• Title, Summary, Keyword: plasminogen activator inhibitors

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Transcriptional Upregulation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Rat Primary Astrocytes by a Proteasomal Inhibitor MG132

  • Cho, Kyu Suk;Kwon, Kyoung Ja;Jeon, Se Jin;Joo, So Hyun;Kim, Ki Chan;Cheong, Jae Hoon;Bahn, Geon Ho;Kim, Hahn Young;Han, Seol Heui;Shin, Chan Young;Yang, Sung-Il
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2013
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of serine protease inhibitor family, which regulates the activity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). In CNS, tPA/PAI-1 activity is involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes such as neuronal development, synaptic plasticity and cell survival. To gain a more insights into the regulatory mechanism modulating tPA/PAI-1 activity in brain, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors on tPA/PAI-1 expression and activity in rat primary astrocytes, the major cell type expressing both tPA and PAI-1. We found that submicromolar concentration of MG132, a cell permeable peptide-aldehyde inhibitor of ubiquitin proteasome pathway selectively upregulates PAI-1 expression. Upregulation of PAI-1 mRNA as well as increased PAI-1 promoter reporter activity suggested that MG132 transcriptionally increased PAI-1 expression. The induction of PAI-1 downregulated tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes. Another proteasome inhibitor lactacystin similarly increased the expression of PAI-1 in rat primary astrocytes. MG132 activated MAPK pathways as well as PI3K/Akt pathways. Inhibitors of these signaling pathways reduced MG132-mediated upregulation of PAI-1 in varying degrees and most prominent effects were observed with SB203580, a p38 MAPK pathway inhibitor. The regulation of tPA/PAI-1 activity by proteasome inhibitor in rat primary astrocytes may underlie the observed CNS effects of MG132 such as neuroprotection.

Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract suppresses migration and invasion in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells

  • Lee, Hyun Sook;Jung, Jae In;Kim, Kyeong-Hee;Park, Sang Jae;Kim, Eun Ji
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.463-477
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many studies have suggested that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) and its extract are anticancer agents. However, RVS had limited use because it contains urushiol, an allergenic toxin. By improving an existing allergen-removal extraction method, we developed a new allergen-free Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (RVSE) with higher flavonoid content. In this study, we examined whether RVSE inhibits the ability of AGS gastric cancer cells to migrate and invade. MATERIALS/METHODS: The flavonoids content of RVSE was analyzed by HPLC. The effects of RVSE on migration and invasion in AGS cells were analyzed by each assay kit. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) protein expression was analyzed by protein antibody array. The Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 were assayed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: RVSE treatment with 0-100 ㎍/mL dose-dependently reduced the ability of AGS cells to migrate and invade. Notably, treatment with RVSE strongly inhibited the expression of MMP-9 and uPA and the phosphorylation of STAT3. In contrast, RVSE treatment dramatically increased the expression of PAI-1. These results indicate that the inhibition of MMP-9 and uPA expression and STAT3 phosphorylation and the stimulation of PAI-1 expression contributed to the decreased migration and invasion of AGS cells treated with RVSE. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that RVSE may be used as a natural herbal agent to reduce gastric cancer metastasis.

Purification and Biochemical Characteristics of Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Streptomyces corcohrussi JK-20 (Streptomyces corcohrussi JK-20 유래 혈전용해효소의 순수분리 및 이의 생화학적 특성 규명)

  • Kim, You-Jung;Park, Jeong-Uck;Seo, Min-Jeong;Kim, Min-Jeong;Lee, Hye-Hyeon;Jin, Se-Hun;Kang, Byoung-Won;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Jeong, Yong-Kee
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.838-844
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    • 2010
  • A fibrinolytic enzyme of Streptomyces corcohrussi from soil sediment was purified by chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-50. The analysis of SDS-polyacrylamide gel suggested that the purified enzyme is a homogeneous protein and the molecular mass is approximately 34 kDa. The purified enzyme showed activity of 0.8 U/ml in a plasminogen-rich fibrin plate, while its activity in a plasminogen-free fibrin plate was only 0.36 U/ml. These results suggested that the purified enzyme acts as a plasminogen activator. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme under the supplementation of protease inhibitors, $\varepsilon$-ACA, t-AMCHA and mercuric chloride in the enzyme reaction was less than 24%, indicating that it could be modulated by the plasmin and/or fibrinogen inhibitors involved in the fibrinogen-to-fibrin converting process. As time passed, $Zn^{2+}$, a heavy metal ion, inhibited the activity to 34.1%. The optimum temperature of the purified enzyme was approximately $50^{\circ}C$ and over 92% of the enzyme activity was maintained between pH 5.0 and 8.0. Therefore, our results provide a potential fibrinolytic enzyme as a noble thrombolytic agent from S. corcohrussi.

Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract on tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in cultured rat primary astrocytes

  • Ko, Hyun Myung;Joo, So Hyun;Kim, Pitna;Park, Jin Hee;Kim, Hee Jin;Bahn, Geon Ho;Kim, Hahn Young;Lee, Jongmin;Han, Seol-Heui;Shin, Chan Young;Park, Seung Hwa
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.401-412
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    • 2013
  • Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an oriental herbal preparation obtained from Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae). To expand our understanding of the action of KRG on central nervous system (CNS) function, we examined the effects of KRG on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in rat primary astrocytes. KRG extract was treated in cultured rat primary astrocytes and neuron in a concentration range of 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL and the expression of functional tPA/PAI-1 was examined by casein zymography, Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. KRG extracts increased PAI-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes in a concentration dependent manner (0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL) without affecting the expression of tPA itself. Treatment of 1.0 mg/mL KRG increased PAI-1 protein expression in rat primary astrocytes to $319.3{\pm}65.9%$ as compared with control. The increased PAI-1 expression mediated the overall decrease in tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes. Due to the lack of PAI-1 expression in neuron, KRG did not affect tPA activity in neuron. KRG treatment induced a concentration dependent activation of PI3K, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK in rat primary astrocytes and treatment of PI3K or MAPK inhibitors such as LY294002, U0126, SB203580, and SP600125 (10 ${\mu}M$ each), significantly inhibited 1.0 mg/mL KRG-induced expression of PAI-1 and down-regulation of tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes. Furthermore, compound K but not other ginsenosides such as Rb1 and Rg1 induced PAI-1 expression. KRG-induced up-regulation of PAI-1 in astrocytes may play important role in the regulation of overall tPA activity in brain, which might underlie some of the beneficial effects of KRG on CNS such as neuroprotection in ischemia and brain damaging condition as well as prevention or recovery from addiction.

Plasmin Inhibitory Activity of Medicinal Plants (수종 식물의 Plasmin 저해 활성 검색)

  • Park, Mi-Hyoun;Jung, Hyun-Ju;Bae, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 1998
  • Binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to its cellular receptor accelerate production of plasmin from plasminogen on the cell surface. Plasmin can digest extracellular matrix components and basement membranes through activating certain proMMPs, which is related to the invasiveness to the cells. Plasmin also acts the regulation of blood coagulation and relates closely to cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and coronary occlusion. Therefore, its inhibitors may be useful as antimetastatic agents and to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. To search for plasmin inhibitors from plant resources, we screened plasmin inhibitory activities with 76 methanol extract of plant species. Among them, three plant samples showed strong inhibitory activities (>70%) and thirteen plant samples showed more than 50% inhibitory activities of plasmin. Their inhibitory activities were not directly related with uPA inhibitory activites and cell viability.

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Effect of Progesterone on Expression of Prostaglandin Synthases and Plasminogen Activator in Bovine Endometrium during Estrous Cycle (발정주기의 소 자궁내막에서 Progesterone이 Prostaglandin 합성효소와 Plasminogen Activator 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Su-Bin;Hwangbo, Yong;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2016
  • This study was to investigate effect of progesterone ($P_4$) on prostaglandin (PG) synthases and plasminogen activators (PAs) system in bovine endometrium during estrous cycle. Endometrium tissues were collected from bovine uterus on follicular and luteal phase and were incubated with culture medium containing 0 (Control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 200 ng/ml $P_4$ for 24 h. The $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ synthase (PGFS), $PGE_2$ synthase (PGES), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), urokinase PA (uPA), and PA inhibitors 1 (PAI-1) mRNA in bovine endometrium were analyzed using reverse transcription PCR and PA activity was measured using spectrophotometry. In results, COX-2 was higher at 2 ng/ml $P_4$ group than control group in luteal phase (p<0.05), but, it did not change in follicular phase. Contrastively, PGES was significantly increased in 2 ng/ml $P_4$ group compared to control group in follicular phase, but there were no significant differ among the treatments in luteal phase. uPA was no significant difference between $P_4$ treatment groups and control group in both of different phase. PAI-1 was decreased in 20 ng/ml $P_4$ group compared to control group in follicular phase (p<0.05). PA activity was decreased in 2 ng/ml $P_4$ group compared to other groups in follicular and luteal phase (p<0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that $P_4$ may influence to translation and post-translation process of PG production and PA activation in bovine endometrium.

Antiangiogenic and Antitumor Activities of the Cryptic Fragments with Kringle Architecture

  • Joe, Young-Ae;Kim, Myung-Rae;Shim, Byoung-Shik;Oh, Dae-Shik;Hong, Sung-Hee;Hong, Yong-Kil
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.205-213
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    • 2003
  • Various angiogenesis inhibitors target vascular endothelial cells and block tumor angiogenesis. Angiostatin is a specific endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor in clinical trials, which contains only the first four triple loop structures, known as kringle domains. Its generated by proteolytic cleavage of its parent molecule plasminogen, which itself does not exhibit antiangiogenic activity. Kringle domains from prothrombin, apolipoprotein, hepatocyte growth factor, urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator also elicit anti-angiogenic or antitumor activities in several model systems, albeit low amino acid sequence identity between angiostatin and each individual kringle. However, the differential effects of each kringle domain on endothelial cell proliferation, and migration observed in these kringle domains, suggest that the amino acid sequence of the primary structure is still important although kringle architecture is essential for anti-mlgiogenic activity. If it is further studied as to how amino acid sequence and kringle architecture contributes in anti-angiogenic activity, with studies on underlying mechanisms of anti-angiogenesis by kringle-based angiogenesis inhibitors, it will provide basis for the development of new potent anti-angiogenesis inhibitors and improvement of the efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors.

Inhibitory Effect of LPS-Induced Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 by Ascofuranone in Rat Kidney Fibroblast Cells (Ascofuranone에 의한 plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 발현저해 효과)

  • Chang, Young-Chae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1438-1443
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    • 2009
  • Renal fibrosis is a final common manifestation of every type of chronic kidney disease. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is known to play an essential role in the progress of renal fibrosis. In this paper, we found that an isoprenoid antibiotic, ascofuranone (AF), suppresses expression of profibrotic factors, PAI-1 and promoter activity of PAI-1 induced by LPS in rat kidney fibroblast cells. We therefore investigated signaling pathway mediated inhibitory effects of LPS-induced PAI-1 by AF in rNRK-49F cells. PAI-1 expression is suppressed by treatment with kinase inhibitors for MEK-1/2, as it isin inhibition of PAI-1 expression by AF, and AF inhibits phosphorylation of ERK-1/2. This study suggest that AF suppresses expression of PAI-1 through the inhibition of an ERK-1/2-dependent signal transduction pathway. The data indicates the possibility that AF can be used to prevent the development and progression of renal fibrosis.

A Recombinant Human ${\alpha}_1$-Antitrypsin Variant, $M_{malton}$, Undergoes a Spontaneous Conformational Conversion into a Latent Form

  • Jung, Chan-Hun;Im, Hana
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.335-339
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    • 2003
  • Many genetic variants of ${\alpha}_1$-antitrypsin have been associated with early onset emphysema and liver cirrhosis. However, the detailed structural basis of pathogenic ${\alpha}_1$-antitrypsin molecules is rarely known. Here we found that a recombinant $M_{malton}$ variant (Phe52-deleted) lost inhibitory activity by spontaneous conformational conversion into a more stable, inactive form under physiological conditions. Biochemical and spectroscopic data suggested that the variant converts into a reactive center loop-inserted conformation, resembling the latent form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

The Significance of Plasma Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator and Type 1 Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor in Lung Cancer (폐암에서 혈장 Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator 및 Type 1 Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor의 의의)

  • Park, Kwang-Joo;Kim, Hyung-Jung;Ahn, Chul-Min;Lee, Doo-Yun;Chang, Joon;Kim, Sung-Kyu;Lee, Won-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.516-524
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    • 1997
  • Background : Cancer invasion and metastasis require the dissolution of the extracellular matrix in which several proteolytic enzymes are involved. One of these enzymes is the urokinase-type plasminogen activator(u-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitors(PAI-1, PAI-2) also have a possible role in cancer invasion and metastasis by protection of cancer itself from proteolysis by u-PA. It has been reported that the levels of u-PA and plasminogen activator inhibitors in various cancer tissues are significantly higher than those in normal tissues and have significant correlations with tumor size and lymph node involvement. Here, we measured the concentration of plasma u-PA and PAI-1 antigens in the patients with lung cancer and compared the concentration of them with histologic types and staging parameters. Methods : We measured the concentration of plasma u-PA and PAI-1 antigens using commercial ELISA kit in 37 lung cancer patients, 21 benign lung disease patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls, and we compared the concentration of them with histologic types and staging parameters in lung cancer patients. Results : The concentration of u-PA was $1.0{\pm}0.3ng/mL$ in controls, $1.0{\pm}0.3ng/mL$ in benign lung disease patients and $0.9{\pm}0.3ng/mL$ in lung cancer patients. The concentration of PAI-1 was $14.2{\pm}6.7ng/mL$ in controls, $14.9{\pm}6.3ng/mL$ in benign lung disease patients, and $22.1{\pm}9.8ng/mL$ in lung cancer patients. The concentration of PAI-1 in lung cancer patients was higher than those of benign lung disease patients and controls. The concentration of u-PA was $0.7{\pm}0.4ng/mL$ in squamous cell carcinoma, $0.8{\pm}0.3ng/mL$ in adenocarcinoma, 0.9ng/mL in large cell carcinoma, and $1.1{\pm}0.7ng/mL$ in small cell carcinoma. The concentration of PAI-1 was $22.3{\pm}7.2ng/mL$ in squamous cell carcinoma, $22.6{\pm}9.9ng/mL$ in adenocarcinoma, 42 ng/mL in large cell carcinoma, and $16.0{\pm}14.2ng/mL$ in small cell carcinoma. The concentration of u-PA was 0.74ng/mL in stage I, $1.2{\pm}0.6ng/mL$ in stage II, $0.7{\pm}0.4ng/mL$ in stage IIIA, $0.7{\pm}0.4ng/mL$ in stage IIIB, and $0.7{\pm}0.3ng/mL$ in stage IV. The concentration of PAI-1 was 21.8ng/mL in stage I, $22.7{\pm}8.7ng/mL$ in stage II, $18.4{\pm}4.9ng/mL$ in stage IIIA, $25.3{\pm}9.0ng/mL$ in stage IIIB, and $21.5{\pm}10.8ng/mL$ in stage IV. When we divided T stage into T1-3 and T4, the concentration of u-PA was $0.8{\pm}0.4ng/mL$ in T1-3 and $0.7{\pm}0.4ng/mL$ in T4, and the concentration of PAI-1 was $17.9{\pm}5.6ng/mL$ in T1-3 and $26.1{\pm}9.1ng/mL$ in T4. The concentration of PAI-1 in T4 was significantly higher than that in T1-3. The concentration of u-PA was $0.8{\pm}0.4ng/mL$ in M0 and $0.7{\pm}0.3ng/mL$ in M1, and the concentration of PAI-1 was $23.6{\pm}8.3ng/mL$ in M0 and $21.5{\pm}10.8ng/mL$ in M1. Conclusions : The plasma levels of PAI-1 in lung cancer were higher than benign lung disease and controls, and the plasma levels of PAI-1 in T4 were significantly higher than T1-3. These findings suggest involvement of PAI-1 with local invasion of lung cancer, but it should be confirmed by the data on comparison with pathological staging and tissue level in lung cancer.

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