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Bioinformatic Analysis of the Canine Genes Related to Phenotypes for the Working Dogs (특수 목적견으로서의 품성 및 능력 관련 유전자들에 관한 생물정보학적 분석)

  • Kwon, Yun-Jeong;Eo, Jungwoo;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Choi, Yuri;Gim, Jeong-An;Kim, Dahee;Kim, Tae-Hun;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Kim, Heui-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1325-1335
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    • 2013
  • Working dogs, such as rescue dogs, military watch dogs, guide dogs, and search dogs, are selected by in-training examination of desired traits, including concentration, possessiveness, and boldness. In recent years, genetic information has been considered to be an important factor for the outstanding abilities of working dogs. To characterize the molecular features of the canine genes related to phenotypes for working dogs, we investigated the 24 previously reported genes (AR, BDNF, DAT, DBH, DGCR2, DRD4, MAOA, MAOB, SLC6A4, TH, TPH2, IFT88, KCNA3, TBR2, TRKB, ACE, GNB1, MSTN, PLCL1, SLC25A22, WFIKKN2, APOE, GRIN2B, and PIK3CG) that were categorized to personality, olfactory sense, and athletic/learning ability. We analyzed the chromosomal location, gene-gene interactions, Gene Ontology, and expression patterns of these genes using bioinformatic tools. In addition, variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) or microsatellite (MS) polymorphism in the AR, MAOA, MAOB, TH, DAT, DBH, and DRD4 genes were reviewed. Taken together, we suggest that the genetic background of the canine genes associated with various working dog behaviors and skill performance attributes could be used for proper selection of superior working dogs.

Effects of Polymorphisms in the 3' Untranslated Region of the Porcine Mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) Gene on Meat Quality Traits (돼지 mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) 유전자의 3'UTR 내 SNP가 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Jee, Yae-Sol;Cho, Eun-Seok;Jeon, Hyeon-Jeong;Lee, Si-Woo;Lim, Kyu-Sang;Kim, Tae-Hun;Lee, Kyung-Tai
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1232-1236
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    • 2016
  • Mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) including two canonical EF hands, located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, is known to play a crucial role in the calcium uptake in mitochondria. Mitochondrial calcium uptake in muscular cells is related to post mortem shortening by calcium release from muscles. Therefore, the porcine MICU1 gene has been estimated as a genetic candidate for meat quality traits. In this study, variations on the exonic regions of the porcine MICU1 gene were investigated by sequencing cDNAs and tested for their association with meat quality traits. A total of 667 Berkshire heads (347 sows and 320 castrated boars) were used for this association test. Three SNPs were detected on the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the porcine MICU1 gene. SNP1 (c.*136G>A) was associated with drip loss (p=0.017) and intramuscular fat content (p=0.039). In addition, SNP2 (c.*222G>A) and SNP3 (c.*485G>A) were associated with drip loss (p=0.018) and intramuscular fat content (p<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, it was verified that three variations on the 3' UTR of the porcine MICU1 gene were significantly associated with meat quality traits. It was also suggested that molecular biological analyses are needed to validate the function of variations on the 3 UTR of the porcine MICU1 gene.

No Association between (AAT)n Repeat Polymorphisms in the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement Abnormality in Korean Patients with Schizophrenia (한국인 조현병 환자에서CNR1 유전자의 (AAT)n 삼핵산 반복 다형성과 안구추적운동 이상에 대한 연합 연구)

  • Kim, Min Jae;Kim, Chae-Ri;Park, Jin Wan;Pak, Doo Hyun;Shin, Hyoung Doo;Choi, Ihn-Geun;Hahn, Sang Woo;Hwang, Jaeuk;Lee, Yeon Jung;Woo, Sung-Il
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.148-156
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    • 2016
  • Objectives According to previous studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene could be an important candidate gene for schizophrenia. Some studies have linked the (AAT)n trinucleotide repeat polymorphism in CNR1 gene with the risk of schizophrenia. Meanwhile, smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) has been regarded as one of the most consistent endophenotypes of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the association between the (AAT)n trinucleotide repeats in CNR1 gene and SPEM abnormality in Korean patients with schizophrenia. Methods We measured SPEM function in 167 Korean patients with schizophrenia (84 male, 83 female) and they were divided according to SPEM function into two groups, good and poor SPEM function groups. We also investigated allele frequencies of (AAT)n repeat polymorphisms on CNR1 gene in each group. A logistic regression analysis was performed to find the association between SPEM abnormality and the number of (AAT)n trinucleotide repeats. Results The natural logarithm value of signal/noise ratio (Ln S/N ratio) of the good SPEM function group was $4.34{\pm}0.29$ and that of the poor SPEM function group was $3.21{\pm}0.70$. In total, 7 types of trinucleotide repeats were identified, each containing 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 repeats, respectively. In the patients with $(AAT)7$ allele, the distributions of the good and poor SPEM function groups were 18 (11.1%) and 19 (11.0%) respectively. In the patients with $(AAT)_{10}$ allele, $(AAT)_{11}$ allele, $(AAT)_{12}$ allele, $(AAT)_{13}$ allele, $(AAT)_{14}$ allele and $(AAT)_{15}$ allele, the distributions of good and poor SPEM function groups were 13 (8.0%) and 12 (7.0%), 4 (2.5%) and 6 (3.5%), 31 (19.8%) and 35 (20.3%), 51 (31.5%) and 51 (29.7%), 36 (22.2%) and 45 (26.2%), 9 (5.6%) and 4 (2.3%) respectively. As the number of (AAT) n repeat increased, there was no aggravation of abnormality of SPEM function. Conclusions There was no significant aggravation of SPEM abnormality along with the increase of number of (AAT)n trinucleotide repeats in the CNR1 gene in Korean patients with schizophrenia.

Geographic Variations and DNA Polymorphisms in Gizzard-shad (Konosirus punctatus) (전어 (Konosirus punctatus)의 지리적 변이와 DNA 다형성)

  • Park, Su-Young;Kim, Jong-Yeon;Yoon, Jong-Man
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.300-310
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    • 2006
  • Genomic DNA isolated from three geographical gizzard-shad (Konosirus punctatus) populations in Seocheon (SC), Busan (BS) and Gochang (GC) collected in the West Sea and the southern sea, respectively, off the Korean Peninsula, were PCR-amplified repeatedly. Eight selected decamer and 20-mer primers generated a total of 713 loci in the SC population, 791 in the BS population, and 732 in the GC population, with a DNA fragment size ranging from 100 bp to 2,800 bp. We identified 50 unique loci for the SC population, 70 unique loci for the BS population and 130 for the GC population: 120 shared loci for the three populations. There were 108 specific loci (15.1%) for the SC population, 74 (9.4%) for the BS population, and 67 (9.2%) for the GC population. Eight primers also generated 48 polymorphic loci (6.7%) for the SC population, 26 (3.3%) for the BS population, and 16 (2.2%) for the GC population. The similarity matrix ranged from 0.756 to 0.936 for the SC population, from 0.800 to 0.938 for the BS population, and from 0.731 to 0.959 for the GC population. The dendrogram obtained by the eight primers indicates three genetic clusters: cluster 1 (SEOCHEON 01~SEOCHEON 10), cluster 2 (BUSAN 11~BUSAN 20 and GOCHANG 23~GOCHANG 24), and cluster 3 (GOCHANG 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30). As stated above, some individuals of the GC population appear to belong in BS population. When seeing this result, it was thought with the fact that some individuals of 2 populations seem to come and go partially. Thus, RAPD-PCR analysis revealed a significant genetic distance between the three geographical gizzard-shad populations. Using various decamer and 20-mer primers, RAPD-PCR may be applied to identify specific/polymorphic markers that are particular to a species and geographic population, and to define genetic diversity, polymorphisms, and similarities among geographical gizzard-shad populations.

Genetic Differences and Variation in Two Largehead Hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) Populations Determined by RAPD-PCR Analysis (RAPD-PCR 분석에 의해 결정된 갈치 (Trichiurus lepturus) 2 집단의 유전적 차이와 변이)

  • Park, Chang-Yi;Yoon, Jong-Man
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.173-186
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    • 2005
  • Genomic DNA was isolated from two geographic populations of largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) in Korea and the Atlantic Ocean. The eight arbitrarily selected primers were found to generate common, polymorphic, and specific fragments. The complexity of the banding patterns varied dramatically between primers from the two locations. The size of the DNA fragments also varied widely, from 150 bp (base pairs) to 3,000 bp. Here, 947 fragments were identified in the largehead hairtail population from Korea, and 642 in the largehead hairtail population from the Atlantic Ocean: 148 specific fragments (15.6%) in the Korean population, and 61 (9.5%) in the Atlantic population. In the Korean population, 638 common fragments with an average of 79.8 per primer were observed.; 429 common fragments, with an average of 53.6 per primer, were identified in the Atlantic population. The number of polymorphic fragments in the largehead hairtail population from Korea and the Atlantic Ocean was 76 and 27, respectively. Based on the average bandsharing values of all samples, the similarity matrix ranged from 0.784 to 0.922 in the Korean population, and from 0.833 to 0.990 in the Atlantic population. The bandsharing value of individuals within the Atlantic population was much higher than in the Korean population. The dendrogram obtained by the eight primers indicated two genetic clusters: cluster 1 (KOREAN 01~KOREAN 11), and cluster 2 (ATLANTIC 12~ATLANTIC 22). Individual KOREAN no. 10 from Korea was genetically most closely related to KOREAN no. 11 in the Korean population (genetic distance = 0.038). Ultimately, individual KOREAN no. 01 of the Korean population was most distantly related to ATLANTIC no. 16 of the Atlantic population (genetic distance = 0.708).

Evaluation of Germplasm and Development of SSR Markers for Marker-assisted Backcross in Tomato (분자마커 이용 여교잡 육종을 위한 토마토 유전자원 평가 및 SSR 마커 개발)

  • Hwang, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Hyuk-Jun;Chae, Young;Choi, Hak-Soon;Kim, Myung-Kwon;Park, Young-Hoon
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.557-567
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to achieve basal information for the development of tomato cultivars with disease resistances through marker-assisted backcross (MAB). Ten inbred lines with TYLCV, late blight, bacterial wilt, or powdery mildew resistance and four adapted inbred lines with superior horticultural traits were collected, which can be useful as the donor parents and recurrent parents in MAB, respectively. Inbred lines collected were evaluated by molecular markers and bioassay for confirming their disease resistances. To develop DNA markers for selecting recurrent parent genome (background selection) in MAB, a total of 108 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer sets (nine per chromosome at average) were selected from the tomato reference genetic maps posted on SOL Genomics Network. Genetic similarity and relationships among the inbred lines were assessed using a total of 303 polymorphic SSR markers. Similarity coefficient ranged from 0.33 to 0.80; the highest similarity coefficient (0.80) was found between bacterial wilt-resistant donor lines '10BA333' and '10BA424', and the lowest (0.33) between a late blight resistant-wild species L3708 (S. pimpinelliforium L.) and '10BA424'. UPGMA analysis grouped the inbred lines into three clusters based on the similarity coefficient 0.58. Most of the donor lines of the same resistance were closely related, indicating the possibility that these lines were developed using a common resistance source. Parent combinations (donor parent ${\times}$ recurrent parent) showing appropriate levels of genetic distance and SSR marker polymorphism for MAB were selected based on the dendrogram. These combinations included 'TYR1' ${\times}$ 'RPL1' for TYLCV, '10BA333' or '10BA424' ${\times}$ 'RPL2' for bacterial wilt, and 'KNU12' ${\times}$ 'AV107-4' or 'RPL2' for powdery mildew. For late blight, the wild species resistant line 'L3708' was distantly related to all recurrent parental lines, and a suitable parent combination for MAB was 'L3708' ${\times}$ 'AV107-4', which showed a similarity coefficient of 0.41 and 45 polymorphic SSR markers.

Development of a Genetic Map of Chili Pepper Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Generated from Next Generation Resequencing of Parents (양친의 대량 염기서열 해독을 통해 개발된 SNP 분자표지를 이용한 고추 유전자지도 작성)

  • Lee, Jundae;Park, Seok Jin;Do, Jae Wahng;Han, Jung-Heon;Choi, Doil;Yoon, Jae Bok
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.473-482
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    • 2013
  • Molecular markers, as an efficient selection tool, have been and is being used for practical breeding program in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Recently, a lot of researches on inheritance and genetic analysis for quantitative traits including capsaicinoids, carotenoids, and sugar content in pepper are being performed worldwide. It has been also reported that QTL mapping is a necessary tool to develop molecular markers associated with the quantitative traits. In this study, we suggested a new method to construct a pepper genetic map using SNP (HRM) markers generated from NGS resequencing of female and male parents. Plant materials were C. annuum 'NB1' (female parent), C. chinense 'Jolokia' (male parent), and their $F_2$ population consisting of 94 progenies. Sequences of 4.6 Gbp and 6.2 Gbp were obtained from NGS resequencing of 'NB1' and 'Jolokia', respectively. Totally, 4.29 million SNPs between 'NB1' and 'Jolokia' were detected and the 1.76 million SNPs were clearly identified. Among them, total 145 SNP (HRM) primer pairs covering pepper genetic map were selected, and the 116 SNP (HRM) markers of them were located on this map. Total distance of the map, which consisted of 12 linkage groups and matched with basic chromosome numbers of pepper, was 1,167.9 cM. According to the mapping result, we concluded that our mapping method was suitable to construct a pepper genetic map fast and accurately. In addition, the genetic map could be directly used for QTL analysis of traits different between both parents.

Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Radish Germplasm through SSR Markers Derived from Chinese Cabbage (배추 SSR 마커를 이용한 무의 육성 계통 및 수집종의 유전적 다양성 분석)

  • Park, Suhyoung;Choi, Su Ryun;Lee, Jung-Soo;Nguyen, Van Dan;Kim, Sunggil;Lim, Yong Pyo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.457-466
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    • 2013
  • Since the early 1980s, the National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Sciences has been breeding and collecting diverse radish breeds to select those samples with better horticultural characteristics, to ultimately expand and develop as good radish produce. Genetic diversity is a crucial factor in crop improvement and therefore it is very important to obtain various variations through sample collection. The collected samples were compared with one another in order to assess the level of diversity among the collections, and this procedure allowed for increased application of the gathered resources and aided in determining the direction to secure further samples. Towards this end, this experiment was conducted in order to examine whether the SSR markers derived from Chinese cabbage samples could be transferred to the radish samples. Among the radish breeding lines and introduced resources, 44 lines were used as materials to analyze the genotype using 22 SSR markers selected. As a result, the analysis showed that among all the selected markers, 'cnu_m139' and 'cnu_m289' were the most useful markers for diversity evaluation. The genetic relationship of the radish genetic resources showed that the geographic origins affected the diversity. Furthermore, the different types of radish groups were also determined by the year they were bred. This result demonstrated that there are differences between the older radish breeds and the more recently developed radish breeds. Even though a relatively small number of markers were used in the analysis, it was possible to distinguish whether the radish was bred 30 years ago or in the 2000s, and that the similar physical shapes comprised a particular group, showed that the SSR markers can indeed be successfully applied to to study the diversity within radish breeding lines. Through the results of this study, it can be concluded that the SSR marker developed for the Chinese cabbage can be applied to examine the genetic diversity and analyze the relationship (genetic resource determination) of radish.

Genotypic and Phenotypic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Lettuces and Raw Milk (상추와 원유에서 분리한 황색 포도상구균의 유전형 및 표현형 특징)

  • Jung, Hye-Jin;Cho, Joon-Il;Park, Sung-Hee;Ha, Sang-Do;Lee, Kyu-Ho;Kim, Cheol-Ho;Song, Eun-Seop;Chung, Duck-Hwa;Kim, Min-Gon;Kim, Kwang-Yup;Kim, Keun-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 2005
  • To characterize genotypic and phenotypic traits of Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 86) from lettuces and raw milk, major virulence-associated genes and antibiotic susceptibility were detected using PCR-based methods and disk diffusion method, respectively. All isolates possessed coagulase gene and showed five polymorphism types [500 bp (2.4%), 580 bp (17.4%), 660 bp (61.6%), 740 bp (17.4%), and 820 bp (1.2%)] due to variable numbers of tandem repeats present within the gene. Two or three different loci of hemolysin gene family were dominant in isolates, 47 of which (55%) possessed combination of hla/hld/hlg-2 genes as the most prevalent types. Among enterotoxin-encoding genes, sea was detected from 32 isolates (37%), sed from 1 isolate (1%), and sea and sed genes were co-detected from 4 isolates (5%), whereas seb, sec, and tsst-1 genes were not detected. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, and vancomycin, 85 isolates (99%) to penicillin G, 54 isolates (63%) to chloramphenicol, 51 isolates (59%) to erythromycin, and 7 isolates (8%) to clindamycin. Among resistant isolates, seven displayed multiantibiotic-resistance against two different antibiotics.

Identification and Characterization of Three Isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Weed Hosts (잡초에서 분리한 3종 Cucumber mosaic virus의 동정과 특성)

  • Lee, Hyeok-Geun;Kim, Sung-Ryul;Jeon, Yong-Woon;Kwon, Soon-Bae;Ryu, Ki-Hyun;Choi, Jang-Kyung
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2008
  • Three isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) were isolated from weed hosts showing typical mosaic symptoms, and some properties of the viruses were investigated. CMV isolates, designated as Is-CMV, Jd-CMV and Pla-CMV from Isodon inflexus, Jeffersonia dubia and Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica, respectively, were identified and characterized by biological reaction in several host plants, serological property, dsRNA analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP). All isolates systemically infected in Nicotiana benthamiana, Cucurbita pepo cv. Black beauty and Cucumis sativus, and did not reveal any differences in these host plants between the isolates. However, remarkable difference in the symptoms was found between the CMVs in Capsicum annuum. Is-CMV induced an asymptomatic symptoms, while Jd-CMV and Pla-CMV produced severe mosaic symptoms in C. annuum plants. In dsRNA analysis, all isolates revealed four major bands with estimated molecular size of 3.4, 3.2, 2.1 and 1.0 kbp. The cDNAs of coat protein gene of the isolates were amplified by RT-PCR using a genus-specific single pair primers that designed to amplify a DNA fragment of approximately ranging from 938 to 966 bp. By restriction mapping analysis using RFLP of the RT-PCR products as well as by serological properties of gel diffusion test, the CMV isolates belong to a typical members of CMV subgroup IA. This is the first report on the occurrence of CMV in the three weed hosts.