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A Study on the Prolactin Receptor 3 (PRLR3) Gene and the Retinol-binding Protein 4 (RBP4) Gene as Candidate Genes for Growth and Litter Size Traits of Berkshire in Korea (국내 버크셔 돼지에서 성장 및 산자수의 후보유전자로서 PRLR3와 RBP4에 관한 연구)

  • Do, Chang-Hee;Kim, Seon-Ku;Kang, Han-Suk;Shin, Teak-Soon;Lee, Hong-Gu;Cho, Seong-Keun;Do, Kyung-Tak;Song, Ji-Na;Kim, Tae-Hun;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Sang, Byung-Chan;Joo, Yeong-Kuk;Park, Jun-Kyu;Lee, Sung-Hoon;Lee, Jeong-Ill;Park, Jeong-Suk;Sin, Young-Soo;Kim, Byung-Woo;Cho, Byung-Wook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.825-830
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    • 2010
  • Two diallelic markers at candidate gene loci, the prolactin receptor 3 (PRLR3) gene and the retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene were evaluated for their association with growth and litter size traits in Berkshire. Genetic evaluation was conducted for 5,919 pigs with pedigree information, which included 3,480 growth performance records and 775 litter size records of 224 sows. From the same herd, genotyping was carried out on 144 and 156 animals for PRLR3 and RBP4, respectively. After assigning a genotype to subjects in which both parents had a homozygous genotype, numbers of genotyped animals increased to 474 and 338, for the PRLR3 gene and RBP4 gene, respectively. The genotype effects of two markers were estimated with breeding values of the genotyped animals. The additive effects of total number of piglets born and number of piglets born alive in the PRLR3 locus were -0.28 and -0.13, respectively. The dominance effect of the RBP4 locus on average daily gain was -10.58 g. However, the polymorphism of the RBP4 locus in total number of piglets born and number of piglets born alive has shown -0.34 and -0.33 of the additive genetic effects. In view of the results, MAS (marker-assisted selection) favoring B alleles of RBP4 and PRLR3 loci could potentially accelerate the rate of the genetic improvement in the litter size traits.

Polymorphisms of TAS1R3 and GNAT3 Genes Are Associated with Patients with Taste Disorder (미각장애와 TAS1R3 및 GNAT3 유전자의 다형성과의 연관성)

  • Bae, Jae-Woong;Kim, Un-Kyung;Kwon, Tae-Jun;Choi, Su-Jin;Ye, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.412-416
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    • 2011
  • Taste sensation plays a crucial role in selecting and ingesting foods with different qualities which convey information about their nutrient content and/or safety. Sweetness is one of the five modalities in humans and serves as an energy resource for metabolism. There are reports on allelic polymorphisms which influence perception of sweetness in mice and humans. Since the influence of genetic factors on taste disorder has not been studied, we investigated the association of genetic polymorphisms in TAS1R3 and guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 3 (GNAT3) genes and taste disorder. A total of 150 individuals composed of 50 patients with taste disorder and 100 healthy controls were recruited for the study and PCR-mediated directing sequencing method was used to genotype for two different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - rs307355 (T>C) and rs35744813 (T>C) in the TAS1R3 gene, and rs7792845 (T>C) and rs1524600 (C>T) in the the GNAT3 gene. The allele and genotype frequencies of rs307355 and rs35744813 in the TAS1R3 gene showed a significant association between patients with taste disorder (p=0.022 and p=0.013 in both of SNPs, respectively). In addition, the frequency of T-T haplotype in the TAS1R3 gene was higher in taste disorder cases than in the controls (OR, 1.93: 95%. CI, 1.09-3.39, p=0.022). In the GNAT3, the genotype frequency of rs7792845 in the patients was also different from the controls (p=0.048), but allele frequency was not significantly associated in either group. Our result provides the frequencies of SNPs and haplotypes of the TAS1R3 and GNAT3 genes for the fundamental information of nutrigenetics in perception of the taste of sweetness in the Korean population. Also, the study suggests that the allelic polymorphisms of TAS1R3 and GNAT3 genes may be useful as a molecular marker for evaluating patients with taste disorder. Further studies with large samples are required to clarify our observation.

Association between a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the Complement component 9 (C9) gene and meat-quality traits in Berkshire pigs (Complement component 9 (C9) 유전자의 단일염기다형성과 버크셔 돼지 육질 형질과의 연관성 분석)

  • Ha, Jeongim;Hwang, Jung Hye;Yu, Go Eun;Park, Da Hye;Kang, Deok Gyeong;Kim, Tae Wan;Park, Hwa Chun;An, Sang Mi;Kim, Chul Wook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.480-485
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    • 2018
  • In this study, to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with meat quality in Berkshire pigs, we performed RNA sequencing. A non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) in the Complement component 9 (C9) gene was identified, and the association between meat quality traits and the C9 genotype was analyzed. The nsSNP in the C9 gene was located at c.942 G>T. In the dominant model, significant associations were observed between the SNP and meat quality traits such as CIE L, collagen content, moisture level, and $pH_{24h}$, whereas in the co-dominant model, significant associations were observed between the SNP and CIE L, collagen content, and protein content. In the recessive model, a significant association between the C9 genotype and the collagen content was observed. In addition, we identified the significant relationship between the C9 genotype and meat quality according to sex. These results indicate that the C9 SNP can be used as a genetic marker for improving pork quality.

Imputation Accuracy from 770K SNP Chips to Next Generation Sequencing Data in a Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Population using Minimac3 and Beagle (Minimac3와 Beagle 프로그램을 이용한 한우 770K chip 데이터에서 차세대 염기서열분석 데이터로의 결측치 대치의 정확도 분석)

  • An, Na-Rae;Son, Ju-Hwan;Park, Jong-Eun;Chai, Han-Ha;Jang, Gul-Won;Lim, Dajeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1255-1261
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    • 2018
  • Whole genome analysis have been made possible with the development of DNA sequencing technologies and discovery of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Large number of SNP can be analyzed with SNP chips, since SNPs of human as well as livestock genomes are available. Among the various missing nucleotide imputation programs, Minimac3 software is suggested to be highly accurate, with a simplified workflow and relatively fast. In the present study, we used Minimac3 program to perform genomic missing value substitution 1,226 animals 770K SNP chip and imputing missing SNPs with next generation sequencing data from 311 animals. The accuracy on each chromosome was about 94~96%, and individual sample accuracy was about 92~98%. After imputation of the genotypes, SNPs with R Square ($R^2$) values for three conditions were 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 and the percentage of SNPs were 91%, 84%, and 70% respectively. The differences in the Minor Allele Frequency gave $R^2$ values corresponding to seven intervals (0, 0.025), (0.025, 0.05), (0.05, 0.1), (0.1, 0.2), (0.2, 0.3). (0.3, 0.4) and (0.4, 0.5) of 64~88%. The total analysis time was about 12 hr. In future SNP chip studies, as the size and complexity of the genomic datasets increase, we expect that genomic imputation using Minimac3 can improve the reliability of chip data for Hanwoo discrimination.

Genetic Diversity and Relationship of Ogye Population in Korea Using 25 Microsatellite Markers (MS 마커를 활용한 지역별 오계 유전자원의 다양성 및 유연관계 분석)

  • Roh, Hee-Jong;Kim, Kwan-Woo;Lee, Jin-Wook;Jeon, Da-Yeon;Kim, Seung-Chang;Jeon, Ik-Soo;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Lee, Jun-Heon;Kim, Sung-Hee;Baek, Jun-Jong;Oh, Dong-Yep;Han, Jae-Yong;Lee, Seung-Sook;Cho, Chang-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and relationships of Ogye populations in Korea. A total of 243 genomic DNA samples from 6 Ogye population (Yeonsan Ogye; YSO, Animal Genetic Resources Research Center Ogye; ARO, Chungbuk Ogye; CBO, Chungnam Ogye; CNO, Gyeongbuk Ogye; GBO, Seoul National University Ogye; SUO) and 3 introduced chicken breeds (Rhode Island Red; RIR, White Leghorn; LG, Cornish; CN) were used. Sizes of 25 microsatellite markers were decided using GeneMapper Software(v 5.0) after analyzing ABI 3130XL. A total of 153 alleles were observed and the range was 2 to 10 per each locus. The mean of expected and observed heterozygosity and PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) value was 0.53, 0.50, 0.46 respectively. The lowest genetic distance (0.073) was observed between YSO and SUO, and the highest distance (0.937) between the RIR and CBO. The results of clustering analysis suggested 3 clusters (${\Delta}K=7.96$). Excluding GBO population, 5 Ogye populations (YSO, ARO, CBO, CNO, SUO) were grouped in same cluster with high genetic uniformity (0.990, 0.979, 0.989, 0.994, 0.985 respectively). But GBO population was grouped in cluster 1 with low genetic uniformity (0.340). The results of this study can be use to basic data for the genetic evaluation and management of Ogye populations in Korea.

Association of SNP Markers on Chromosomes 3 and 9 with Body Weight in Jeju Horses (제주마에서 3번 및 9번 염색체상의 단일염기변이와 생체중과의 관련성 연구)

  • Kim, Nam Young;Yang, Young Hoon;Park, Nam Geon;Yang, Byoung Chul;Son, Jun Kyu;Shin, Sang Min;Woo, Jae Hoon;Shin, Moon Cheol;Yoo, Ji Hyun;Hong, Hyun Ju;Park, Hee Bok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.795-801
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on equine chromosomes (ECA) 3 and 9 with body weight in Jeju horses. We used DNA samples and body weight data of 320 horses provided by the Livestock Promotion Agency, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, and the Korean Racing Association, respectively. We genotyped all the experimental animals using nine SNP markers located on ECA 3 (BIEC2-808466, BIEC2-808543, BIEC2-808967, and BIEC2-809370) and ECA 9 (BIEC2-1105370, BIEC2-1105372, BIEC2-1105377, BIEC21105505, and BIEC2-1105840). These markers were selected due to their effects on body conformation traits in horses. The joint effect of the genotypes of the two SNP markers (BIEC2-808467 and BIEC2-1105377) regarding body weight were also evaluated. The estimated breeding value (EBV) of body weight was obtained as the dependent variable for association analyses using a linear mixed model. Significant associations were detected between SNP markers (BIEC2-808543, BIEC2-808967, BIEC2-809370, BIEC2-1105370, BIEC2-1105372, and BIEC2-1105377) and the body weight EBV. In addition, the joint genotype effect of the BIEC2-808467 and BIEC2-1105377 on the body weight EBV was significant. These results indicate that the SNP markers, which showed their significant effects on body conformation, can be used as genetic markers to improve the efficiency of the selective breeding program for the body weight traits in Jeju horses.

The identification of non-synonymous SNP in the Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) gene and its Association with Meat Quality Traits in Berkshire pigs (버크셔 돼지 육질 형질과 Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) 유전자 nsSNP의 연관성 분석)

  • Hwang, Jung Hye;An, Sang Mi;Park, Da Hye;Kang, Deok Gyeong;Kim, Tae Wan;Park, Hwa Chun;Ha, Jeongim;Kim, Chul Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2018
  • Meat quality has always been one of the most important factors that controls the choice of pork consumers and is of great interest in the pig industry. In this study, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) gene in Berkshire pigs (n = 430) by analyzed the association between the SNP and meat quality traits. The non-synonymous SNP in the ECI2 gene is located at c.608 C > G and resulted in an amino acid change from threonine to serine. Significant associations between the SNP and meat quality traits, such as redness (CIE a), and the $pH_{24hr}$, were revealed in both the dominant and co-dominant models, whereas carcass weight, drip loss, and fat content and moisture content were significantly associated only with the dominant model. In barrow, the SNP was significantly associated with CIE a, drip loss, and $pH_{24hr}$, whereas in gilt, only a significant relationship with moisture content was observed. GG genotype pigs had a higher $pH_{24hr}$ and lower drip loss. Because $pH_{24hr}$ and drip loss are considered the most important meat quality traits, GG genotype pork is high-quality meat compared to that from other genotypes. In conclusion, the SNP in the ECI2 gene is significantly associated with several meat quality traits. These traits and could be as genetic markers in molecular breeding programs for improving meat quality.

Association Study of Zygote Arrest 1 on Semen Kinematic Characteristics in Duroc Boars (두록 정자 운동학적 특성과 Zygote arrest 1 유전자 변이와의 연관성 분석)

  • Lee, Mi Jin;Ko, Jun Ho;Kim, Yong Min;Choi, Tae Jeong;Cho, Kyu Ho;Kim, Young Sin;Jin, Dong Il;Kim, Nam Hyung;Cho, Eun Seok
    • ANNALS OF ANIMAL RESOURCE SCIENCES
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 2018
  • The Zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1) gene is known to affect early embryonic development in various vertebrates. In this study, we performed the association analysis to check whether there is any significant relationship between semen kinematic characteristics and the ZAR1 gene. To determine semen kinematic characteristics, we measured motility (MOT), straight-line velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), and beat cross frequency (BCF) of spermatozoa in boars. In order to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we extracted genomic DNA from multiple Duroc boars, and then subsequently used them in sequencing reactions. As a result, three SNPs were detected in the intronic region of ZAR1 gene (g.2435T>C in intron 2, g.2605G>A and g.4633A>C in intron 3 ). SNPs g.2435T>C and g.2605G>A were significantly associated with MOT (p<0.01) and VSL (p<0.05), and g.4633A

Development of HRM Markers Based on SNPs Identified from Next Generation Resequencing of Susceptible and Resistant Parents to Gummy Stem Blight in Watermelon (수박에서 덩굴마름병 감수성 및 저항성 양친에 대한 차세대 염기서열 재분석으로 탐색된 SNP 기반 HRM 분자표지 개발)

  • Lee, Eun Su;Kim, Jinhee;Hong, Jong Pil;Kim, Do-Sun;Kim, Minkyong;Huh, Yun-Chan;Back, Chang-Gi;Lee, Jundae;Lee, Hye-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.424-433
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    • 2018
  • Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is an economically important vegetable crop all over the world, which has functional compounds such as lycopene and citrulline. Gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae is one of the most devastative diseases in watermelon. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are genetic variations occurring between individuals with respect to a single base, were often used to construct genetic linkage maps and develop molecular markers linked to a variety of horticultural traits and resistance to several diseases. In this study, we developed high-resolution melting (HRM) markers based on SNPs generated from NGS resequencing of two parents in watermelon. Plant materials were C. lanatus '920533' (female and susceptible parent), C. amarus 'PI 189225' (male and resistant parent), and their $F_1$ and $F_2$ progenies. A total of 13.6 Gbp ('920533') and 13.1 Gbp ('PI 189225') of genomic sequences were obtained using NGS analysis. A total of 6.09 million SNPs between '920533' and 'PI 189225' were detected, and 354,860 SNPs were identified as potential HRM primer sets. From these, a total of 330 primer sets for HRM analysis were designed. As a result, a total of 61 HRM markers that have polymorphic melting curves were developed. These HRM markers can be used for the construction of SNP-based linkage maps and for the analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to gummy stem blight resistance.

Recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery analysis in a marker-assisted backcross breeding based on the genotyping-by-sequencing in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) (토마토 MABC 육종에서 GBS(genotyping-by-sequencing)에 의한 RPG(recurrent parent genome) 회복률 분석)

  • Kim, Jong Hee;Jung, Yu Jin;Seo, Hoon Kyo;Kim, Myong-Kwon;Nou, Ill-Sup;Kang, Kwon Kyoo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2019
  • Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is useful for selecting an offspring with a highly recovered genetic background for a recurrent parent at early generation to various crops. Moreover, marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and it accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. In this study, we were employed to incorporate rin gene(s) from the donor parent T13-1084, into the genetic background of HK13-1151, a popular high-yielding tomato elite inbred line that is a pink color fruit, in order to develop a rin HK13-1084 improved line. The recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using SNP markers obtained from genotyping-by-sequencing analysis. From the $BC_1F_1$ and $BC_2F_1$ plants, 3,086 and 4868 polymorphic SNP markers were obtained via GBS analysis, respectively. These markers were present in all twelve chromosomes. The background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 56.7% to 84.5% and from 87.8% to 97.8% in $BC_1F_1$ and $BC_2F_1$ generations, respectively. In this study, No 5-1 with 97.8% RPG recovery rate among $BC_2F_1$ plants was similar to HK13-1151 strain in the fruit shape. Therefore, the selected plants were fixed in $BC_2F_2$ generation through selfing. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in the backcross generations. MABC can greatly reduce breeding time as compared to the conventional backcross breeding. For instance, MABC approach greatly shortened breeding time in tomato.