• Title/Summary/Keyword: preschool children

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Use of mothers' home meal replacement and diet quality of their young children (유아 어머니의 유아식사에서 가정간편식 이용 빈도에 따른 유아 자녀의 식사의 질 평가)

  • Kim, Bo-Yeon;Kim, Mi-Hyun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.292-304
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    • 2021
  • Purpose: This study investigated the association between the mothers' use of home meal replacement (HMR) in their children's meals and the diet quality of their young children. Methods: Three hundred and thirty-seven mothers with five-year-old kindergartners in Sejong city participated in the survey from June to July 2020. The questionnaire consisted of the status of HMR use in children's meals and questions for assessing the nutrition quotient for preschoolers (NQ-P). The subjects were classified into three groups according to the frequency of HMR use in children's meals: using HMR more than three times a week (high-frequency group; [HG], n = 65), one-two times a week (moderate-frequency group; [MG], n = 145), and less than once a week (low-frequency group; [LG], n = 130). Results: The mothers' mean age was 38.3 years. The average monthly cost of purchasing HMRs was highest at 200,000-300,000 won in HG, 50,000-100,000 won in MG, and less than 50,000 won in LG (p < 0.001). The consumption frequency of processed meats, fast foods, processed beverages, and sweet & fatty snacks was significantly higher in the HG group than the other groups. The mean NQ-P score was 60.5 in HG, 63.0 in MG, and 64.5 in LG, showing a significant difference (p < 0.01). In the sub-score according to the three areas, there were no significant differences in balance and environment among the three groups. In the moderation area, however, the score was 44.1 in HG, 51.3 in MG, and 57.5 in LG Group, showing a significant difference (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The increase in HMR use was related to the decreased diet quality in the overall and moderation areas of children's diet. These results support the importance of nutrition education for mothers, which aims to reduce their children's access and exposure to processed foods, such as HMR.

Recent Trends in the Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia According to Age (연령에 따른 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 폐렴 발병의 최근 경향)

  • Lee, Hyo Sang;Choi, Kyong Min
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.162-166
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : It has been previously reported that for patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia was previously recognized that overt illness is unusual under the age of three and the peak incidence of illness occurs in school-aged children. However, a higher incidence of this illness in younger children has been recently noted. Thus we investigated the incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Methods : The study subjects were 414 children who were diagnosed with M. pneumoniae pneumonia from January 2004 to December 2006 at Myong Ji Hospital were enrolled. The diagnostic criteria consisted of an anti-mycoplasma antibody (AMA) titer greater than 1: 320 or a four-fold rise in the titer at follow up. Results : The age distribution was as follows: before 2 years of age: 58 patients (14%), 2-4 years of age 157 patients (37.9%) and 5-15 years of age 199 patients (48.1%). The yearly incidence for the children before 5 years of age was 52 (44%), 49 (44.6%) and 114 (61.3%), respectively. The distribution according to the antibody titer was as follows; 1: 320 in 130 patients, 1:640 in 63 patients and greater than 1:1,280 in 221 patients. The hospital stay according to the antibody titer was not significant according to either age or the AMA titers. Conclusion : M. pneumoniae pneumonia showed a peak incidence in preschool children with a higher prevalence in children under the age of three than was previously recognized. The emergence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia as a cause of community acquired pneumonia in younger children calls for an epidemiologic study to investigate the changes of the pathogens in this age group and to recommend the proper treatment.

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Clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency rickets in infants and preschool children (비타민 D 결핍성 구루병 영.유아의 임상적 특징)

  • Huh, Kyoung;Woo, Mi Kyeong;Yoon, Jung Rim;Shim, Gyu Hong;Chey, Myoung Jae;Park, Mi Jung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : Vitamin D deficiency rickets is a significant public health problem that results from insufficient exposure to sunlight and inadequate vitamin D supplementation. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency rickets in infants. Methods : Data of 35 infants diagnosed as vitamin D deficiency rickets at Sanggye-Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea, from March 2007 to May 2009 were reviewed. Children with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <15 ng/mL and 15-30 ng/mL were considered to have vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency, respectively. Results : Thirty-five infants (22 boys, 13 girls) were diagnosed with rickets. Mean age at diagnosis was $7.4{\pm}7.1$ months (range: 0.1-29.8 months). Eighteen infants (51%) were vitamin D deficient and seventeen infants (49%) were insufficient. Twenty-eight of all (80%) diagnosed as subclinical rickets. Twenty-nine infants (83%) were below the age of 12months. Twenty infants (57%) had breastfed and ten infants (29%) had iron deficiency anemia. Nine of breastfed infants (45%) were vitamin D deficient and ten of their mothers were vitamin D insufficient. Overall, radiographic evidence of rickets was present in 93% of the cases. Radiographic sign of rickets was evident even in vitamin D insufficient state. Conclusion : It is important for the clinician to screen for subclinical vitamin D deficiency rickets in inadequately supplemented infants by pairing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with wrist radiographs. A nationwide epidemiological study of vitamin D deficiency rickets must be conducted and evidence-based national guidelines must be defined to prevent rickets.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DENTOCULT-SM TEST, MICROBIAL ANALYSIS AND DENTAL CARIES IN THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (미취학아동들의 유치우식경험도와 개량형 Dentocult-SM 검사 및 치면세균막 세균활성과의 관련성)

  • Shin, Doo-Kyo;Kim, Ji-Young;Song, Keun-Bae;Nam, Soon-Heyun
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.254-262
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    • 2003
  • Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is an interplay of three principal factors: the host(saliva and teeth), the microflora(dental plaque) and the substrate(diet), and a fourth factor time. There is no single test that takes into consideration all these factors and can accurately predict an individual's susceptibility to dental caries. The risk of dental caries can be evaluated by analysing and integrating several causative factors. The objective of the study was to clarify the relationship between caries activity and the status of caries of primary teeth and the relationship between the quantity of S. mutans in the dental plaque and the status of dental caries. Forty nine children ages 5 were examined with caries indices, Dentocult-SM and quantity of S. mutans. The results were as follows: All the survey results were similar with national means of 5-6 years Korean preschool children. The deft index of subjects was 5.46 and defs index was 9.81. There was 8.6% of negative, 10.9% of mild, 28.1% of moderate and 52.3% of active results at screening strip test. 8.6% was negative, 17.2% was mild, 33.6% was moderate and 40.6% was active in site strip test. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.775, and overall kappa index was 0.496 between screening strip test and site strip test. There also was a high correlation between caries incidence, Dentocult-SM test, and quantity of S. mutans. Dentocult-SM test as a caries activity test is a reliable method for measuring the status of dental caries in primary teeth.

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Clinical Features of Infectious Ileocecitis in Children (소아 감염성 회장맹장염의 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee, Tae-Ho;Hong, Yoo-Rha;Yeon, Gyu-Min;Lee, Jun-Woo;Park, Jae-Hong
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.30-35
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Infectious ileocecitis is an infection confined to the ileocecal area and one of the most common causes of pediatric abdominal pain. This study was performed to demonstrate the clinical features of infectious ileocecitis in children. Methods: The medical records and radiologic findings of 37 patients with ileocecitis diagnosed by ultrasonography and/or computed tomography, who were admitted to Pusan National University Hospital from January 2004 and July 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Viral gastroenteritis and secondary ileocecitis were excluded. Results: The mean age of the patients was 4.8${\pm}$3.4 years. One-half of the patients were preschool children. The chief complaint was abdominal pain (75.7%), diarrhea (10.8%), and vomiting (8.1%). Accompanying symptoms were fever (56.8%), vomiting (21.6%), and diarrhea (16.2%). The mean duration of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting was 3.8${\pm}$2.1, 3.0${\pm}$1.9, 3.4${\pm}$1.9, and 2.4${\pm}$2.3 days, respectively. The frequency of diarrhea and vomiting was 5.8${\pm}$2.2 and 4.0${\pm}$2.8 per day, respectively. Diagnosis was made by abdominal ultrasonography in 22 patients (59.5%), abdominal CT in 2 patients (5.4%), and both modalities in 13 patients (35.1%). Besides the radiologic finding of thickening of the bowel wall, mesenteric lymphadenitis (59.5%), ascites (5.4%), and both mesenteric lymphadenitis and ascites (16.2%) were revealed. The mean duration of illness was 7.5${\pm}$5.0 days. There were no specific laboratory findings, and culture studies with stool or blood were negative. All of the patients recovered completely without specific treatment. Conclusion: Infectious ileocecitis has acute appendicitis-mimicking symptoms, but is self-limited within a few days, thus unnecessary treatment and work-up is avoided. However, distinguishing infectious ileocecitis from appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and mesenteric lymphadenitis is important.

Study of The Area of Nursing Need by the Family Developmental Stage (가족발달단계에 따른 간호요구영역에 관한 연구)

  • 최부옥
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.43-59
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    • 1977
  • The Community Health Service considers the family as a service unit and places the emphasis of its service on the health problems and the nursing needs of the family rather than the individual. From the conceptual point of view that tile community health service is both health maintenance and health promotion of the family, the community health nurse should have a knowledge of the growth and development of the family and be responsible for the comprehensive support of normal family development. The community health nurse often is in a position to make a real contribution to normal family development. In order to investigate the relationship between the areas of nursing need and family development, the following objectives were established 1. To discover the general characteristics of the study population by the stage of family development. 2. To discover specific nursing needs in relation to the family developmental stage, and to determine the intensity of the nursing needs and the ability of the family to cope with these needs. 3. To discover overall family health nursing problems in relation to the family developmental stage and determine the intensity of the nursing need and the problem solving ability of family. Definitions : The family developmental stages as classified by Dually were used stage 1. Married couples(without children) stage 2. Childbearing Families (oldest child birth to 30 months of age) stage 3. Families with preschool children (oldest child 2½-to 6 years) stage 4. Families with schoolchildren (oldest child 6 to 13 years). stage 5. Families with teenagers (oldest child 13 to 20 years) stage 6. Families as launching centers (first child gone to last child′s leaving home). stage 7. Middle- aged parents (empty nest to retirement) stage 8. Aging family member (retirement to death of both spouses) The areas of nursing need were defined as those used in the study, "A Comprehensive Study about Health and Nursing Need and a Social Diagram of the Community", by tile Nursing research Institute and Center for population. and Family Planning, July 1974. The study population defiled and selected were 260 nuclear families ill two myron of Kang Hwa Island. Percent, mean value and F- test were utilized in tile statistical analysis of the study result. Findings : 1. General characteristics of the study population by tile family developmental stage ; 1)The study population was distributed by the family developmental stage as follows : stage 1 : 3 families stage 2 : 13 families stage 3 : 24 families stage 4 : 41 families stage 5 : 50 families stage 6 : 106 families stage 7 : 13 families stage 8 : 10 families 2) Most families had 4 or 5 members except for those in stage, 1, 7, and 8. 3) The parents′ present age was older in the higher developmental stage and their age at marriage was also younger in the higher developmental stages. 4) The educational level of parents was primarily less than elementary school irrespective of the developmental stage. 5) More than half of parents′ occupations were listed as laborers irrespective of the developmental stage, 6) More than half of the parents were atheists irrespective of the developmental stage. 7) The higher the developmental stage(from stage 2 to stage 6 ), the wider the distribution of children′s ages. 8) More than half of the families were of middle or lower socio-economic level. 2. Problems in specific areas of nursing need by family developmental stage, the intensity of nursing need and the problem solving ability of the family : 1) As a whole, many problems, irrespective of the developmental stage, occurred in tile areas of Housing and Sanitation, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping, Preventive Measures and Dental care. Problems occurring ill particular stages included the following ; stage 1 : Prevention of Accident stage 2 : Preventive Vaccination, Family Planning. stage 3 : Preventive Vaccination, Maternal Health, Family Planning, Health of Infant and Preschooler. stage 4, 5 : Preventive Vaccination, Family Planning, Health of School Children. stage 6 : Preventive Vaccination, Health of School Children. 2) The intensity of the nursing need in the area of Acute and Chronic Diseases was generally of moderate degree or above irrespective of the developmental stages except for stage 1. Other areas of need listed as moderate or above were found in the following stages: stage 1 : Maternal Health stage 3 . Horsing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident. stage 4 . Housing and Sanitation. stage 5 : Housing and Sanitation, Diagnostic and Medical Care. stage 6 : Diagnostic and Medical care stage 7 : Diagnostic and Medical Care, Housekeeping. stage 8 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Dental Care, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping. 3) Areas of need with moderate problem solving ability or less were as follows : stage 1 : Diagnostic and Medical Care, Maternal Health. stage 2 : Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Dental Care. stage 3 : Housing and Sanitation, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Maternal Health, Health of Infant and preschooler, Eating Patterns. stage 4 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Maternal Health, Health of New Born, Health of Infant and Preschooler, Health of school Children, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping. stage 5 . Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Preventive Vaccination, Maternal Health, Eating Patterns. stage 7, 8 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measures, Dental Care, Preventive Vaccination, Eating Patterns , Housekeeping. Problem occurrence, the degree of nursing need and the degree of problem solving ability 1 nursing need areas for the family as a whole were as follows : 1) The higher the stages(except stage 1 ), the lower the rate of problem occurrence. 2) The higher the stage becomes, the lower the intensity of the nursing need becomes. 3) The higher the stages (except stages 7 and 8), the higher. the problem solving ability. Conclusions ; 1) When the nursing care plan for the family is drawn up, depending upon the stage of family development, higher priority should be give to nursing need areas ① at which problems were shown to occur ② where the nursing need is shown to be above moderate degree and ③ where the problem solving ability was shown to be of moderate degree. 2) The priority of the nursing service should be Placed ① not on those families in the high developmental stage but on those families in the low developmental stage ② and on those areas of need shown in stages 7 and 8 where the degree nursing need was high and the ability to cope low.

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A Study on Nutritional Status of Young Children in Rural Korea (농촌영유아의 영양상태(營養狀態)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究))

  • Kim, Kyoung-Sik;Kim, Pang-Ji;Nam, Sang-Ok;Choi, Jung-Shin
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-28
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    • 1974
  • The writers have conducted the investigation to assess the nutritional status of young rural Korean children aged from 0 to 4 years old in August 1971. The survey areas were Kaejong-myon. Daeya-myon, Okku-gun, Jeonra-bukdo, Korea. These survey areas were typical agricultural plain areas. The total numbers of children examined were 2,706 comprising 1,394 male and 1,312 female. The weight, height, and chest circumference of children were measured and means and standard deviations. were calculated for each measurement. In addition, the nutritional status of each child was classified by the four levels of malnutrition and the Gomez classification, The examination of red blood cell count, haematocrit value, and intestinal parasite infection were carried out at the same time. In general, recent work tend to suggest that environmental influences, especially nutrition, are of great importance than genetic background or other biological factors for physical growth and development. Certainly the physical dimensions of the body are much influenced by nutrition, particularly in the rapidly growing period of early childhood. Selected body measurements can therefore give valuable information concerning protein-calory malnutrition. Growth can also be affected by bacterial, viral, and parasitic infection. For the field workers in a developing country, therefore, nutritional anthropometry appears to be of greatest value in the assessment of growth failure and undernutrition, principally from lack of protein and calories. In order to compare and evaluate the data obtained, the optimal data of growth from the off-spring of the true well-fed, medically and socially protected are needed. So-called 'Standards' that have been compiled for preschool children in Korea, however, are based on measurement of children from middle or lower socio-economic groups, who are, in fact, usually undernourished from six months of age onwards and continuously exposed to a succession of infective and parasitic diseases. So that, the Harvard Standards which is one of the international reference standards was used as the reference standards in this study. Findings of the survey were as follows: A. Anthropometric data: 1) Comparing the mean values for body weight obtained with the Korean standard weight of the same age, the rural Korean children were slightly haevier than the Korean standard values in both sexes. Comparing with the Japanese children values, the rural Korean children were slightly haevier in male and in the infant period of female but lighter in female of the period of 1 to 4 years old than Japanese children. 2) Comparing the mean values for height obtained with the Korean standard height of the same age, the rural Korean children were taller than the Korean standard values except the second half of infatn period in both sexes. Comparing with the Japanese children, the rural Korean children were slightly smaller than Japanese children except the first half of infant peroid in both sexes. 3) Mear values of chest circumference of rural Korean children obtained were less than the Korean standard values of the same ages in both sexes. B. Prevalence of Protein-Calory Malnutrition: Children examined were devided into two groups, i. e., infant(up to the first birthday) and toddler (1 to 4 fears old). 1) Percentages of four levels of malnutrition: a) When the nutrtional status of each child was classified (1) by body weight value, the percentages for male and female of children attained standard growth were 52.8%(infant 83.3%, toddler 44.4%) and 39.7% (infant 74.5%. toddler 30.5%), the first level of malnutrition were 31.9%(infant 13.7%, toddler 36.9%) and 31.7%(infant 15.3%, toddler 36,0%), the second level of malnutrition were 12.3%(infant 1.7%, toddler 15.3%) and 23.3% (infant 7.7%, fodder 27.5%), the third level of malnutrition were 2.7%(infant 0.7%, toddler 3.2%) and 4.6%(infant 1.8%, toddler 5.3%) the fourth level of malnutrition were 0.3% (infant 0.7%, toddler 0.2%) and 0.7% (0.7% for infant and toddler) respectively. (2) by height value, the percentages for male and female of children attained standard growth were 80.3% (infant 97.3%, toddler 75.6%) and 75.1% (infant 96.4%, toddler 69.5), the first level of malnutrition were 17.9% (infant 2.0%, toddler 22.3%) and 23.6% (infants 3.6%, toddler 28.8%), the second level of malnutrition were 1.2% (infant 0.3%, toddler 1.5%) and 1.1% (infant 0%, toddler 1.4%), the third level of malnutrition were 0.4%(infant 0.3%, toddler 0.5%) and 0.2%(infant 0%, toddler 0.3%), the fourth level of malnutrition were 0.1%(infant 0%, toddler 0.1%) and 0% respectively. (3) by body weight in relation to height, the percentages for male and female of children attained standard growth were 87.9% (infant 77.6%, toddler 87.9%) and 78.2% (infant 77.4%, toddler 78.2%), the first level of malnutrition were 12.2% (infant 18.4%, toddler 10.6%) and 18.2% (infant 17.9%, toddler 18.3%), the second level of malnutrition were 1.9%(infant 3.3%, toddler 1.5%) and 3.0%(infant 3.3%, toddler 2.9%), the third level of malnutrition were 0.1%(infant 0%. toddler 0.1%) and 0.5% (infant 0%, toddler 0.6%), the fourth level of malnutrition were 0.1%(infant 0.7%, toddler 0%) and 0.3% (infant 1.5%, toddler 0%) respectively. b) When the nutritional status of each child according to the mother's age at perturition, i. e., young aged mother (up to 30 years old), middle aged mother (31 to 40 years old) and old aged mother (41 years or above) was classified (1) by body weight, among infants and toddlers, at each year of age, with increasing the mother's age, there was an increase in percentage of subjects underweight. This tendency of increasing percentage of underweight was more significant in the infant period than the toddler period. (2) by height value, no significant differences between each mother's age group were found. c) When the nutritional status of each child according to the birth rank, i. e., lower birth rank (first to third) and higher birth rank (fourth or above) was classified (1) by weight value, children of higher birth rank were slightly more often underweight than those of lower birth rank, but not significant. (2) by height value, no differences were found between children of lower and higher birth rank. 2) Gomez Classification: When the nutritional status of each child was classified a) by body weight value, the percentages for male and female of children. attained standard growth were 53.1% (infant 82.6%, toddler 44.9%) and 39.2% (infant 73.4%, toddler 30.1%), the first degree of malnutrition were 39.4% (infant 14.7%, toddler 46.2%) and 47.1% (infant 21.9%, toddler 53.8%), the second degree of malnutrition were 7.3%(infant 2.3%, toddler 8.6%) and 12.9% (infant 4.0%, toddler 15.2%). and the third degree of malnutrition were 0.2%. (infant 0.3%, toddler 0.2%) and 0.8% (infant 0.7%, toddler 0.9%) respectively. b) by height value, the percentages for male and female of children attained standard growth were 80.8% (infant 97.0%, toddler 76.3%) and 73.8%(infant 95.6%, toddler 68.0%), the first degree of malnutrition were 18.5% (infant 2.7%, toddler 22.9%) and 24.6% (infant 4.4%, toddler 30.0%), the second degree of malnutrition were 0.6%(infant 0.3%, toddler 0.7%) and 0.5% (infant 0.1%, toddler 0.7%), and the third degree of malnutrition were 0.1%(infant 0%, toddler 0.1%) and 1.1% (infant 0%, toddler 1.3%) respectively. C. Results of clinical laboratory examination: 1) Red blood cells: The ranges of mean red blood cell counts for male and female were $3,538,000/mm^3\;to\;4,403,000/mm^3\;and\;3,576,000/mm^3\;to\;4,483,000/mm^3$ respectively. The lowest red cell counts were seen at the age of 0-3 months for male and 1-2 months for female. 2) Haematocrit value : The ranges of haematocrit value of male and female were 35.1% to 38.8% and 34.7% to 38.8% respectively. The lowest haematocrit values were seen at the age of 2-3 months for male and 1-2, months for female. 3) The prevalence rates of intestinal parasites for male and female children with Ascaris lumbricoides were 34.1% (infant 18.8%, toddler 38.1%) and 36.0%(infant 18.4%, toddler 40.7%), with Trichocephalus trichiuris were 6.8% (infant 2.9%, toddler 7.9%) and 9.0% (infant 3.0%, toddler 10.6%), with Hookworm were 0.3% (infant 0.5%, toddler 0.2%) and 0.3% (infant 0.5%, toddler 0.3%), with Clonorchis sinensis were 0.4%(infant 0%, toddler 0.5%) and 0.1%(infant 0%, toddler 0.1%) respectively.

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