• Title/Summary/Keyword: phosphoric acid

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A Study on Low Temperature Properties of Kaolin-Phosphate-Water Systems (카올린-인산염-물계의 저온 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 박금길;박근원
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 1981
  • This study deals with the low temperature ($25^{\circ}C$-$600^{\circ}C$) properties of Kaolin-Phosphate-water systems. Phosphoric acid, mono aluminum phosphate, mono ammonium phosphate, the mixture of phosphoric acid and mono aluminum phosphate, and the mixture of phosphoric acid and mono ammonium phosphate were used to characterize the M.O.R. of the systems with to quantity of phosphates, curing time, and firing temperature. Firing shrinkage, viscosity, surface tension, DTA, TGA, and X-ray diffraction patterns were also measured in order to investigated the factors of strengthening. The results of this study were summarized as follows: 1. The M.O.R. of kaolin-phosphate systems were stronger than that of Kaolin-water system at room temperature or low temperature($25^{\circ}C$-$600^{\circ}C$). Though it was increased according to the longer curing time, the higher temperature, and the more addition of phosphate, the M.O.R. were decreased in the case of 10 wt% phosphate addition in the system of phosphoric acid, mono aluminum phosphate and phosphoric acid-mono aluminum phosphate. 2. When the concentration of Phosphate was at 4 wt%, the M.O.R. of specimen cured at $25^{\circ}C$ and added to the phosphoric acid was strongest among the specimens in added to the others phosphates. Whereas, when the concentration of phosphate was above 6wt%, the M.O.R. of specimen cured at $25^{\circ}C$ and added to the phosphoric acid mono ammonium phosphate system cured at $25^{\circ}C$ was the strongest. 3. The M.O.R. of the specimen heated, in the temperature range of 15$0^{\circ}C$-1$600^{\circ}C$, and added to the mixture of phosphoric acid-mono aluminum phosphate system or phosphoric acid-mono ammonium phosphate system was stronger than that of specimen added to Phosphoric acid, mono-aluminum Phosphate or mono-ammonium phosphate alone. 4. The bonding force of phosphate binders was more closely related to surface tension than viscosity and it tended to be inversely proportional to surface tension. The bonding force after heating treatment seemed to be caused by the change of structure of phosphate according to heating.

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An Intelligent Simulation of a Phosphoric Acid Plant (인산제조공정의 모사연구)

  • 여영구
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.167-178
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    • 1994
  • For the identification of the optimal operating conditions of phosphoric acid plant, an intelligent simulation was performed based on the dissolution reaction of phosphate rock. A phosphoric acid plant consists of three main processes : ball-mill grinding process, rock reaction process and slurry filteration process. The grinding and filteration processes are relatively simple processes and most of the simulation works are on the reaction process. The practical operation data of phosphoric acid plant at Namhae Chemical Corp. were utilized in the simulation. The operation of the phosphoric acid plant is highly dependent on the heuristics of operators and so the expert system technology was employed. The operation of phosphoric acid plant varies with the origin of phosphate rock. Results of the simulation showed the optimal values of major process variables and optimal operating conditions. The knowledgebase for the expert system was constructed based on the interview with the experienced plant operators.

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Hardening Properties of Activated Calcium Dialuminate Clinker with Phosphoric Acid Solution

  • Song, Tae-Woong;Kim, Sei-Gi
    • The Korean Journal of Ceramics
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.235-238
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    • 1997
  • Basic properties of new cement pastes based on the system $CaO-Al_2O_3-P_O_5-H_2O$were studied Phosphoric acid solutions and calcium dialuminate clinkers synthesized by the hydration-burning method were used for liquid and powder components of the paste, respectively Variation in the compositions of the paste was achieved by changing the liquid/powder ratio and the concentration of phosphoric acid solution. The hardening rate of the paste was so largely affected by the amount of phosphoric acid that hardening was inhibited with the low-concentrated solution but was explosively accelerated with the high-concentrated solution. The phosphoric acid solutions of concentration of 45~50% and the liquid/powder ratio of 0.5~1.5 were favoured for the high early-strength cement paste with the reasonable hardening rate and high strength. The binding phase of hardened paste was the dense amorphous gel of the system $CaO-Al_2O_3-P_O_5-H_2O$. in which the unreacted calcium dialuminate grains were embeded.

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Growth Characteristics and Removal Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphoric Acid of Iris pseudoacorus at Waterway Soils of Mangyeong River (만경강 하천토양에서 노랑꽃창포의 생장특성과 질소·인 제거효과)

  • Seo, Byungsoo;Choi, Sumin;Park, Woojin;Park, Chongmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to measure the growth and photosynthesis of Iris pseudoacorus, the reduction rate of nitrogen(T-N) and phosphoric acid($P_2O_5$) from soils, and the increase rate of two substance into plants which cultivated at waterway soils of different concentration of two substance. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The contents of nitrogen and phosphoric acid at waterway soils of Mangyeong river showed the highest level in the around Samrye railway bridge where was located in the downstream and sewage of stock raising flowed in 2. The Iris pseudoacorus which cultivated at waterway soils showed the leaf and root growth of 43~50 and 9~13cm, respectively. And the growth was higher in the waterway soils contained high level of nitrogen The rate of photosynthesis was $3.5-5.9{\mu}mol\;m^{-2}s^{-1}$ ranges and this rate increased from the end of June to August and then decreased. The rate of photosynthesis was higher in waterway soils contained high nitrogen regardless of seasons. 4. The Iris pseudoacorus removed nitrogen and phosphoric acid from waterway soils about 19~21% and 13~15%, respectively. The Iris pseudoacorus was effective to remove nitrogen more than phosphoric acid. And the waterway soil which included high concentration of two substance showed highly removal 5. The results of Iris pseudoacorus vegetation in the waterway soils showed that nitrogen and phosphoric acid of inside plant increased with 0.2-1.0% and 0.01-0.10% ranges, respectively. The contents of nitrogen and phosphoric acid in plants were increase in the soils of higher contents of nitrogen and phosphoric acid, and the rate of increase of nitrogen and phosphoric acid was higher at roots than leaves.

Purification of Crude Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction (용매추출법(溶媒抽出法)을 이용(利用)한 조인산(粗燐酸) 정제(精製))

  • Yoon, Yu-Mi;Shin, Chang-Hoon;Kim, Ju-Yup;Kim, Hyun-Sang;Ahn, Jae-Woo
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.40-44
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    • 2005
  • The purified phosphoric acid was recovered from crude phosphoric acid with high contents of aluminium and molybdenum ions to reuse the acid as an etchant. In this work, solvent extraction was applied to recover the phosphoric acid from crude phosphoric acid. Phosphate was used as an extractant. Further cleaning and removing processes on the recovered phosphoric acid were conducted to eliminate the metallic ion impurities in the acid. The process parameters were successfully optimized, so that the finally purified acid contained less than 1 ppm of aluminium and molybdenum ion.

HISTOCHEMICAL PHOSPHORIC ACID REACTION ON AMELOGENESIS OF WHITE RAT APPLIED WITH PYRIDOXINE (Pyridoxine 투여한 백서법랑질형성에 있어 조직화학적 인산반응에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Sick
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.209-212
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    • 1972
  • The effect of pyridoxine on the incisors were histochemically studied for the purpose of identifying the phosphoric acid. The microscopic observations were carried out by means of phosphoric acid reaction(Serraet Queiroz-Lopes method), mucoprotein reaction (Clara method), periodic acid-Schiff reaction (McManus method), methylen blue stain and hematoxylin-eosin stain. In the experimental result, it was found that phosphoric acid reactions of ameloblast, Tomes' process and preenamel were remarkably increased after pyridoxine administration.

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Preparation and Characterization of PSF Membranes by Phosphoric Acid and 2-Butoxyethanol (인산 및 2-부톡시에탄올 첨가에 의한 PSF 고분자 분리막의 제조 및 특성)

  • Kim, Nowon
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.178-190
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    • 2012
  • Flat sheet membranes were prepared with polysulfone (PSF) by an immersion precipitation phase inversion method. Membranes were prepared with PSF/N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/phosphoric acid casting solution and water coagulant. By using the successive process of the vapor-induced phase inversion (VIPS) followed by the nonsolvent-induced phase inversion (NIPS), the effect of phosphoric acid addition to casting solution on morphology and permeability of membrane was studied. The mean pore size, the porosity, and the water flux of membranes were increased by the addition of small amount of phosphoric acid. Furthermore, the morphology of the prepared membranes were changed from a dense sponge-like structure to highly enhanced asymmetric structure. PSF/NMP/PVP/phosphoric acid/2-butoxyethanol (BE) casting solution were prepared and cast the successive VIPS-NIPS process with same experimental condition. Due to the addition of BE to casting solution, the mean pore size and almost 0.1 ${\mu}m$ and the water flux increased about 10 to 12 $L/cm^2{\cdot}min{\cdot}bar$.

Preparation and Characterization of Microfiltration Membranes for Water Treatment (수처리용 정밀여과 멤브레인의 제조 및 특성 연구)

  • Jung, Boram;Kim, Nowon
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.50-62
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    • 2014
  • An asymmetric microfiltration membranes were prepared with polysulfone by an immersion precipitation phase inversion method. Microfiltration membranes were prepared by polysulfone/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/phosphoric acid casting solution and water coagulant. The vapor induced phase inversion method was used to prepare the membranes. The pore size and the morphology were changed by the phosphoric acid additive, the temperature of casting plate and the exposure time at the relative humidity of 74%. The morphology of membranes was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and microflow permporometer. By the addition of the phosphoric acid additive in the casting solution, the morphology of the prepared membranes were changed from a dense sponge structure to a loose asymmetric sponge structure. Due to the addition of catalytic amount of phosphoric acid to NMP casting solution, the mean pore size increased almost $0.2{\mu}m$ and the water flux increased about 3,000 LMH. The temperature of casting plate and exposure time had a apparent effect on the skin layer structure and the pore size and the porosity of the membrane.

MORPHOLOGIC CHANGE OF DENTIN SURFACE ACCORDING TO THE DIFFERENCE IN CONCENTRATION AND APPLICATION TIME OF PHOSPHORIC ACID (인산용액의 농도 및 적용시간 차이에 따른 상아질 표면의 형태적 변화)

  • Kim, Myeong-Su;Ohn, Young-Seok;Lee, Kwang-Won;Son, Ho-Hyun
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.141-161
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    • 1998
  • The depth and patterns of demineralization according to the difference in concentration and application time of phosphoric acid were observed through the transmission electron microscope, and shear bond strengths to the acid -conditioned dentin were then measured and compared with the TEM results. To investigate the influence of polymer addition into the phosphoric acid and the effect of difference in concentration and application time of the acid, the specimens were randomly divided into 9 groups. Among the specimens, the exposed dentin surfaces were acid-conditioned with 10% polymer-thickened phosphoric acid(All Bond 2, Bisco, U.S.A.) and aqueous 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% phosphoric acid for 20 seconds, The rest of the specimens were acid-conditioned with 10% phosphoric acid for 15s, 30s, 60s, 120s respectively. The specimens were immersed in 4% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M sodium cacodylate buffer and postfixed with 1 % osmium tetroxide without decalcification and then observed under a JEOL Transmission Electron Microscope(JEM 1200 EX II, Japan). After the specimens were acid-conditioned as the above, primer and adhesive resin were applied to blot-dried dentin and shear bond strengths were then measured and analysed. The results were as follows : 1. The intertubular demineralization depth of 4.0-$5.0{\mu}m$ in 10% polymer-thickened phosphoric acid gels was similar or slightly deeper than that of 4.0-$4.5{\mu}m$ in aqueous 10% phosphoric acid solution. 2. The intertubular demineralization depth of aqueous 20%, 30% and 40% phosphoric acid solution was 6.5-$7.0{\mu}m$, 6.5-$7.5{\mu}m$ and 9.0-$15.0{\mu}m$ respectively. It showed that the depth of dentin demineralization is partly related to the concentration of phosphoric acid solution. 3. The intertubular demineralization depth of aqueous 10% phosphoric acid solution in application time for 15s, 30s, 60s and 120s was 2.5-$3.0{\mu}m$, 4.0-$6.0{\mu}m$, 6.5-$7.0{\mu}m$ and 8.5-$14.0{\mu}m$ respectively. It showed that the depth of dentin demineralization is directly related to the application time of phosphoric acid solution. 4. The partially demineralized dentin layer between demineralized collagen layer and unaffected dentin was showed to a width of 0.5-$1.0{\mu}m$ in lower concentration groups treated with aqueous 10% phosphoric acid for 20s, 60s, 120s and 20% phosphoric acid for 20s. 5. The demineralization effect at the border of intertubular-peritubular junction was less evident than that in the peritubular and intertubular dentin. The collagen fibers in the intertubular dentin had a random orientation, whereas those that lined the tubules were circumferentially aligned. The cross-linkage of dentinal collagen in demineralized collagen layer was clearly seen. 6. A statistically significant difference of bond strengths according to the difference in phosphoric acid concentration did not exist among the groups treated with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% acid solution (P>0.05). However, bond strengths to the treated dentin with 10% phosphoric acid solution for 30s were significantly higher than that for 120s (P<0.05).

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A Study on Pattern Formation of Ultra Definition Display Panel Applying Phosphoric Acid (인산을 적용한 Ultra Definition 디스플레이 패널의 패턴 형성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Su;Cho, Ur Ryong
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2014
  • Phosphoric acid was used as etching agent instead of conventional peroxide - based chemicals for forming pattern of ultra definition display. Etchant was synthesized by mixing etching agent, oxidation agent, buffer solution, and additive into solvent, deionized water. Thicknesses of copper, main metal of ultra definition display, for etching, were 10,000 and $30,000{{\AA}}$. Etch stop of good low skew for proper pattern formation has been occurred at the content ratio of phosphoric acid 60 - 64%, nitric acid 4 - 5%, additive(potassium acetate) 1 - 3%. Buffer solution(acetic acid) decreased the metal contact angle $63.07^{\circ}$ to $42.49^{\circ}$ for benefiting pattern formation. Content variations on four components (phosphoric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid, potassium acetic acid) of the etchant with storage time were within 3 wt% after 24 hrs of etching work.