• Title, Summary, Keyword: physical and sensory properties

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Desired Textures of Food Analogs and Methods of Measuring Their Textural Properties (대용 식품의 텍스츄어 특성 및 그의 측정 방법)

  • Bourne, Malcolm C.
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.168-180
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    • 1975
  • Analogs and extenders should have mouthfeel and chewing characteristics that are similar to the food they are replacing or extending. Instrumental methods can measure some of the physical properties that constitute 'texture' but only sensory methods can provide a complete description and quantification of the textural properties of a food. Instrumental methods and sensory methods for measuring texture are reviewed.

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Physical and Sensory Properties of Low Fat Sausage Amended with Hydrated Oatmeal and Various Meats

  • Yang, Han-Sul;Kim, Gap-Don;Choi, Sung-Gil;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2010
  • Low-fat sausages were prepared with various meats to investigate the effect of the addition of oatmeal at 10% as a fat substitute. The sausages were made with beef, pork and chicken after trimming the visible fat, and the physical and sensory properties of the sausages were evaluated. Beef sausage had the lowest cooking yield and the highest hardness, while chicken sausage showed the opposite properties. The addition of oatmeal resulted in sausage products with less cooking loss and softer texture for all types of meat sausages. Such changes were more pronounced for beef low-fat sausage than for the other types of sausages. The results of moisture absorption suggested that the difference in cooking yield and hardness among sausage products was due to the water-retention properties of different meats and the substitute in response to heat treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability of the sausage products were obtained from 10% oatmeal-added pork sausage and that the addition of oatmeal led to better acceptability for all types meat sausages.

Physical and Sensory Properties of Rice Gruels and Cakes Containing Different Levels of Ginkgo Nut Powder (은행 분말을 첨가한 죽 및 떡의 물리적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Kim, Jung-Mi;Suh, Dong-Soon;Kim, Young-Suk;Kim, Kwang-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 2004
  • Effects of ginkgo nut powder content on physical and sensory properties, and consumer acceptability of ginkgo nut gruel and cake were examined. In ginkgo nut gruel, greenness and consistency decreased, and sensory color intensity and ginkgo nut flavor increased with increasing ginkgo nut powder content. Consumer acceptability test indicated ginkgo nut powder : rice flour ratio at 4 : 6 had the highest overall and flavor acceptabilities. In ginkgo nut rice cakes, as ginkgo nut powder content increased, greenness, adhesiveness, sensory hardness, and cohesiveness of mass decreased, while sensory color intensity, ginkgo nut flavor, and chalkiness increased. Ginkgo nut cake with ginkgo nut powder : rice flour ratio at 16 : 84 had highest overall acceptability.

Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content, Physical and Sensory Properties of Tarakjuk (Milk-Rice Porridge) with Different Amylose Content (아밀로즈 함량별 타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량, 물리적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Lee, Gui-Chu;Kim, Jung-Eun;Kim, Yoon-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2006
  • Tarakjuk with different amylose content was made up using roasted rice flours that consisted of the highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also utilized to measure the gelatinization temperature of these roasted rice flours in order to establish cooking temperature of tarakjuk. The following qualities of tarakjuk with different amylose content were studied: color, viscosity, spreadability, starch fractions involving total starch (TS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and RS, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) and sensory properties. During experimentation, it was found that as the amylose content of the rice flour decreased, the L value of tarakjuk decreased, whereas a value increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, while viscosity showed to increase significantly (p<0.05), on the opposite end, the property of spreadability decreased. TS ranged from $15.95{\sim}17.31%$, RDS $9.36{\sim}10.16%$, SDS $5.46{\sim}6.91%$ and RS $0.33{\sim}1.07%$, on a dry basis. Although the amylose content of rice flours decreased, IVSD increased, however showing no significant difference. When testing the sensory properties of tarakjuk, color and viscosity increased, whereas clumpiness decreased. Ilpum tarakjuk showed the highest score for nutty taste and overall acceptance levels. In fact a high correlation was shown between nutty taste and overall acceptance level (p<0.01), which leads one to believe that nutty taste is a prime factor that greatly influences overall acceptance. Furthermore, viscosity was positively correlated with both a and b values, however negatively correlated with L value (p<0.05). Moreover, roasted nutty taste and overall acceptance were positively correlated with a value (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, the above results suggest that tarakjuk could be made by choosing the appropriate rice flour based on the nutritional or sensory purpose.

Physical and sensory characteristics of butter sponge cakes prepared with soybean oil and hicook (기능성 식용유를 이용한 저열량 버터 스폰지 케잌의 제조)

  • 문수재;오혜숙;이명희
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 1995
  • The characteristics of sponge cakes prepared from various formulas having different types and levels of fat were examined through physical measurements and sensory evaluation. The physical properties of cake batters and cakes with hicook, that is, specific gravity and mixing characteristics of cake batters and volume of cakes, were similar to cakes with oil and added lecithin as emulsifier. Also in sensory evaluation the uniformity of air cell and moistness of cakes showed no significant differences in these samples. From this result, we concluded that lecithin is responsible for the characteristics of cakes with hicook. And hicook successfully replaced soybean oil in sponge cakes, and the fat content of cakes with hicook colud be reduced by 20% relative to cakes with soybean oils.

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Changes in Sensory and Physical Characteristics of Wanjajeon during Chill Storage for Hospital Cook/chill Foodservice System (병원급식에서 냉장저장급식제도를 위해 조리된 완자전의 냉장저장 중 관능적, 물성적 특성의 변화)

  • 김혜영;임양이;김우정
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.410-416
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    • 1997
  • Changes in sensory and physical characteristics of Wanjajeon (Korean pan fried meat balls) were investigated during chill storage for a hospital cook/chill foodservice system. Wanjajeon was cooked, stored at 2$^{\circ}C$ or 7$^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks, and reheated by using a microwave oven. The physical characteristics such as texture, color and organoleptic properties were measured. The chewiness of Wanjajeon increased during 4 weeks of storage at both temperatures. Reheating of stored Wanjajeon resulted in a significant increase in the hardness and chewiness. The redness (a value) was significantly increased, while the lightness and yellowness (L and b values) were changed slightly. Sensory evaluation showed that Wanjajeon was acceptable for up to 3 weeks of storage at 2$^{\circ}C$ and to 2 weeks at 7$^{\circ}C$. The sample stored at 2$^{\circ}C$ was more acceptable than that of 7$^{\circ}C$ storage through the whole period.

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Replacement of Sucrose with Other Sweetener in Sponge Cakes (대체 감미료를 사용한 Sponge Cake의 특성)

  • Choi, Young-Jin;Kim, Kwang-Ok
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 1990
  • The characteristics of sponge cakes containing sucrose or other sweeteners for diabetes mellitus patients were investigated through physical measurement and sensory evaluation. The results are as follows: The physical properties of cake batters and cakes with sweeteners were different from each other in viscosity, specific gravity, standing height, firmness, and springiness. from the result of sensory evaluation, it was shown that cakes containing sorbitol and fructose had high quality even though they were not as good as cake with sucrose. However, cakes with saccarine and stevioside showed much difference compared with cake with sucrose. The characteristics of sponge cake with combined sweeteners (sorbitol plus stevioside) were compairable to those of sucrose cake. There was little difference in specific gravity. The result of sensory evaluation indicated the combined use of both sweetenes could produce bette cakes than either stevioside or sorbitol. Practical utilization of this cake would be provided under the sensory evaluation on these cakes by diabetes mellitus patients.

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Relative Sweetness of Sucralose in a Cookie System and Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Low Calorie Cookies Containing Sucralose (수크랄로스의 상대당도 및 수크랄로스를 함유한 저열량 과자의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Mi-Young;Lee, Yun-Mi;Kim, Yang;Suh, Dong-Soon;Chung, Seo-Jin;Kim, Kwang-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.501-505
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to evaluate sensory properties of sugar cookie containing sucralose. Relative sweetness of sucralose to sucrose in a cookie system was examined with paired comparison tests and the result was applied to low calorie cookie preparation using polydextrose as a bulking agent. Physical and sensory properties and consumer acceptability of sugar cookies containing various levels of sucralose and polydextrose were evaluated. Relative sweetness of sucralose to sucrose was 700 times in sugar cookie. Instrumental hardness and fracturability increased as the levels of replacement with sucralose increased. Spread ratios of sugar cookies where sucrose was partially and totally replaced with sucralose and corresponding amount of polydextrose were higher than that with sucrose only. Intensities of bitter taste, salty taste, hardness and molar packing of sugar cookies where sucrose was entirely replaced with sucralose and polydextrose were higher than that those of the other cookies. Acceptability test indicated 75% replacement with sucralose and adequate amount of polydextrose can be used without harming overall, appearance and flavor acceptability while texture acceptability was slightly lower.

The Physical Characteristics of Chinese Hand-made and Machine-made Noodles (시중 중화면의 수타면과 기계면의 물리적 특성)

  • Kim, Sung-Su;Yoon, Jang-Ho;Lee, Seung-Ju
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2008
  • Both hand-made and machine-made Chinese noodles are popular in Korea. In this study, each type was evaluated in terms of its physical properties to rigorously determine for consumers which one has better qualities. The noodles were instrumentally measured for color, size, moisture content, density, viscoelasticity, and cutting force. The behaviors of the noodles were visually observed during cooking, and sensory evaluations were performed with the cooked noodles. The hand-made raw noodles were less dense, had higher moisture content, and generated more bubbles during cooking than the machine-made noodles. This indicated that the hand-made noodles contained more entrapped air, thereby resulting in the above physical characteristics. The change in noodle size after cooking was greater in the hand-made noodles, indicating that more entrapped air in expansion escaped during cooking and was replaced by water. The cutting force and viscoelasticity of the hand-made noodles were lower, and were controlled by viscous properties, respectively. These results agreed with the fact that the hand-made noodles had higher moisture content and lower density. In the sensory evaluation, the hand-made noodles presented lower hardness, but higher elasticity. It was inferred that the hand-made noodle dough underwent repeated processes of folding and extending, resulting in better developed of the gluten structure. Consequently, the hand-made noodles were determined to be different than the machine-made noodles in terms of instrumental measurements and sensory observations, suggesting that the hand-made noodles had superior textural properties.

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Quality Characteristics of Seolgiddeok added with Broccoli(Brassica oleracea var. italica Plen.) Powder (브로콜리 분말을 첨가한 설기떡의 품질 특성)

  • Cho, Kyung-Ryun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.229-237
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    • 2009
  • Physical, textural and sensory properties of Seolgiddeok prepared with different amounts of broccoli(Brassica oleracea var. italica Plen.) powder were investigated during 3 days of storage. Moisture content decreased gradually during storage and was less in broccoli powder-amended samples. The color L value decreased significantly with increasing broccoli powder, whereas both redness and yellowness increased. Texture analyses revealed that hardness, chewiness, gumminess, adhesiveness and fracturability of Seolgiddeok tended to decrease in proportion to the amount of broccoli powder in the formula. Seolgiddeok gelatinization was investigated using amylographing. Break down and setback were low in broccoli powder Seolgiddeok. Sensory evaluations revealed that, Seolgiddeok prepared with broccoli powder was superior in flavor, chewiness, softness to unamended samples. Seolgiddeok prepared with 3% broccoli powder showed the highest overall acceptability score. Use of broccoli powder in Seolgiddeok preparation improves sensory characteristics and delays retrogradation.