• Title, Summary, Keyword: potential therapeutic target

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Molecular Nuclear imaging of Angiogenesis (혈관신생 분자핵의학 영상)

  • Lee, Kyung-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.171-174
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    • 2004
  • Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from existing vessels, increases oxygenation and nutrient supply to ischemic tissue and allows tumor growth and metastasis. As such, angiogenesis targeting provides a novel approach for cancer treatment with easier drug delivery and less drug resistance. Therapeutic anti-angiogenesis has shown impressive effects in animal tumor models and are now entering clinical trials. However, the successful clinical introduction of this new therapeutic approach requires diagnostic tools that can reliably measure angiogenesis in a noninvasive and repetitive manner. Molecular imaging is emerging as an exciting new discipline that deals with imaging of disease on a cellular or genetic level. Angiogenesis imaging is an important area for molecular imaging research, and the use of radiotracers offers a particularly promising technique for its development. While current perfusion and metabolism radiotracers can provide useful information related to tissue vascularity, recent endeavors are focused on the development of novel radioprobes that specifically and directly target angiogenic vessels. Presently available proges include RGD sequence containing peptides that target ${\alpha}_v\;{\beta}_3$ integrin, endothelial growth factors such as VEGF or FGF, metalloptoteinase inhibitors, and specific antiangiogenic drugs. It is now clear that nuclear medicine techniques have a remarkable potential for angiogenesis imaging, and efforts are currently continuing to develop new radioprobes with superior imaging properties. With future identification of novel targets, design of better probes, and improvements in instrumentation, radiotracer angiogenesis imaging promises to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis related diseases.

Update of Therapeutic Clinical Trials for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (근위축측삭경화증에 대한 치료약물 임상시험 현황)

  • Kim, Nam-Hee;Lee, Min Oh
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2015
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by progressive death of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. Until now, many treatment strategies have been tested in ALS, but so far only Riluzole has shown efficacy of slightly slowing disease progression. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ALS are multifactorial, with a complex interaction between genetic factors and molecular pathways. Other motor neuron disease such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) are also progressive neurodegenerative disease with loss of motor neuron as ALS. This common thread of motor neuron loss has provided a target for the development of therapies for these motor neuron diseases. A better understanding of these pathogenic mechanisms and the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes have suggested novel therapeutic approaches, including stem cell and genetics-based strategies, providing hope for feasible treatment of ALS.

Understanding EGFR Signaling in Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Overexpression and Therapeutic Implications

  • Alanazi, Ibrahim O;Khan, Zahid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.445-453
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    • 2016
  • Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs/HERs) and downstream signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies including breast cancer and its resistance to treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. Consequently, several monoclonal antibodies as well as small molecule inhibitors targeting these pathways have emerged as therapeutic tools in the recent past. However, studies have shown that utilizing these molecules in combination with chemotherapy has yielded only limited success. This review describes the current understanding of EGFRs/HERs and associated signaling pathways in relation to development of breast cancer and responses to various cancer treatments in the hope of pointing to improved prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Also, we review the role of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in disease and the potential to target these cells.

Heme Oxygenase Inducers from Natural Products

  • Chung, Hun-Taeg;Pae, Hyun-Ock;Park, Byung-Min;Oh, Gi-Su
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.21-35
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    • 2004
  • Heme oxygenase (HO)-l catabolizes heme into three products: carbon monoxide, bilirubin, and free iron. HO-l serves as a protective gene by virtue of the anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions of one or more of these three products. HO-l can be regarded as a potential therapeutic target in a variety of oxidant-mediated and inflammatory diseases. In this respect, it would be valuable to develop potent and selective inducers of HO-1 for therapeutic use. Here, we have shown that 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, catalposide and dehydrocostus lactone are potent inducers of HO-1 and exert cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities via HO-1-ependent machanism.

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Importance of Microglial Cytoskeleton and the Actin-interacting Proteins in Alzheimer's Disease

  • Choi, Go-Eun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2020
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is expected to become more and more widespread as life expectancy increases. New therapeutic target, as well as the identification of mechanisms responsible for pathology, is urgently needed. Recently, microglial actin cytoskeleton has been proposed as a beneficial role in axon regeneration of brain injury. This review highlights in understanding of the characteristics of microglial actin cytoskeleton and discuss the role of specific actin-interacting proteins and receptors in AD. The precise mechanisms and functional aspects of motility by microglia require further study, and the regulation of microglial actin cytoskeleton might be a potential therapeutic strategy for neurological diseases.

Caenorhabditis elegans: A Model System for Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery and Therapeutic Target Identification

  • Kobet, Robert A.;Pan, Xiaoping;Zhang, Baohong;Pak, Stephen C.;Asch, Adam S.;Lee, Myon-Hee
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.371-383
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    • 2014
  • The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) offers a unique opportunity for biological and basic medical researches due to its genetic tractability and well-defined developmental lineage. It also provides an exceptional model for genetic, molecular, and cellular analysis of human disease-related genes. Recently, C. elegans has been used as an ideal model for the identification and functional analysis of drugs (or small-molecules) in vivo. In this review, we describe conserved oncogenic signaling pathways (Wnt, Notch, and Ras) and their potential roles in the development of cancer stem cells. During C. elegans germline development, these signaling pathways regulate multiple cellular processes such as germline stem cell niche specification, germline stem cell maintenance, and germ cell fate specification. Therefore, the aberrant regulations of these signaling pathways can cause either loss of germline stem cells or overproliferation of a specific cell type, resulting in sterility. This sterility phenotype allows us to identify drugs that can modulate the oncogenic signaling pathways directly or indirectly through a high-throughput screening. Current in vivo or in vitro screening methods are largely focused on the specific core signaling components. However, this phenotype-based screening will identify drugs that possibly target upstream or downstream of core signaling pathways as well as exclude toxic effects. Although phenotype-based drug screening is ideal, the identification of drug targets is a major challenge. We here introduce a new technique, called Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS). This innovative method is able to identify the target of the identified drug. Importantly, signaling pathways and their regulators in C. elegans are highly conserved in most vertebrates, including humans. Therefore, C. elegans will provide a great opportunity to identify therapeutic drugs and their targets, as well as to understand mechanisms underlying the formation of cancer.

Rapid functional screening of effective siRNAs against Plk1 and its growth inhibitory effects in laryngeal carcinoma cells

  • Lan, Huan;Zhu, Jiang;Ai, Qing;Yang, Zhengmei;Ji, Ying;Hong, Suling;Song, Fangzhou;Bu, Youquan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.12
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    • pp.818-823
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    • 2010
  • Plk 1 is overexpressed in many human malignancies including laryngeal carcinoma. However, its therapeutic potential has been never examined in laryngeal carcinoma. In the present study, a simple cellular morphology-based strategy was firstly proposed for rapidly screening the effective siRNAs against Plk1. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Plk1 depletion via a novel identified effective siRNA against Plk1, Plk1 siRNA-607, on human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells. The results indicated that Plk1 siRNA-607 transfection resulted in a significant inhibition in Plk1 expression in cells, and subsequently caused a dramatic mitotic cell cycle arrest followed by massive apoptotic cell death, and eventually resulted in a significant decrease in growth and viability of the laryngeal carcinoma cells. Taken together, our present study not only suggests a simple strategy for rapidly screening effective siRNAs against Plk1 but also implicates that Plk1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in human laryngeal carcinoma.

Establishment and Characterization of MTDH Knockdown by Artificial Micro RNA Interference - Functions as a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Breast Cancer

  • Wang, Song;Shu, Jie-Zhi;Cai, Yi;Bao, Zheng;Liang, Qing-Mo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2813-2818
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    • 2012
  • Background: Considerable evidence suggests that metadherin (MTDH) is a potentially crucial mediator of tumor malignancy and an important therapeutic target for simultaneously enhancing chemotherapy efficacy and reducing metastasis risk. Inhibition of MTDH expression by RNA interference has been shown in several previous research, but silencing MTDH expression by microRNA (miRNA) interference in breast cancer has not been established. In the present study, we investigated the role of MTDH-miRNA in down-regulation of proliferation, motility and migration of breast carcinoma cells. Methods: Expression vectors of recombinant plasmids expressing artificial MTDH miRNA were constructed and transfected to knockdown MTDH expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Expression of MTDH mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. MTT assays were conducted to determine proliferation, and wound healing assays and transwell migration experiments for cell motility and migration. Results: Transfection of recombinant a plasmid of pcDNA-MTDH-miR-4 significantly suppressed the MTDH mRNA and protein levels more than 69% in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This knockdown significantly inhibited proliferation, motility and migration as compared with controls. Conclusions: MTDH-miRNA may play an important role in down-regulating proliferation, motility and migration in breast cancer cells, and should be considered as a potential small molecule inhibitor therapeutic targeting strategy for the future.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway as a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy

  • Cho, Eunae Sandra;Cha, Yong Hoon;Kim, Hyun Sil;Kim, Nam Hee;Yook, Jong In
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2018
  • During cancer progression, cancer cells are repeatedly exposed to metabolic stress conditions in a resource-limited environment which they must escape. Increasing evidence indicates the importance of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) homeostasis in the survival of cancer cells under metabolic stress conditions, such as metabolic resource limitation and therapeutic intervention. NADPH is essential for scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly derived from oxidative phosphorylation required for ATP generation. Thus, metabolic reprogramming of NADPH homeostasis is an important step in cancer progression as well as in combinational therapeutic approaches. In mammalian, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and one-carbon metabolism are major sources of NADPH production. In this review, we focus on the importance of glucose flux control towards PPP regulated by oncogenic pathways and the potential therein for metabolic targeting as a cancer therapy. We also summarize the role of Snail (Snai1), an important regulator of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), in controlling glucose flux towards PPP and thus potentiating cancer cell survival under oxidative and metabolic stress.

Heme Oxygenase-1 as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Hepatoprotection

  • Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde;Surh, Young-Joon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.479-491
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    • 2006
  • Heme oxygenase (HO), the rate limiting enzyme in the breakdown of heme into carbon monoxide (CO), iron and bilirubin, has recently received overwhelming research attention. To date three mammalian HO isozymes have been identified, and the only inducible form is HO-1 while HO-2 and HO-3 are constitutively expressed. Advances in unveiling signal transduction network indicate that a battery of redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and their upstream kinases including mitogen-activated protein kinases play an important regulatory role in HO-1 gene induction. The products of the HO-catalyzed reaction, particularly CO and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown to exert protective effects in several organs against oxidative and other noxious stimuli. In this context, it is interesting to note that induction of HO-1 expression contributes to protection against liver damage induced by several chemical compounds such as acetaminophen, carbon tetrachloride and heavy metals, suggesting HO-1 induction as an important cellular endeavor for hepatoprotection. The focus of this review is on the significance of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect against chemically-induced liver injury as well as hepatocarcinogenesis.