• Title, Summary, Keyword: physical and sensory properties

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Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties with Tangerine (Citrus unshiu) during Refrigeration Storage (감귤껍질 첨가가 돈육 Patty의 냉장저장 중 이화학적 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Wook;Choi, Gang-Won
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.250-259
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tangerine (Citrus unshiu) peel on the physicochemical properties and sensory score of pork patties. Four types of pork patties were evaluated: T0 without tangerine peel, T1 with 0.3% tangerine peel, T2 with 0.7% tangerine peel, and T3 with 1.0% tangerine peel. The pH level changed based on the storage period. The pH levels of T2 and T3 were lower than those of T0 and T1 during storage. The L-value (lightness) of samples did not significantly change, and showed no significant difference during storage. The a-value (redness) decreased during storage, and that of T0 was lowest among the samples. The b-values of samples did not significantly change, whereas that of pork patties with tangerine peel was higher than that of pork patty without tangerine peel. The TBARS increased with a longer storage period, and the values for T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 0.82, 0.32, 0.26 and 0.26 mg/kg, respectively, after 10 days of storage. DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased with a longer storage period, and those of T2 and T3 were significantly higher than those of T0 and T1. The VBN contents of T0 and T1 increased with a longer storage period, and that of T0 was highest among the samples. Water holding capacity decreased, and cooking loss increased, whereas those of samples did not significantly change during storage. Hardness and chewiness increased while springiness and cohesiveness decreased during storage. The results of this study show that tangerine peel is a natural antioxidant, due to its antioxidative activity and does not affect physical characteristics. Therefore, addition of 0.7% tangerine peel may be suitable for manufacture of patties.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Varietal Improvement Related to Palatability of Cooked Rice or Suitability to Food Processing in Rice (쌀 식미 및 가공적성에 관련된 이화학적 특성)

  • 최해춘
    • Proceedings of the Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition Conference
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    • pp.39-74
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    • 2001
  • The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s∼1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great, progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and qualify evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice caltivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and torture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak. hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscogram with year difference. The high-quality rice variety “Ilpumbyeo” showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic mcroscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high Probability of determination. The ${\alpha}$ -amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, shelved the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogiadation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice bread. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large gram rices showed better suitability for fermentation and brewing. Our breeding efforts on rice quality improvement for the future should focus on enhancement of palatability of cooked rice and marketing qualify as well as the diversification in morphological and physicochemical characteristics of rice grain for various value-added rice food processings.

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Comparisons of the Carcass Characteristics of Male White Mini Broilers, Ross Broilers and Hy-Line Brown Chicks under the Identical Rearing Condition (동일 조건에서 사육한 수컷 백세미, 브로일러 및 산란종 병아리에 있어서 도체 특성의 비교)

  • Ahn, B.K.;Kim, J.Y.;Kim, J.S.;Lee, B.K.;Lee, S.Y.;Lee, W.S.;Oh, S.T.;Kim, J.D.;Kim, E.J.;Hyun, Y.;Kim, H.S.;Kang, C.W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2009
  • The present study was conducted to compare the carcass yields and meat characteristics of three types of commercial male chicks White mini broilers, Ross broilers and Hy-Line brown chicks under the identical feeding condition. One-hundred 1-d chicks of each type were randomly placed into four pens per group (25 chicks per pen) and fed corn-soybean meal based commercial diets for 35d, 18d or 49d, respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were sacrificed and subjected to carcass measurements. The dressing percentages of White mini broilers and Ross broilers were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of Hy-Line brown cockerels. The rate of breast meat of Hy-Line brown cockerels was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of White mini broilers and Ross broilers. However, Hy-Line brown cockerels showed higher (P<0.05) leg meats than the others. There were no significant differences in serum total cholesterol and the activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase among the groups. The breast meats of White mini broilers presented highest lightness value. The yellowness of breast and redness of leg meats of White mini broilers and Ross broilers were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of Hy-Line brown cockerels. There were no significant differences in the SOD-like activity and change of pH in edible meats among the groups. The meat color in White mini broilers was significantly higher than that of Hy-Line brown cockerels. No significant differences were observed in term of flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of edible meats were not greatly affected by genotype if they were similar body weights and kept under the identical feeding condition. But the Hy-Line brown cockerels were less desirable as a meat-type strain due to lower carcass yields and inferior growth and feed conversion ratio.

Quality Attributes of Whole Soybean flour Tofu Affected by Coagulant and Theirs Concentration (응고제 종류와 농도에 따른 전지대두분 두부의 품질)

  • Kim, Ju-Young;Kim, Jun-Han;Kim, Jong-Kuk;Moon, Kwang-Deog
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.402-409
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    • 2000
  • To investigate the textural and physical characteristics of WSF(whole soybean flour) tofu affected by coagulant and its concentration, $CaCl_2$, $CaSO_4$, $GDL(glucono-{\delta}\;lactone)$, $MgCl_2$, and some mixed coagulants were used in this study. Yields of WSF tofu coagulated with $CaSO_4$ and GDL were ranged 4.3-4.5(g/g WSF), but common tofu was 2.2-3.0(g/g soybean). As the water addition ratio increased, L and a value were increased while heating time increased, b value increased. L value of WSF tofu was lower and b value was higher than conventional tofu and 4 commercial tofus. Kinds of coagulant and its concentration significantly affected to textural properties of WSF tofu. As the concentration of coagulant increase, the hardness increased in most all coagulants. WSF tofu coagulated with $CaSO_4$ and GDL recorded low hardness and adhesiveness, and high springiness among the used coagulants at the same concentration. As the hardness increased, the gumminess and chewiness increased in most all coagulants. As coagulation temperature and molding pressure increase, hardness also increased. WSF tofu coagulated with 0.3% $CaSO_4+GDL$ was the most similar in the textural properties with conventional tofu and 4 commercial tofus. WSF tofu coagulated with 0.3% of $CaSO_4+GDL$ at $85^{\circ}C$, 10 times water addition, 5min. heating and $25.0g/cm^2$ molding pressure recorded the highest score in the sensory evaluation.

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Comparison of Chemical Composition, Physico-chemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Horse Meat by Different Grade and Cuts (말고기의 육질 등급에 따른 부위별 일반성분, 이화학적 특성 및 지방산 성분 비교)

  • Cheong, Jin-Hyung;Sun, Chang-Wan;Hwang, Do-Yon;Kwon, Ki-Mun;Lee, Jae-Cheong;Kim, Hyo-Sun;Kim, Young-Jun;Lee, Sang-Kun;Ryu, Youn-Chul
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory property of horse meat according to meat quality grade (1 and 2) and cuts (loin, chuck roll and top round). The lipid content of loin was significantly higher (p<0.05) in grade 1 (4.65%) compared with grade 2 (2.31%), whereas moisture content was lower (p<0.05) in grade 1 than in grade 2. The pH value was significantly lower (p<0.05) in loin than in other cuts regardless of meat quality grade. Shear force value of loin was significantly different (p<0.05) between grades 1 (5.87 $kg/cm^2$) and 2 (10.86 $kg/cm^2$). Water-holding capacity values of loin, chuck roll and top round were not different (p>0.05) between grades 1 and 2. Meat color values ($L^*$, $a^*$ and $b^*$) of loin, chuck roll and top round were not different (p>0.05) between grades 1 and 2. Palmitoleic acid of loin in grade 1 (11.39%) was higher (p<0.05) than that in grade 2 (5.36%). Stearic acid of loin in grade 1(3.58%) was lower (p<0.05) than that in grade 2 (7.02%). Overall palatability of loin, chuck roll and top round did not differ (p>0.05) between grades 1 and 2. Therefore, meat quality grade had mainly affected lipid and moisture contents, shear force, palmitoleic acid and stearic acid of horse loin; and horse loin of grade 2 had lower pH and higher $L^*$, $a^*$ and $b^*$ than the other cuts.

Optimization of Processing Conditions for the Production of Puffed Rice (팽화미 제조 공정조건의 최적화)

  • Cheon, Hee Soon;Cho, Won Il;Jhin, Changho;Back, Kyeong Hwan;Ryu, Kyung Heon;Lim, Su Youn;Chung, Myong Soo;Choi, Jun Bong;Lim, Taehwan;Hwang, Keum Taek
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to optimize processing conditions for the production of an instant puffed rice product using response surface methodology (RSM) and contour analysis. Sensory and texture qualities, and physical properties of the puffed rice were analyzed with various processing conditions related to drying and puffing temperature, and moisture content. Preference, color intensity, cohesiveness, rehydration ratio, density and lightness of the puffed rice product significantly varied depending on the processing conditions. The responses showed high $R^2$ values (0.623, 0.852, 0.735, 0.688, and 0.790) and lack-of-fit. Rehydration ratio was found to have a negative correlation with density in the condition of drying and puffing temperature. Lightness and preference scores of the puffed rice increased as the moisture content increased. According to RSM, the preference scores were very highly related to the moisture content, and the optimum processing conditions of the puffed rice product were at $40^{\circ}C$ of drying temperature, with 11.0% of moisture content, and at $232.7^{\circ}C$ of puffing temperature.

Effects of Different Grazing Types of Hilly Pasture on Growth and Meat Quality in Organic Korean Black Goats (산지초지를 이용한 방목유형별이 유기흑염소의 발육과 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • HwangBo, S.;Choi, S.H.;Kim, S.W.;Son, D.S.;Jeon, B.S.;Lee, S.H.;Jo, I.H.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.309-320
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of different types of hilly pasture grazing on growth and meat quality in organic Korean black goats, and to obtain basic data for the production of organic goats. A total of 40 goats with similar age and BW were equally allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments included grazing types of four different hilly pastures; T1: forages types, T2: organic forages types, T3: native plants types, and T4: browse types, respectively. The trial lasted for 174 days from 15th of May to 5th of November, 2007 in Livestock Genetic Resources Experiment Station, National Institute of Animal Sciences. At the end of trial, all animals were slaughtered to analyze carcass characteristics and meat quality. Average daily gain was significantly (p<0.05) higher for T1 treatments than for others. Dressing percentage was significantly (p<0.05) higher for T1 and T2 than for T3 and T4 treatments. Meat percentage of T1 treatments was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. For meat properties, crude fat content was highest in T3 treatments. Linoleate (18:2n6) and linolenate (18:3n3) contents tended to be higher in T1 than those of other treatments, while arachidonate (20:4n6) content tended to be higher in T3 and T4 than that of other treatments. Shear force was lower (p<0.05) for T3 than other treatments. For sensory results, juiciness and tenderness tended to be greater (p<0.05) in T2 and T3, and flavour tended to be greater (p<0.05) in T3 and T4. The results indicated that grazing in hilly pastures for organic Korean black goats was somewhat less in their performances and carcass characteristics, but not behind in the meat quality and physical characteristics as compared with the conventional regimen. Therefore, it would be expected that goats grazing in hilly pastures made it possible to produce organic animal products with a high safety and also might lead to increase of breeders income and consumers satisfaction.

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A Study on the Optimization of Green Kiwi and Gold Kiwi Puree Mixing Ratio for the Best French Kiwi Dressing (그린키위 및 골드키위를 이용한 프렌치 드레싱 제조의 혼합비율 최적화의 연구)

  • Cho, In-Sook;Jin, Hyun-Hee;Lee, Seung-Joo
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.16-28
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study, as a part of developing a new french dressing, was to present the best conditions to make improved kiwi dressing, suitable for the tastes of modern people, the processing and cooking methods of different ratios of green kiwi and gold kiwi have been sought to develop a new type of dressing, then its antioxidant have been defined, and used for producing kiwi dressing. Each 150g of different Kiwi purees, made based on the most preferable combinations from the pre-test were used for kiwi dressing, and thereafter its quality characteristics, and physical properties were investigated, as well as a sensory test was conducted. The highest viscosity of kiwi dressing was test sample GD2, and in general that of combining both types of kiwis were higher than that of either single kiwi. The sugar content was decreased by changing the Gold kiwi portion(p<0.05). The chromaticity in general increased with increases in the Gold kiwi portion, and a-value(brightness) and b-value(redness) of sample GD1 were the highest by -2.75 and 17.50(p<0.05). From the acceptability test, the highest overall acceptability was the dressing sample combining Gold kiwi and Green kiwi at a ratio of 1:1. Based on the study results, it is expected that the dressing, made of kiwi puree, mixing Green kiwi and Gold kiwi by 1:1 ratio, and adding 130g of edible oil, 50g of onion, 40g of sugar, and 5g of salt, would improve the quality and overall acceptability of the dressing.

Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Ethylene Oxide Fumigation for the Quality Preservation of Spices and Dry Vegetables (건조향신 조미식품의 품질보존을 위한 효과적인 살균방법에 관한 비교연구)

  • 신광순;마점술;조종후
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.119-132
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    • 1989
  • Gamma irradiation as a new physical treatment was applied to comparative investigates with a conventional ethylene oxide fumigant on the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of selected spices and dry vegetables such as powdered red pepper, black pepper, welsh onion, onion, garlic, carrot, korean cabbage and instant ramyon soup. The microorganisms contaminated in the sample, including total viable count, thermophilic bacteria, aerobic spore and fungi counts between the $10^4\;to\;10^6/g$ range. Coliforms were found only in black pepper and welsh onion powder as the $10^2\;to\;10^3/g$ level. A radiation dose of 7 to 10 KGy were sterilized completely to the contaminated microorganisms, while ehthylene oxide (E.O.) fumigation reduced of them to the $10^3/g$ level. An optimum dose of irradiation was less detrimental than E.O. fumigation to the physicochemical properties of the sample. Sensory evaluation after three months of storage at room temperatures showed that the overall acceptability of irradiated sample was higher than that of the non treated control as well as E.O. fumigated samples. Comparison gamma irradiation with E.O. gas treatment showed that E.O. treatment was less effective than radiation in cotrolling microbial contamination of spices and vegetables.

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A Study on Development of New Products by Old Chicken Meat (노폐계(老廢鷄)를 이용(利用)한 육제품(肉製品) 개발(開發)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Han, Sung Wook;Lee, Kyu Seung;Chang, Kyu Sup;Jeon, Chang Kie
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.87-102
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    • 1980
  • In order to investigate the utilization probability of two years old laying hen for W.L. and R.I.R. breeds, carcass weight and percentage were examined and dried old chicken meat products were manufactured for experiments. The results obtained are as follows. 1. Average living body weight were 1,635.40g for the W.L. breeds and 2,289.29g for the R.I.R. breeds and percentage carcass and lean meat for the W.L. were 58.73% and 43.95%, for the R.I.R. 60.34%, 41.98%, respectively. 2. In constitution percentage of carcass on different parts for W.L. and R.I.R. breeds, head were 4.13% and 3.94%, wing 9.97% and 8.62%, breast 32.54% and 20.94%, back 11.35% and 9.75%, thigh 30.75% and 31.34%, hypordermic fat 11.37% and 17.34%, respectively. 3. In constitution percentage of lean meat on different parts for W.L. and R.I.R. breeds, head were 4.03% and 3.95%, wing 9.47% and 9.79%, breast 39.37% and 38.14%, back 11.24% and 9.40%, thigh 36.16% and 38.74%, respectively. 4. In chemical composition of old chicken meat for W.L. breed, moisture was 68.18%, crude protein 22.80%, crude fat 2.70%, extract 5.15% and crude ash 1.18% and for R.I.R. breed, moisture was 68.04%, crude protein 22.18%, crude fat 3.13%, extract 5.45% and crude ash 1.21%. 5. Weight loss in steaming for W.L. at $121^{\circ}C$ for 30min., 60min., and 90min. were 54.91, 56.43 and 58.42%, respectively, and for R.I.R. were 45.23, 47.68 and 49.68%, respectively. 6. The yield of old chicken meat product per a hen were 253.01g for W.L. and 368.64g for R.I.R., the ratio for fresh meat weight and for carcass weight were 35.47% and 26.34% for W.L. breed and 38.25 and 26.83% for R.I.R. breed. 7. In chemical composition of old chicken meat product for W.L., moisture was 16.69%, crude protein 66.16%, crude fat 12.81%, crude ash 4.35%, and R.I.R., moisture 16.11%, crude protein 65.95%, crude fat 13.78% and crude ash 4.57%. 8. To investigate the physical properties which was main factor affecting the product quality, tensile strength, tear strength and elongation rate were measured. The adhesive force of the product made under pressure of $70kg/cm^2$ was similar to those of chipo which was the control product. 9. When measured the color of each protein product, lightness of the product pressed at $70kg/cm^2$ was better than that at $35kg/cm^2$, and the lightness of breast muscle product at $70kg/cm^2$ and chipo was not significant as 16.7% and 16.4%, respectively. Dominant wavelength of product pressed at $70kg/cm^2$ was very similar to chipo which was yellowish orange. 10. In the results of sensory evaluation test containing taste, color, chewing texture and oder of the meat product, when index of chipo as control product was 100, index of breast meat product was higher than that as 118.4, but miscellaneous product was 99.7 and thigh product was 96.2. 11. Summing up the results written above, the meat product utilizing two years old laying hen was compared favorably with its similar food such as chipo on the point of nutrition and physical properties as high protein food, therefore, it was thought that industrialization must be highly appropriate.

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