to include data collected nationwide for generalizability of the findings. As well, development of more elaborated survey instruments and analytical methods would advance our understanding in the field.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of household income, education needs, private education expenses and expenditures of preparation for old age for mothers of school-aged children and to discover the causal relationships among these variables. The subjects in this study were gathered from among 393 mothers living in Daegu with school-aged children from 8 to 19 years old and with wage-earner husbands. The research tool was a questionnaires which addressed the general characteristics of the subjects, household income, the scale of education needs, the scale of private education expenditures, the scale of perceived burden of private education, and the scale of expenditures of preparation for old age. In order to analyze the study data, factor analysis, and regression analysis using SPSS were used, and structural path analysis using AMOS was used. The main results of this study were as follow: First, the greater the household income, the greater the education needs. Second, household income and education needs had no significant influences on private education expenditures. Third, education needs and private education expenditures turned out to have significant effects on the perceived burden of private education expenditures. Fourth, expenditures of preparation for old age among mothers of school-aged children was influenced by the education needs, private education expenditures and perceived burden of private education expenditures. The household income of mothers of school-aged children had no significant influence on private education expenditures. Finally, education needs, private education expenditures and perceived burden of private education expenditures for mothers of school-aged children had a direct effect on the expenditures of preparations for old age. On the other hand, in mediating education needs, household income of these mothers had an indirect effect on expenditures of preparations for old age. The perceived burden of private education expenditures turned out to have the biggest total effect on the preparations for old age of mothers with school-aged children.
The issue of children′s education is the most important issue for all households in Korea. It is certain that the issue of private education for children is the first issue among household′s issues. This study is to recognize the current pictures of household primate education of Korean households. Also, whether the expenditure of private education effect the economic will-being of household. The data for this study was"the 3th Korean Labor Panal", conducted by Lobor in Korea. The sample was 1950 households from the panel data. The results of this study was as following: 1. The mean of monthly private education expenditure was 149273won for all households and 217,100won for households with high school students. 2. Almost 70% households had economic burden for private education expenditure. 0% households had no economic burden. 3. The factors of influencing the level of economic burden for private education were mother′s education level, mother′s job, the number of children, living location, monthly income, total asset of household′s. The factors of influencing the amount of monthly private education expenditure positively were living in 4. The economic well-being of household was analyzed by socio-economic variables, household′s financial variables, monthly private education expenditure, the level of economic burden of private education. The economic well-being were sub-categorized 4 divisions; the level of economic problem, the level of satisfaction for household′s income, the level of satisfaction for general living, the level of subject economic condition)
This study was to analyze the effect of private education expenditures on financial performance. The data from 1,669 households were taken from the Korean labor and Income Panel Study. The major findings were as follows: (1) The mean of monthly private education expenditure was 257,400 won for all households. Almost 66% of households encountered an economic burden in paying for private education. (2) The mean of financial performance in all households was 31,420,000 won and those with higher assets showed the greatest financial performance (112.8 million won net gain). (3) The variables that significantly influenced on private education expenditures and the financial performance were different in all households. (4) The relationship between financial performance and private education expenditures was verified partially. The association was proved in the middle assets group.
Korean households' expenditures on foodservices are on the steady increase. This paper aims to examine the foodservice expenditures of salary and wage earners's households by income decile group. This is analysed through comparing foodservice expenditures with private education expenditures because households' expenditures are likely to be weighted in favor of eating-out rather than private education. We also model the consumption function in terms of income and price, examining the responsiveness of private education demand and eating-out demand to changes in income and price using econometric methods such as regression, rolling regression and impulse response. This paper show that foodservice demand increases more than the private education does in the long-run. The result indicates that households are likely to evaluate the desire for foodservice more important than private education contrary to our expectations in the long-run. The impulse response analysis, however, suggests that households tend to increase private education expenditures rather than eating-out expenditures in the short-run.
This study is to investigate the important factor for household private education expenditure. Especially, this study analyzed the influence of financial management characteristics. For this, the income level is classified by comparative poverty and analyzed the influence power The data for this study was "the Korean Labor Panel" conducted by Korea Labor Institute in 2000. The result showed the demographic factors by the income level and financial characteristics have big difference. Also, income level affects private education expenditure. For lower income level, demographic factors affect more than financial factors. This result explained the private education expenditure as luxurious goods. For middle income level, financial factors affect more than demographic factors. This explained the private education expenditure as choice goods. For upper income level, the private education expenditure was explained as investment goods.
This study attempted to investigate household's private educational expenditure that aggravates a burden on households by using the data from the 2014 Private Education Survey published by Statistics Korea. The effects of purposes of private education and participation in an after school program that is pushed by the government on household's private educational expenditure were analyzed. The major findings were as follows. First, the major purposes of private education lean toward preparing to enroll in school and relieving parents'uneasiness rather than prior learning Second, according to the purposes of private education, the differences of the private educational expenditure were verified. Households spend the highest level of private educational expenditure for the purpose of preparing to enroll in school contrary to the lowest level, which was for the purpose of compensatory learning. Third, participation in an after school program that is regarded as a method of moderating households' private education burden, had a positive effect on reducing private educational expenditure. Forth, private educational expenditure was influenced by the purposes of private education and participation in an after school program. In 2014, the Korean government enforced a law that prohibits schools'education in advance (prior learning) and regulates private educational institutes'advertisement about prior learning. Regarding this regulation, this study aimed to investigate the purposes and expenditure of private education to provide an empirical reference to determine the improvement of related policies.
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