• Title/Summary/Keyword: polymicrobial infection

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Primary Purulent Pericarditis with Cardiac Tamponade due to Oropharyngeal Polymicrobial Infection: A Case Report and Literature Review

  • Bhatarai, Mukul;Yost, Gregory;Good, Christopher W.;White, Charles F.;Nepal, Hitekshya
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.155-159
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    • 2014
  • Cardiac tamponade due to purulent pericarditis with a characteristic greenish fluid is rare in this antibiotic era. It is highly fatal despite early diagnosis and advanced treatment. Gram-positive cocci are the leading cause of purulent pericarditis, which usually results from a direct or hematogenous spread of organisms to the pericardium from the primary foci of infection. We describe an index case of rapidly developing pericardial tamponade caused by oropharyngeal polymicrobial infection in the absence of a primary source of infection in a 62-year-old man, who was successfully managed with emergency large-volume pericardiocentesis followed by pericardiectomy.

Prevalence and Expression Pattern of Cytokines in Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex (PRDC) (돼지호흡기복합증후군(Porcine respiratory disease complex, PRDC)에 대한 발생상황의 분석 및 cytokine의 변화)

  • Lee, Kyung Hyun;Song, Jae Chan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1118-1124
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    • 2014
  • Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a common respiratory disease in nursery and grow-finishing pigs. A complex of viral and bacterial agents is known to be involved in the etiology of PRDC. The purpose of this study was to investigate common etiologic agents associated with PRDC in the field and compare detection methods for identifying these agents. To understand the mechanism of polymicrobial infection in PRDC, changes in the expression of cytokines were investigated. In 461 pig samples examined, most of the affected pigs ranged from 3 to 10 weeks old (73.4%), and 348 (75.4%) samples were confirmed as polymicrobial infection. Of the polymicrobial-infected cases, two (50.3%), three (32.2%), four (13.8%), five (3.2%), and six (0.5%) agents were detected. Two- or three-agent infections were the most common, with PRRSV/PCV-2 (44.6%) the most common two-agent infection. PRRSV/PCV-2/H. parasuis (11.0%) was the most common three-agent infection. Comparison of two detection methods (PCR and IHC) in the polymicrobial cases showed that 78.4% were PCV-2 positive with the PCR method, and 26.2% were PCV-2 positive with IHC. SIV was 7.8% by the PCR method and 3.7% positive by the IHC. This result indicates that the PCR method is more useful than IHC for detecting causative agents in PRDC. In the analysis of cytokines in the two- and three-agent infected samples, interleukin (IL)-$1{\alpha}$, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and INF-${\alpha}$ showed the same expression pattern. All cytokines were suppressed, except IL-6. These findings indicate that changes in cytokine expression could be used to understand the mechanism of polymicrobial infection in PRDC.

Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Clostridium Species in Soil Contaminated with Domestic Livestock Feces of Korea

  • Kim, Jeong-Dong;Lee, Dae-Weon;Lee, Kyou-Seung;Choi, Chang-Hyun;Kang, Kook-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.401-410
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    • 2004
  • Soil samples from five different areas in Korea were collected during 2001/02 and examined for presence of the genus Clostridium. Direct immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA) examination showed that Clostridium septicum, Cl. novyi and Cl. chauvoei were detected in the soil of specific areas in Korea. Sixteen species of Clostridium were isolated and cultivated from the soil samples. Cl. peifringens was detected in all sampling locations, while the other species were not. The in vitro activity of 14 antibiotic agents was determined against 421 clostridia isolated from the soil contaminated with animal feces in Korea. Trovafloxacin was effective against all isolates of the genus Clostridium except one isolate of Cl. subterminale, two of Cl. tetani, and three of Cl novyi with $MIC_{50}$ $8- 16\mu$g $ml^{-1}$. Thirteen species of Clostridium were resistant to vancomycin except for Cl. perfringens, Cl. sporogenes, and Cl. subterminale. Imipenem and trovafloxacin showed high antimicrobial activities (>95%) against all strains in the clostridia investigated. Therefore, antibiotic agents such as imipenem and trovafloxacin are the most suitable agents for polymicrobial infection as broad-spectrum monotherapy.

Clinical and Bacteriological Evaluation of the Patients with Anaerobic Bacteria Isolation from Blood (혈액에서 혐기성 세균이 분리된 환자의 임상 및 세균학적 검토)

  • Kim, Jin-Ju;Chong, Yun-Sop;Lee, Samuel Y.
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 1985
  • Isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria from blood cultures are still technically demanding procedures. Recently, with the use of gas liquid chromatography, the accuracy of identification is much improved. However, there has never been a satisfactory data analysis on anaerobic bacteremia in Korea. The authors evaluated both the clinical and the bacteriological data of 129 anaerobic bacteremias found at the Yonsei Medical Center during the period of 1973 to 1984. The most frequently isolated anaerobic bacteria were Bacteroides (52.7%), among which the major species was B. fragilis (38.7%). Incidence of anaerobic bacteremia by sex was 57% in male and 43% in female. Mortality was higg in groups below 1-year old and above 50-year old. The cause of death seemed closely correlated with the patient's age, general condition and the severity of the underlying disease. Various neoplasms were the most common (20%) underlying diseases predisposing the anaerobic bacteremia. Biliary tract was considered the most frequent route of infection in anaerobic bacteremia. The frequent clinical signs in anaerobic bacteremia were fever (65%), followed by liver function abnormality (29%), jaundice (20%) and hypotention(18%). When analysis of positive rate of blood culture was made on the patients from whom 4 cultures were done within 24 hours, it was found that 33% of the samples were positive. Isolation rate of anaerobic bacteria in thioglycollate medium was 83.8%, while it was 44% in Tryptic soy broth. Among the anaerobic bacteremia, 25.4% were polymicrobial infections with aerobic bacteria (92.5%), such as E. coli(33.3%). From these studies, it is concluded that B. fragilis is the most important causative organism in anaerobic bacteremia, with high fatality, particularly in those who have underlying diseases. The ports of entry are mainly biliary, gastrointestinal and female genital tract. Fever is the most frequent clinical sign. Single blood culture is not sufficient to detect all anaerobic bacteremia, therefore more cultures with optimal time interval are needed. The incidence of polymicrobial infection in anaerobic bacteremia is higher than that in overall bacteremia.

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Hydrogel Dressing with a Nano-Formula against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Diabetic Foot Bacteria

  • El-Naggar, Moustafa Y.;Gohar, Yousry M.;Sorour, Magdy A.;Waheeb, Marian G.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.408-420
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    • 2016
  • This study proposes an alternative approach for the use of chitosan silver-based dressing for the control of foot infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were isolated from 40 diabetic patients. Staphylococcus aureus (37%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.5%) were the predominant isolates in the ulcer samples. Ten antibiotics were in vitro tested against diabetic foot clinical bacterial isolates. The most resistant S. aureus and P. aeruginosa isolates were then selected for further study. Three chitosan sources were tested individually for chelating silver nanoparticles. Squilla chitosan silver nanoparticles (Sq. Cs-Ag0) showed the maximum activity against the resistant bacteria when mixed with amikacin that showed the maximum synergetic index. This, in turn, resulted in the reduction of the amikacin MIC value by 95%. For evaluation of the effectiveness of the prepared dressing using Artemia salina as the toxicity biomarker, the LC50 was found to be 549.5, 18,000, and 10,000 μg/ml for amikacin, Sq. Cs-Ag0, and dressing matrix, respectively. Loading the formula onto chitosan hydrogel dressing showed promising antibacterial activities, with responsive healing properties for the wounds in normal rats of those diabetic rats (polymicrobial infection). It is quite interesting to note that no emergence of any side effect on either kidney or liver biomedical functions was noticed.

The Clinical Comparison between Monomicrobial and Polymicrobial Urinary Infection in Febrile Pediatric Acute Pyelonephritis (발열성 소아 신우 신염에서 단일 세균 감염과 혼합 세균 감염의 임상적 비교)

  • Lee, In Hak;Nam, Seong Woo;Seo, Hyeon Seok;Yim, Hyung Eun;Yoo, Kee Hwan;Hong, Young Sook;Lee, Joo Won
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: We investigated the clinical presentation of febrile pediatric patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN) with a mixed urine culture from an aseptic urine sample, and compared with that of those with a single culture. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 95 patients diagnosed as APN with fever between January 2008 and October 2010 at Korea University Medical Center. We classified the patients with APN into two groups with a positive single culture (S group) and a positive mixed culture (M group) from an aseptic urine sample of suprapubic bladder aspiration or urethral catheterization and compared the fever duration, laboratory markers such as serum white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) values in peripheral blood, and the presence of hydronephrosis, renal scar and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) between the two groups (If presence of hydronephrosis, scar and VUR=1 and no=0). Results: Total pediatric patients with febrile APN were 95 patients, a positive S group was 89 patients and a positive M group was 6 patients. Fever duration (S vs. M, $4.7{\pm}3.1$ vs. $6{\pm}5.7$ days), serum WBC (S vs. M, $18,630{\pm}6,483$ vs. $20,153{\pm}7,660/{\mu}L$) and CRP (S vs. M, $100.6{\pm}2.46$ vs. $81.1{\pm}0.09\;mg/L$) values, and the presence of hydronephrosis, renal scar and VUR were not different between the two groups. Conclusion: Our data shows that there were no specific differences of clinical manifestation between a positive single urine culture and a positive mixed urine culture in pediatric APN. A mixed urine culture from an aseptic urine sample should be interpreted cautiously.