• Title, Summary, Keyword: period change

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Tests for the Structure Change and Asymmetry of Price Volatility in Farming Olive Flounder (양식 넙치가격 변동성의 구조변화와 비대칭성 검증)

  • Kang, Seok-Kyu
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2014
  • This study is to analyse the timing of the structural change of price volatility and the asymmetry of price volatility during the period before and after the timing of the structural change of price volatility using Jeju Farming Olive Flounder's production area market price data from January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2013. The analysis methods of Quandt-Andrews break point test and Threshold GARCH model are employed. The empirical results of this study are summarized as follows: First, the result of Quandt-Andrews break point test shows that a single structural change in price volatility occurred on May 4, 2010 over the sample period. Second, during the period before structural change, daily price change rate has averagely positive value which means price increase, but during the period after structural change daily price change rate has averagely negative value which means price decrease. Also, daily volatility of price change rate during the period before structural change is higher than during the period after structural change. This indicates that price volatility decreases after structural change. Third, the estimation results of Threshold GARCH Model show that the volatility response against price increase is larger during the period after structural change than during the period before structural change. Also the result shows the volatility response against price decrease is larger during the period after structural change than during the period before structural change. And, irrespective of the timing of structural change, price increase has an larger effect on volatility than price decrease. This means volatility is asymmetric at price increase.

A study on the change of forms the composition elements of pyeonbokpo (men's coat) excavated in the tombs of the 15th-18th century (1) - Focused on collar and seop - (15~18세기 출토복식 편복포 구성요소의 형태변화 연구 (1) - 깃과 겉섶을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jung-Ae;Lee, Dong-A
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.27-42
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    • 2019
  • This paper tried a detailed approach to identify the correlation among basic elements that influenced the change of forms of the Po. To this end, the subjects were limited to the clothing from the 15th to the 18th century, which was found in the tombs of the period of Pyeonbokpo. The total number of excavated artifacts measured directly is 6 and other correctly described excavated artifacts for a total of 54 items. Per period and element, the types of collars and Seop were presented by classifying collars in 4 types, and Seop in 3 types. On the basis of the classification, the relics selected in this paper were analyzed considering the appearance, period, and rate per type of each element. The type and the change of forms of each element per period, with the focus on the appearance, were identified and the factors influencing the change of forms per element and the correlation between such factors were investigated. The representative type in the first period included dual collars, dual Seop and the representative type in the second period was characterized by a shawl collar and a dual Seop joining the pieces. The representative type in the third period was characterized by round collars and a short Seop. The elements determining the forms of Po, including collars and Seop, had a correlation to the lapse of time and had been systematically influencing each other. Furthermore, the overall change of form was caused due to the social functions as well as the supplementary function of keeping balance among the elements and accordingly, the change of forms was think characterized per period.

A Study on the Incroyables and Merveilleuses Costume after the French Revolution (프랑스혁명 이후의 Incroyables와 Merveilleuses 복식에 대한 연구)

  • 이유경
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.429-440
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    • 2004
  • The age after the French Revolution was the period of experiment and change in dress for both men and women. Directly after the close of the Reign of Terror, Directoire(1795-1799) became the extreme fashion known as incroyables and merveilleuses which mean 'impossible' or 'unimaginable'. This study aimed to investigate the sociocultural phenomena which affect to clothing change through the French Revolution period and clothing analysis of incroyables and merveillues. Furthermore, this study will contribute to establishing the theory of clothing culture and help predicting clothing change in accordance with social circumstances. Incroyables and merveilleuses represent extreme opposites in sleekness of attire and grooming. Incroyables required an unkempt, wrinkled appearance and a contrived carelessness. Merveilleuseses show the exaggerated transparency and simplicity in the fashions of female. Also, they devoted to the worship of the antique and the masculine fashions. This fashion madness appeared as the result of revolutionary social change. Their costume showed characteristics of the transition period between French Revolution and Classic period. However, they simply carried existing tendencies to the point of caricature by an enthusiastic overstatement.

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Is it suitable to Use Rainfall Runoff Model with Observed Data for Climate Change Impact Assessment? (관측자료로 추정한 강우유출모형을 기후변화 영향평가에 그대로 활용하여도 되는가?)

  • Poudel, Niroj;Kim, Young-Oh;Kim, Cho-Rong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.252-252
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    • 2011
  • Rainfall-runoff models are calibrated and validated by using a same data set such as observations. The past climate change effects the present rainfall pattern and also will effect on the future. To predict rainfall-runoff more preciously we have to consider the climate change pattern in the past, present and the future time. Thus, in this study, the climate change represents changes in mean precipitation and standard deviation in different patterns. In some river basins, there is no enough length of data for the analysis. Therefore, we have to generate the synthetic data using proper distribution for calculation of precipitation based on the observed data. In this study, Kajiyama model is used to analyze the runoff in the dry and the wet period, separately. Mean and standard deviation are used for generating precipitation from the gamma distribution. Twenty hypothetical scenarios are considered to show the climate change conditions. The mean precipitation are changed by -20%, -10%, 0%, +10% and +20% for the data generation with keeping the standard deviation constant in the wet and the dry period respectively. Similarly, the standard deviations of precipitation are changed by -20%, -10%, 0%, +10% and +20% keeping the mean value of precipitation constant for the wet and the dry period sequentially. In the wet period, when the standard deviation value varies then the mean NSE ratio is more fluctuate rather than the dry period. On the other hand, the mean NSE ratio in some extent is more fluctuate in the wet period and sometimes in the dry period, if the mean value of precipitation varies while keeping the standard deviation constant.

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Characteristics of Climate Change in Sowing Period of Winter Crops (최근 동계작물의 파종기간 동안 기후변화 특징)

  • Shim, Kyo Moon;Kim, Yong Seok;Jeong, Myung Pyo;Choi, In Tae
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to provide the agricultural climatological basic data for the reset of sowing period of the winter crop on the double cropping system with rice. During the past 30 years from 1981 to 2010, mean air temperature has risen by $0.45^{\circ}C$ per 10 years (with statistical significance), while precipitation has decreased by 6.74 mm per 10 years and the numbers of days for precipitation has reduced by 0.23 days per 10 years (with no statistical significance) in the sowing period ($1^{st}$ Oct. to $5^{th}$ Nov.) of winter crop. It was analyzed that double cropping system of rice and winter crops need to be reset in the way of delaying the sowing time of winter crops, because rising trend of temperature was clear while variability of precipitation was great and the trend was not clear in the sowing period of winter crops. We have also analyzed the meteorological features of the sowing period of winter crops in 2014, and found that mean air temperature in 2014 was higher than that in normal years (similar to recent temperature change feature) while precipitation in 2014 was much more frequent than that in normal years (unlike recent precipitation features). Such tendency in 2014 made the sowing of winter crops difficult because mechanical sowing could not be worked in flooded paddy fields. Heavy rain in October 2014 was also analyzed as a rare phenomenon.

A Meta-Analysis of the Ventilator Circuit Change Period on Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (인공호흡기 회로 교환주기가 인공호흡기 관련 폐렴에 미치는 영향에 관한 메타 분석)

  • Song, Ju Hyun;Kim, Kyung Hee
    • Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.111-121
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This meta-analysis was aimed to investigate the evidence of proper period of the ventilator circuit change using existing research. Methods: For this study, 14 published studies between 1995 and 2010 were tested by Macaskill, Funnel Plot, the Odds Ratio of DerSimonian and Laird, Fisher and Liptak analysis. Results: There were no publication bias found in the subjects. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated no statistically significant differences were observed in neither the Odds Ratio (OR=1.18, 95% CI=0.94-1.47) of the frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia and the mortality based on the period of the ventilator circuit change (Fisher p=.332, Liptak p=.498), nor the ventilation duration of ventilator (Fisher p=.843, Liptak p=.506), and the hospital length of stay (Fisher p=.254, Liptak p=.480). Conclusion: In order to present more concrete guidelines on the period of the ventilator circuit change, further research is warranted to thoroughly control confounding variables which related to the periods of the ventilator circuit change.

Determinants and Processes of Morphological Transformation of Apartment Complexes in Busan (부산 아파트 단지 배치형태 변화의 요인과 과정에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sangjin;Park, SoHyu
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.91-102
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    • 2019
  • This study explores the causes and processes of morphological transformation of apartment complexes in Busan. All apartment complexes built until the year 2016 were selected for statistical analysis, drawing/map examination, field observation, selected expert interviews based on 6 periodical groups: Period I(~1990), Period II(1991~1995), Period III(1996~2000), Period IV(2001~2005), Period V(2006~2010), and Period VI(2011~2016). The research argues for three 'arrangement' types, P1U, L1U and P2U, which have dominated the whole periods occupying 88% of the total 260 complexes. The switch of the leading type represents for morphological transformation of apartment complexes. Four aspects, density(F.A.R.), height(maximum number of floors), deformed-building-type ratio, and building-orientation, have affected the change of 'arrangement' types. Density was the major cause of the arrangement-type switch, from P1U to L1U, on Period II(1991~1995). The morphological change, from type L1U to P2U, on Period V(2006~2010) was caused by height and orientation, and is correlated with the increased number of deformed-type buildings. The first phase morphological change on Period II(1991~1995) was resulted by the supply side of apartment. However, the second phase transformation on Period V(2006~2010) had gone through the complex process including reflection of consumers' demands. The significance of research is to reveal the morphological transformation process of apartment complexes through analytical investigation of the entire apartment data in Busan. The result shows that the major change of urban paysage started to occur from Period V(2006~2010), and the superficial evaluation on apartment 'being monotonous and repetitive' may not be proper at least from the perspective of town plan.

Effect of Three Different Species of Hay on Dry-matter Intake and Serum Cortisol of Ewes

  • Sekine, J.;Abdel-Rahman, Mootaz A.M.;Ismail, A.El-Moez A.;Dosoky, R.M.;Kamel, H.E.M.;Hishinuma, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1297-1302
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    • 2003
  • To determine whether the feeding of different species of hay affects the dry-matter intake and the serum cortisol level of sheep, 6 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes were offered alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay (Al), oats (Avena sativa) hay (Ot) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) hay (Pr) under 6 kinds of treatment including 1) change from Al to Ot, 2) Al to Pr, 3) Ot to Al, 4) Ot to Pr, 5) Pr to Al, and 6) Pr to Ot. The experimental design was a 6${\times}$6 Latin square with a 14 day period of which 9 days were a preliminary period and 5 days as a digestion trial period. The change in hay feeding was done abruptly on the first day of each period without an adaptation period. The blood from the jugular vein was collected on the first, third and the last day of each period through a sterile catheter for the analysis of cortisol. The dry-matter intake was recorded daily throughout the period. The mean daily intake of dry matter (DM, g/kg live weight) was significantly different among the 3 species of hay (Al>Ot>Pr; p<0.05). The digestibility of DM for Al and Ot was the same, but that for Pr was significantly lower than Al and Ot (p<0.05). The mean serum cortisol levels were significantly different among the hays (p<0.05). The level for Pr was the highest and that for Al was the lowest. The abrupt change of hay feeding of 6 treatments produced a significant change in the serum cortisol levels. The DM intake was inversely related to the change of the cortisol level. It is suggested that the animal' intake response to different species of hay may be partly motivated by the psychological feelings toward the hay offered.

On the Period Change of the Contact Binary GW Cephei

  • Kim, Chun-Hwey;Song, Mi-Hwa;Yoon, Joh-Na;Jeong, Jang-Hae;Jeoung, Taek-Soo;Kim, Young-Jae;Kim, Jung-Yeb
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2010
  • BVR CCD observations of GW Cep were made on 15 nights in November through December 2008 with a 1-m reflector at the Jincheon station of the Chungbuk National University Observatory. Nineteen new times of minimum lights for GW Cep were determined and added to a collection of all other times of minima available to us. These data were then intensively analyzed, by reference to an O-C diagram, to deduce the general form of period variation for GW Cep. It was found that the O-C diagram could be interpreted as presenting two different forms of period change: an exclusively quasi-sinusoidal change with a period of 32.6 years and an eccentricity of 0.10; and a quasi-sinusoidal change with a period of 46.2 years and an eccentricity of 0.36 superposed on an upward parabola. Although a final conclusion is somewhat premature at present, the latter seems more plausible because late-type contact binaries allow an inter-exchange of both energy and mass between the component stars. The quasi-sinusoidal characteristics were interpreted in terms of a light-time effect due to an unseen tertiary component. The minimum masses of the tertiary component for both cases were calculated to be nearly the same as the $0.23-0.26M\;{\odot}$-ranges which is hardly detectable in a light curve synthesis. The upward parabolic O-C diagram corresponding to a secular period increase of about $4.12{\times}10^{-8}\;d/yr$ was interpreted as mass being transferred from the lesser to more massive component. The transfer rate for a conservative case was calculated to be about $2.66\;{\times}\;10^{-8}\;M_{\odot}/yr$ which is compatible with other W UMa-type contact binaries.

A Study on Time & Change in Contemporary Space Design -Their Perceptual.Cognitive Bases and Alfordances on Human Behavior- (현대 공간디자인에 입어 시간성과 변화 - 지각 . 인지적 기제 및 행태지원성을 중심으로 -)

  • 이정민;임진이
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • no.41
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    • pp.246-255
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    • 2003
  • All art forms are the results of the artist's response to the philosophical, sociological, and cultural tendencies of the period in which the artist lives. Post-modern period differentiates itself from Modern period in many aspects. One of these is the emphasis on phenomena which are ephemeral and changing. This paper looks at the perceptive and cognitive bases of these expressions of change in space design and their affordances on human behavior The first chapter provides the purpose and the background of the research. It studies the philosophical, sociological and cultural characteristics of the Post-modern era which bring forth expressions of time & change in space design. The second chapter explains two basic approaches which can be applied to the perception and cognition of the environment. The third chapter deals with the perceptional and cognitive bases, and the human affordances of the expressions of change in space design. Finally this paper will analyze the types of space design which show this tendency : change by the technology, change by the participation of viewers, and change by the natural and chance. In each type, there will be analyses of examples. this will lead us to the understanding of how the space design including time & change expresses the spirit of the age and how it can play positive roles in human psychology.