• Title/Summary/Keyword: pregnant women

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Adiponectin Level in Non-Pregnant Women, Pregnant Women without Diabetes and Pregnant Women with Diabetes

  • Jo, Yoon-Kyung;Im, Jee-Aee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2008
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication during pregnancy and one of the main causes of adverse fetal-maternal outcomes. However, the pathogenesis of GDM has not been clearly stated. Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-derived plasma protein, is involved in regulation of insulin resistance and glucose hemostasis, and thus is a key modulator of insulin action and glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated to compare serum adiponectin levels in pregnant women with diabetes, pregnant women who are without diabetes, and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate relationship between serum adiponectin. levels and metabolic parameters. Forty-one pregnant women with diabetes, fifty-nine pregnant women without diabetes and forty non-pregnancy women were recruited. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in pregnant women with diabetes when compared to non-pregnant women and pregnant women without diabetes. Pregnant women without diabetes at second trimester had lower adiponectin levels compared to non-pregnant women. Adiponectin was negatively correlated with BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, and triglyceride. In conclusion, this study confirmed that the decreased level of adiponectin precedes the onset of abnormal glucose level during pregnancy and also normal pregnant women had lower adiponectin levels compared to non-pregnant women. This knowledge may help to identify strategies for lowering the occurrence of GDM in women who are at high risk of developing the disorder.

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The Relationship Among Mother-Daughter Relationship, Husband-Wife Relationship and Prenatal Attachment according to Pregnant Women's Internal Working Model (임부의 내적 작동모델에 따른 산전애착과 친모와의 관계 및 배우자와의 관계)

  • Jeong, Young-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship among mother-daughter relationship, husband-wife relationship, and prenatal attachment according to pregnant women's internal working model. Method: A convenience sample of 68 pregnant women was recruited from two OBGYN hospitals in M city. Data collection was conducted through the use of an Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires. This study used a descriptive correlational design and the period of investigation was from July 3-20, 2002. 41 of the 68 women were in a secure pregnant women's internal working model and 27 of the 68 in insecure ones. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test, t-test, and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Result: The results of this study were as follows: Mean score of the prenatal attachment of the secure pregnant women and mean score of the mother-daughter relationship of the secure pregnant women was significantly higher than that of insecure ones. 3) Prenatal attachment was negatively and significantly related to mother-daughter attachment and husbandwife attachment in the secure pregnant women's internal working model. However it was not significantly relationship in insecure pregnant women's internal working model. Conclusion: It is found in this study that there is an intergenerational attachment relationship during pregnancy. Further findings support the development of creative strategies to enhance positive attachment relationships for pregnant women. It is recommended to develop nursing education of attachment for the insecure pregnant women's internal working model.

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Mineral Intakes and Serum Mineral Concentrations of the Pregnant and Lactating Women (임신$\cdot$수유부의 무기질 섭취와 혈청 무기질 함량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Wooo Ju;Ahn Hong Seok;Chung Eun Jung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the mineral intakes and serum mineral levels of pregnant and lactating women. The subjects consisted of 34 non-pregnant, 56 pregnant and 20 lactating women. Nutrients intakes were investigated by the 24-hr recall method, and serum major and trace minerals were analyzed by the ICP-spectrometry. Calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) intakes were observed lower than RDA especially for both pregnant and lactating women. Iron (Fe) intake of pregnant women was $85 - 139\%$ RDA through Fe supplementation, and that of lactating women was lower than RDA. Compared with non-pregnant women, the pregnant women had similar Ca intake and higher magnesium (Mg) intake. Comparing with the non-pregnant women, serum Ca level in pregnancy was lower, and that of lactating women was not significantly different. Serum phosphorus and Mg levels were not significantly different among the groups. Serum Fe level of pregnant and lactating women was lower than that of the non-pregnant women. Serum Zn level of pregnant women was lower than those in the lactating and non-pregnant women. Serum copper level decreased as the pregnancy progressed. Serum sodium (Na) level was higher in 2nd- and 3rd trimester and potassium (K) level was higher in 3rd trimester and lactating period than other groups. Na/K ratio was not significantly different among the groups. During all periods, there was no correlation between dietary intakes and serum levels in each minerals. Serum Ca level positively corrleated with serum Mg level, especially in 3rd trimester and lactating women. In general, serum mineral levels in pregnancy were changed compared to the levels in non-pregnancy and restored in lactation to the levels for non-pregnancy.

A study on the current status of prehospital emergency care for pregnant women, knowledge related to pregnant women, and self-confidence in emergency care among paramedics (119 구급대원의 임산부 응급처치 실태 및 임산부에 대한 지식과 응급처치 수행자신감에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Min;Cho, Keun-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.133-153
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify the status of emergency care of pregnant women transported by paramedics, to analyze the knowledge of paramedics related to pregnant women and their self-confidence in emergency care, and to provide foundational data to improve the quality of emergency care for pregnant women. Methods: We received a total of 1,798 rescue logs from 119 paramedics, who had transported pregnant women, in I city from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018. For survey analysis, we used the 164 questionnaires received from these paramedics from June 15 to August 14, 2019. Results: The analysis of the rescue logs revealed that 85.5% (1,537 individuals) either had disease symptoms or were pregnant, whereas only 14.5% (261 individuals) had traffic accidents or accident-related injuries. The mean knowledge of the paramedics related to pregnant women was 23.73 (±2.98) points, and the mean self-confidence in emergency care was 3.19 (±0.74) points. Knowledge of the paramedics about pregnant women and their self-confidence in emergency care of these women had a statistically significant positive correlation (r=.306, p=.000). Conclusion: Paramedics should be provided theoretical and practical training through various programs about the emergency care of pregnant women.

Effect of Dietary Folate Intakes on Serum Folate Levels of Pregnant and Lactating Women (임신부와 수유부의 엽산섭취량이 혈청엽산농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 강명화
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.433-442
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    • 1993
  • Dietary folate intake and serum folate levels were measured in 26 pregnant, 25 lactating, and 17 non-pregnant, non-lactating women. Dietary folate comsumption was estimated by calculating folate intake based on the information obtained from food frequency quesionnaires and serum folate levels were determined microbiologically using Lactobacillus casei. The total folate (from food and supplements) intakes of pregnant and lactating women were 326.9ug and 407.9ug, which was significantly higher than that of the non-pregnant, non-lactating women(139.5ug). However, with regard to food folate intake, there were no differences among the three groups (160ug for pregnant women, 143.4ug for lactating women). Forty-two percent and 36% of the pregnant and lactating subjects, respectively, were found to be taking commercially available nutritional supplements containing folate. The concentrations of folate in these supplements were in the range of 83ug~1, 000ug per tablet. For lactating women, serum folate levels were significantly higher when folate supplements were voluntarily used. The amount of folate intake was positively correlated with the serum folate levels in pregnant women, but not in lactaing women and non-pregnant, non-lactating women. Serum folate levels were negatively correlated with the ages of the pregnant women, and for lactating women, serum folate was positively correlated with their body weights.

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A Study on Nutrient Intakes and Hematological Status in Women of Child-Bearing Age Comparison between Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women (가임기 여성의 영양섭취상태 및 혈액성상 : 비임신여성과 임신여성의 비교)

  • 이은정;김미현;조미숙;김영주;김화영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to evaluate nutritional status of Korean women of child-bearing age. A comparison was made between 113 non-pregnant and 200 pregnant women. Pregnant women of 24-28 weeks of gestation were recruited from prenatal clinic in Seoul. Nonpregnant women were included college students, nurses, office employers, and sales women. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, and hematological values were assessed. There was no difference in mean BMI for nonpregnant and pregnant (pre-gravid) women, which were 20.2 kg/m$^2$and 20.6 kg/m$^2$respectively. The pregnant women showed a tendency of better health-caring behavior, evidenced by stop smoking and drinking, and in taking nutrient supplements. The mean intakes of energy, vitamin A, vitamin B$_2$, calcium, and iron did not meet Korean RDA for adult women. In particular, calcium and iron intakes of both nonpregnant and pregnant women were under 60% of the Korean RDA. Judging by MDA score, dietary quality was better in pregnant than in nonpregnant women. Mean serum values of albumin, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Hb, IgA, IgG were in normal range. However, more than 13% of the nonpregnant subjects showed mild hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol > 200 mg/dl) and anemia (Hb < 12.0 g/dl) . The percentage of anemia in pregnant women were much higher; the subject with Hb < 11.0 g/dl were approximately 30%. The pregnant subjects showed significantly higher serum concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol, and significantly lower concentrations of albumin, IgA, and IgG compared to nonpregnant women. Correlation analysis showed that Hb concentrations were correlated with the intakes of iron- and protein- containing foods such as meat and vegetables. This study strongly suggest that iron-deficient anemia is a major nutrition problem in Korean child-bearing women and this condition is correlated with dietary intakes.

The Knowledge and Learning Needs about Gestational Diabetes in Pregnant Women (임부의 임신성 당뇨병관련 지식정도와 교육요구도)

  • Choi, Euy-Soon;Oh, Jeong-Ah;Hur, Myung-Haeng;Lee, In-Sook;Choi, Soon-Young
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.96-108
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to provide the basic data for developing a program for effective education about GDM(Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) by investigating the knowledge and learning needs of pregnant women about GDM. The subjects were 192 pregnant women who visited obstetrical clinics for prenatal care. The data were collected from October, 1998 to December, 1999, using a 50-item questionnaire(knowledge ; 30 items, learning needs ; 20 items), and analyzed by SAS program for t-test, ANOVA, Ducan test, and Pearson correlation coefficients. The results were as follows. 1. The knowledge level about GDM 1) Pregnant women had very little knowledge(total means ; 15.1 of 30.0) about GDM. 2) Pregnant women more than 30 years old, pregnant women from Seoul, and pregnant women who had more than a bachelor's degree were more knowledgeable about GDM. 3) Pregnant women who didn't experience spontaneous abortions, pregnant women who had DM(Diabetes Mellitus) patients in their families, and pregnant women who received education about DM were more knowledgeable about GDM. 4) Pregnant women knew very well that GDM women have more maternal and fetal complications than normal pregnant women. Although they were knowledgeable about the importance and ways of controlling blood glucose level, they knew very little about the causes, symptoms, or management of hypoglycemia. 2. The learning needs about GDM 1) Pregnant women had high learning needs (total means ; 85.0 of 100.0) about GDM. 2) The learning needs of pregnant women who had more than a bachelor's degree and pregnant women who earned less than two million won in monthly income were higher than that of other groups. 3) Pregnant women had high learning needs about the health of their baby and themselves, but their learning needs related to weight control and exercise-things that play important roles in controlling blood glucose level-were relatively low. As a result of the above findings, a systemic and individualized program is required for pregnant women and GDM patients, In addition to that, further studies that investigate the effects of education and retention of learning obtained by education are required in the near future.

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A Study on the Size Planning of Parking-Block for Pregnant Women (임산부를 위한 주차구획의 규모설정에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Hyun Soo;Kim, Sung Hyun;Yang, Nae Won
    • Journal of The Korea Institute of Healthcare Architecture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 2018
  • Purpose and Methods: Currently, Korea has the lowest fertility rate among OECD countries. It is also true that from the aspect of encouraging childbirth policy, as the use of automobiles has increased, the interest in securing parking spaces has also become more important. However, there are efforts and researches on the supplying parking spaces for the general public in society not to the positive discrimination such as elders or pregnant women. On the other hand, there is a growing need for a dedicated parking space for pregnant women due to the changing social environment and increasing number of female drivers. At this point, proper design of the maternity parking spaces is essential. Therefore, this study is analyzing the characteristics of pregnant women such as measurements and certain actions and case studies of domestic and oversea. Through the analysis of these factors, the following results were derived. Results: First, it was determined that the important factor in the planning of the parking-block for pregnant women was the human body size of pregnant women. And the required dimensions of movement of pregnant women were derived. Second, the dimensions of automobile were analyzed and applied from the most used vehicles in the family composition. Third, after the observations, the status of the parking spaces of the pregnant women and observations showed that the drivers not only the pregnant women but others were using the spaces improperly. Fourth, at certain conditions of the parking spaces, in order to improve the efficiency of the parking spaces, it is necessarily considered that the usage of designated accessible parking spaces can be used together by not only the disabled but also to the passengers who are classified as 'transportation weak' such as pregnant women. Implications: In this study, the researcher will propose the shape and size of the parking-block for pregnant women considering the elements derived above.

Comparison of Health-related Behaviors in Pregnant Women and Breast-feeding Mothers vs Non-pregnant Women (임부 및 모유수유부와 가임기 여성의 건강행태 비교)

  • Joo, Hyun Sil;Kim, Chun-Bae;Nam, Eun Woo;Lee, Min Young;Park, Myung Bae
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess health-related behavior of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers by investigating relevant risk factors. Methods: Data of 10,396 women (age 19 to 49 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey report from 2007 to 2012 was used to analyze factors associated with health-related behavior. The subjects were divided into pregnant women; breastfeeding mothers; and non-pregnant women. Bottle feeding mothers were excluded. Results: Current smoking rate including self-reported smoker and/or positive cotinine urine test were lower for pregnant or breast-feeding group than non-pregnant group. Heavy-drinking was not different among groups while monthly drinking rate was higher in non-pregnant group. Rate of stress recognition was lower in pregnant and breast-feeding group than non-pregnant group. Rate of experience for depressive symptoms and rate of suicidal ideation were not different among groups. Conclusion: Pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers maintain a good pattern of health- related behavior compared to non-pregnant women. However, substantial proportion of pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers continue to drink and smoke. This shows the need for a plan that will modify health-related behavior.

A Study on Pregnant Women's Experience about Nutrition Education (임신부의 영양교육 경험에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Eun;Park, Dong-Yean
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.347-356
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate pregnant women's experience about nutrition education for pregnant women in order to improve nutrition education programs. The questionnaires were distributed to 185 women with children whose age of under 24 months. About 46% of respondents participated in nutrition education for pregnant women. Major reasons for nonparticipation was 'no information(47%)' and 'lack of time(32%)'. About 40% of women attended to education operated by health centers, 34% maternity hospitals, 26% companies of formula or baby supplies. Participation rate in nutrition education showed significant differences(p<0.05) with age and household income. Women in their forties and with monthly income over three million Won showed higher rates than those of women in other groups. The subjects of education were nutrient supplements for pregnant women(21%), pregnancy complications and health(19%), abnormal symptoms of pregnancy and nutrition (18%), weight gain during pregnancy(17%), dietary guideline and directions for pregnancy (15%), relationship between nutrition of pregnant woman and baby's health(10%) in order. Teaching method which was used most frequently was lecture(35%). About 74% of women were not satisfied with the education. Nutrition management for pregnancy was the subject which pregnant women wanted to learn but not been taught enough. About 80% of women wanted more education and preferred personalized education such as personal counselling (30%), home visitation(26%), telephone(16%) and internet(15%) counselling. These results showed nutrition education for pregnant women was unhelpful for practical life. Therefore, nutrition education programs for pregnant women has to reflected pregnant women's individual needs to heighten the effectiveness of nutrition education.