Purpose - This study aims to examine different impacts of franchisor's leadership and franchisee's marketing efforts on franchisee dissatisfaction and switching intentions, and to investigate how franchisee dissatisfaction plays a mediating role in the relationship between these constructs. This study attempted to fill the gap in the literature by treating the franchisee dissatisfaction as a mediator in the relationship between these constructs, identify how franchisor's leadership and franchisee's marketing efforts have effects on franchisee dissatisfaction, in turn, reduce switching intentions, and provide the managerial implications for building a long-term relationship to achieve mutual goals between franchisors and franchisees Research design, data, and methodology - In order to test the hypotheses, the data were collected from franchisees in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The franchisee owners were informed about the purpose of this study by the trained interviewers. The respondents received a letter introducing the purpose of this study and another letter that the owners wrote to encourage their active participation. Among the 300 questionnaires distributed, 260 (86.7%) questionnaires were returned. Of those collected questionnaires, 6 uncompleted responses were excluded, and 254 questionnaires with an effective response rate of 84.7% were coded and analyzed using frequency, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlations analysis, and structural equation modeling with SPSS 21.0 and SmartPLS 3.0. Results - The findings of the study are as follows. First, franchisor leadership had a negative effect on franchisee dissatisfaction, but franchisee marketing efforts did not have a significant effect on franchisee dissatisfaction. Second, franchisee dissatisfaction had a positive effect on switching intentions. Third, franchisor leadership had a negative effect on switching intentions, but franchisee marketing efforts did not have a significant effect on switching intentions. Conclusions - This study researched the franchisor's leadership as a single factor of transformational leadership. Thus, it may have limits in measuring leadership. Future studies shall include emotional, loyal, and transactional leadership. In addition, the future studies shall also research the effect of franchisor's leadership and franchisees' marketing efforts on dissatisfaction and switching intentions. For example, the franchisor's relationship-oriented efforts can be a crucial parameter that reduces dissatisfaction and switching intentions.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of consumption of medicinal food and the intent to participate in medicinal food education by food-related lifestyle. A total of 264 samples were conveniently selected from students enrolled in culinary education at the Seoul Institute of Technology and Education from September 5, 2014 to September 20, 2014. The results were as follows. Factor analysis showed five factors in food-related lifestyle named as adventure-seeking factor, taste-seeking factor, health-seeking factor, convenience-seeking factor, and safety seeking factor. There were three factors in awareness of medicinal food named as health characteristic, negative perception, and intent to purchase. The cluster analysis showed five dimensions for food-related lifestyle named as convenience-seeking group, safety-seeking group, health & safety-seeking group, health-seeking group, and taste-seeking group. Among the demographic characteristics, there was a significant difference in age, cooking career, and households by food-related lifestyle group. Among intent to participate in education regarding medicinal food, there was a significant difference in medicinal food educational institution preferences by food-related lifestyle group. Among medicinal food awareness, there was a significant difference in negative perception by food-related lifestyle group.
Defamation lawsuits of public figures against media have been an issue since Roh government set in. Dissension between the government and media has probably acted as the key factor on this problem. Accordingly, arguments on the defamation lawsuits of public figures occurred the political issues such as opposition between the Progressive and the Conservative Parties or between the ins and the outs and showed the limits to suggest an appropriate judgment or solution. This study will analyze how the court makes its judgement on their rights and the limits by understanding the characteristic and the problem of defamation lawsuits made by senior government officials including a politician, the government, the president, and etc. As results, the defamation lawsuits of politicians and senior government officials showed specially noteworthy matters in salvation (damage suits), the amount claimed, court costs, ratio of winning lawsuits, and etc. The result on the tendency of the court decision showed the following matters in confusion: it holds the media responsible for the burden of proof by applying the inappropriate criterion; The applied laws, especially in the inferior court decision, do not show the consistency of the burden of proof between the misconception/ intention (malice)/ accident/ purpose of slander on the legal principles of public figures. Therefore, this study suggests the court to apply an appropriate law, let alone regulating the Anti-SLAPP law, so that it curtails the rights of public figures; limits the salvation of damage suit; and protects the right only in the case of false accusation by applying the existing law of "the Protection of the Deceased's Defamation Law." In order to dissolve the confusion when applying the laws on the public figures, the study insists the court to positively apply the Constitutional Court made criterion on "people" and "content." The study also insists to distinguish "intention(malice)," "accident," and "purpose of slander" and variant sorts of the burden of proof should be applied to each.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
The purpose of this study were to classify the Y/N in participating the urban farming and to analyze the intention in farm village experience tourism, reason to participate and non-participation, the positive image and negative image between the urbanite group experience in urban farming and the other group that does not experience it. Questionnaire was implemented to the metropolitan urbanite who visited exemplary field farmhouse and urban recreation space to analyze the comparison of groups that experience or do not experience urban farming. The result of this research is as follows: first, experiencing urban farming are relatively less in willingness to participate in the farm village tourism experience than those who do not experience it. Second, the largest reason to participate in farm village tourism experience is found to be the natural environment of farm village tourism experience that is different from that of the city and the effect on children's education. Third, most answers on the reason for not participating in farm village tourism experience is because of the busy daily life. Fourth, urbanite have positive image in general about farm village tourism experience. Especially, when the comparison between the groups was made, it was showed that the difference in understanding the crops growing and the natural environment difference in the city. Fifth, about the negative image on the farm village tourism experience, it showed the difference in understanding the unfamiliar scenery, shortage of eye catching and fun, and the necessity and cost between the groups. Consequently, this study may be significant in the recognition of the farm village tourism experience on urbanite were checked, it was revealed that Y/N experience in the urban farming made negative influence to the willing.
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
Objectives: Active participation of poultry breeder in surveillance system of Avian Influenza (AI) is very important. Therefore this study was conducted to present basis data for active report of AI that is affected by media's coverage in poultry breeder. Methods: Subjects were 88 persons, 28 who were poultry breeder at epidemic area of AI and 60 who were general person at non-epidemic area. Data were collected by the trained investigator from Jul. 1 to Aug. 31, 2008. Respondents were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. Results: The third-person effect among perceptions of influence in media's report on the AI was higher in breeder (32.1%) than in non-breeder (10.0%). However, Confidence to media report on the AI was lower in breeder than in non-breeder. Intention to report of the AI was 71.4% in breeder respectively, was 90.0% in non-breeder. There was statistically significant lower in breeder than non-breeder. The cause of avoidance of report was 'economic damage' for 87.5%, which acocounted for the majority of cases. Confidence to media report on the AI were positively correlated with concern on the AI and perception on seriousness of the AI, but negatively correlated with the third-person effect. Conclusions: These results showed that intention to report of the AI of breeder was susceptible to influenced by the third person effect and confidence in media's report on the AI. Therefore we should give a special attention to increase active report of poultry breeder during epidemic period of AI which is consideration of reasonable strategy of media's coverage, including mind and emotion state of poultry breeder.
This study was performed to obtain data about dental health to develop childrens' dental health education program. This research surved from from 22 July 2008 to 11 August 2008 and questionaire given to 140 teacher from Gwangsan-gu and Buk-gu and Dong-gu in Gwangju city. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 program. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The dental health condition which teacher is recognizing is most with the facility 52.9% which is healthy, one day toothbrush qualitative number of times 3 times 67.1% and the dental floss qualitative number of times is 49.3%. Uses most the oral hygiene device which plentifully is 51.4% with the dental gargle solution, the dental problem which is knowing dental caries with 45.7% to be highest, perception dental sensitivity was 30.7%. 2. Periodical dental prosecuting says that 93.6% is executing, also the case which a dental inspection result in the parents notifies was 78.6%, after notifying treat, the case which confirms was 60.7%. The case which is the toothbrush qualitative time which is systematic was 95.0%, about dental healthily and food the case which executes an education was 93.6%. 3. About educational background by infantile dental health care of teacher with recognition currently the effectiveness of dental health care is higher from below junior college graduating (p < 0.05). dental hygienic relation experience event participation intention (p < 0.01) comes from the above of university graduation from infantile dental health care from important degree of teacher role was higher the junior college graduation group (p < 0.05). 4. Recognition there was not a difference which is beneficial with an educational background by about career by infantile dental health care of teacher. For the buccal cavity hygiene management of the infants thinks with the fact that also the development of the curricular material and the educational program and teacher buccal cavity hygiene education will be necessary.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
The study was conducted to compare and analyze the importance and performance of leisure destination selection attributes of persons who use recreational forests and rural tourism villages. This researcher investigated the use patterns of users to identify the ground for connection between recreational forest and rural tourism village, analyzed their recognition differences in physical selection attribute, program selection attribute, and service selection attribute in order for leisure destination selection, and conducted importance-performance analysis(IPA analysis) to draw a plan for connection. The main results and suggestions are presented as follows. First, recreational forests were visited by family users in order for rest and emotional cultivation and provided experience programs using simple public interest function of forest, whereas rural tourism villages were visited by family users, friends and co-workers, groups and club members to experience a variety of annual programs and understand regional cultures. It was found that it was necessary to connect natural forest with rural tourism village in order to meet the leisure needs of the people changed in diversified ways. Secondly, it was found that the connection between rural tourism village and recreational forest visited mainly for simple rest led to positive visit intention of users. It was expected that there will be various kinds of uses, including experience program participation, child education, and safe accommodations security. In other words, the connection between recreational forest and rural tourism village is an alternative to trigger actual demands and recreational forest activities with high quality. Thirdly, in the case of users of recreational forests, their performance of all selection attributes was lower than their importance of them. Therefore, overall improvements were needed. In particular, needed were the diversity, benefit, and promotion of programs, improvements in locality(themes), supply of lodges and convenient facilities, booking system, the purchase system of local special products, and professional skills of operators and managers. On contrary, the performance of program selection attribute of rural tourism village was high. Therefore, it was found that program attribute of rural tourism village was the main connection factor to activate recreational forest use. Fourthly, according to IPA analysis, the proper connections between loges, convenient facilities, and nearby touristattractions, which give high expectations and satisfaction to users, needed to remain. And it was required to make common efforts to accomplish the goal (income creation) of rural tourism village and improve booking system for visitors and performance of local special products sales opportunity. In addition, the essential factors to induce users' leisure destination selection were found to be maintenance of the use fee system of recreational forest, diversity of rural tourism village program, and retention of locality.
With the everyday use of the Internet and the spread of various smart devices, users have been able to communicate in real time and the existing communication style has changed. Due to the change of the information subject by the Internet, data became more massive and caused the very large information called big data. These Big Data are seen as a new opportunity to understand social issues. In particular, text mining explores patterns using unstructured text data to find meaningful information. Since text data exists in various places such as newspaper, book, and web, the amount of data is very diverse and large, so it is suitable for understanding social reality. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of attempts to analyze texts from web such as SNS and blogs where the public can communicate freely. It is recognized as a useful method to grasp public opinion immediately so it can be used for political, social and cultural issue research. Text mining has received much attention in order to investigate the public's reputation for candidates, and to predict the voting rate instead of the polling. This is because many people question the credibility of the survey. Also, People tend to refuse or reveal their real intention when they are asked to respond to the poll. This study collected comments from the largest Internet portal site in Korea and conducted research on the 19th Korean presidential election in 2017. We collected 226,447 comments from April 29, 2017 to May 7, 2017, which includes the prohibition period of public opinion polls just prior to the presidential election day. We analyzed frequencies, associative emotional words, topic emotions, and candidate voting rates. By frequency analysis, we identified the words that are the most important issues per day. Particularly, according to the result of the presidential debate, it was seen that the candidate who became an issue was located at the top of the frequency analysis. By the analysis of associative emotional words, we were able to identify issues most relevant to each candidate. The topic emotion analysis was used to identify each candidate's topic and to express the emotions of the public on the topics. Finally, we estimated the voting rate by combining the volume of comments and sentiment score. By doing above, we explored the issues for each candidate and predicted the voting rate. The analysis showed that news comments is an effective tool for tracking the issue of presidential candidates and for predicting the voting rate. Particularly, this study showed issues per day and quantitative index for sentiment. Also it predicted voting rate for each candidate and precisely matched the ranking of the top five candidates. Each candidate will be able to objectively grasp public opinion and reflect it to the election strategy. Candidates can use positive issues more actively on election strategies, and try to correct negative issues. Particularly, candidates should be aware that they can get severe damage to their reputation if they face a moral problem. Voters can objectively look at issues and public opinion about each candidate and make more informed decisions when voting. If they refer to the results of this study before voting, they will be able to see the opinions of the public from the Big Data, and vote for a candidate with a more objective perspective. If the candidates have a campaign with reference to Big Data Analysis, the public will be more active on the web, recognizing that their wants are being reflected. The way of expressing their political views can be done in various web places. This can contribute to the act of political participation by the people.
Digital Convergence means integration between industry, technology, and contents, and in marketing, it usually comes with creation of new types of product and service under the base of digital technology as digitalization progress in electro-communication industries including telecommunication, home appliance, and computer industries. One can see digital convergence not only in instruments such as PC, AV appliances, cellular phone, but also in contents, network, service that are required in production, modification, distribution, re-production of information. Convergence in contents started around 1990. Convergence in network and service begins as broadcasting and telecommunication integrates and DMB(digital multimedia broadcasting), born in May, 2005 is the symbolic icon in this trend. There are some positive and negative expectations about DMB. The reason why two opposite expectations exist is that DMB does not come out from customer's need but from technology development. Therefore, customers might have hard time to interpret the real meaning of DMB. Time is quite critical to a high tech product, like DMB because another product with same function from different technology can replace the existing product within short period of time. If DMB does not positioning well to customer's mind quickly, another products like Wibro, IPTV, or HSPDA could replace it before it even spreads out. Therefore, positioning strategy is critical for success of DMB product. To make correct positioning strategy, one needs to understand how consumer interprets DMB and how consumer's interpretation can be changed via communication strategy. In this study, we try to investigate how consumer perceives a new product, like DMB and how AD strategy change consumer's perception. More specifically, the paper segment consumers into sub-groups based on their DMB perceptions and compare their characteristics in order to understand how they perceive DMB. And, expose them different printed ADs that have messages guiding consumer think DMB in specific ways, either cellular phone or personal TV. Research Question 1: Segment consumers according to perceptions about DMB and compare characteristics of segmentations. Research Question 2: Compare perceptions about DMB after AD that induces categorization of DMB in direction for each segment. If one understand and predict a direction in which consumer perceive a new product, firm can select target customers easily. We segment consumers according to their perception and analyze characteristics in order to find some variables that can influence perceptions, like prior experience, usage, or habit. And then, marketing people can use this variables to identify target customers and predict their perceptions. If one knows how customer's perception is changed via AD message, communication strategy could be constructed properly. Specially, information from segmented customers helps to develop efficient AD strategy for segment who has prior perception. Research framework consists of two measurements and one treatment, O1 X O2. First observation is for collecting information about consumer's perception and their characteristics. Based on first observation, the paper segment consumers into two groups, one group perceives DMB similar to Cellular phone and the other group perceives DMB similar to TV. And compare characteristics of two segments in order to find reason why they perceive DMB differently. Next, we expose two kinds of AD to subjects. One AD describes DMB as Cellular phone and the other Ad describes DMB as personal TV. When two ADs are exposed to subjects, consumers don't know their prior perception of DMB, in other words, which subject belongs 'similar-to-Cellular phone' segment or 'similar-to-TV' segment? However, we analyze the AD's effect differently for each segment. In research design, final observation is for investigating AD effect. Perception before AD is compared with perception after AD. Comparisons are made for each segment and for each AD. For the segment who perceives DMB similar to TV, AD that describes DMB as cellular phone could change the prior perception. And AD that describes DMB as personal TV, could enforce the prior perception. For data collection, subjects are selected from undergraduate students because they have basic knowledge about most digital equipments and have open attitude about a new product and media. Total number of subjects is 240. In order to measure perception about DMB, we use indirect measurement, comparison with other similar digital products. To select similar digital products, we pre-survey students and then finally select PDA, Car-TV, Cellular Phone, MP3 player, TV, and PSP. Quasi experiment is done at several classes under instructor's allowance. After brief introduction, prior knowledge, awareness, and usage about DMB as well as other digital instruments is asked and their similarities and perceived characteristics are measured. And then, two kinds of manipulated color-printed AD are distributed and similarities and perceived characteristics for DMB are re-measured. Finally purchase intension, AD attitude, manipulation check, and demographic variables are asked. Subjects are given small gift for participation. Stimuli are color-printed advertising. Their actual size is A4 and made after several pre-test from AD professionals and students. As results, consumers are segmented into two subgroups based on their perceptions of DMB. Similarity measure between DMB and cellular phone and similarity measure between DMB and TV are used to classify consumers. If subject whose first measure is less than the second measure, she is classified into segment A and segment A is characterized as they perceive DMB like TV. Otherwise, they are classified as segment B, who perceives DMB like cellular phone. Discriminant analysis on these groups with their characteristics of usage and attitude shows that Segment A knows much about DMB and uses a lot of digital instrument. Segment B, who thinks DMB as cellular phone doesn't know well about DMB and not familiar with other digital instruments. So, consumers with higher knowledge perceive DMB similar to TV because launching DMB advertising lead consumer think DMB as TV. Consumers with less interest on digital products don't know well about DMB AD and then think DMB as cellular phone. In order to investigate perceptions of DMB as well as other digital instruments, we apply Proxscal analysis, Multidimensional Scaling technique at SPSS statistical package. At first step, subjects are presented 21 pairs of 7 digital instruments and evaluate similarity judgments on 7 point scale. And for each segment, their similarity judgments are averaged and similarity matrix is made. Secondly, Proxscal analysis of segment A and B are done. At third stage, get similarity judgment between DMB and other digital instruments after AD exposure. Lastly, similarity judgments of group A-1, A-2, B-1, and B-2 are named as 'after DMB' and put them into matrix made at the first stage. Then apply Proxscal analysis on these matrixes and check the positional difference of DMB and after DMB. The results show that map of segment A, who perceives DMB similar as TV, shows that DMB position closer to TV than to Cellular phone as expected. Map of segment B, who perceive DMB similar as cellular phone shows that DMB position closer to Cellular phone than to TV as expected. Stress value and R-square is acceptable. And, change results after stimuli, manipulated Advertising show that AD makes DMB perception bent toward Cellular phone when Cellular phone-like AD is exposed, and that DMB positioning move towards Car-TV which is more personalized one when TV-like AD is exposed. It is true for both segment, A and B, consistently. Furthermore, the paper apply correspondence analysis to the same data and find almost the same results. The paper answers two main research questions. The first one is that perception about a new product is made mainly from prior experience. And the second one is that AD is effective in changing and enforcing perception. In addition to above, we extend perception change to purchase intention. Purchase intention is high when AD enforces original perception. AD that shows DMB like TV makes worst intention. This paper has limitations and issues to be pursed in near future. Methodologically, current methodology can't provide statistical test on the perceptual change, since classical MDS models, like Proxscal and correspondence analysis are not probability models. So, a new probability MDS model for testing hypothesis about configuration needs to be developed. Next, advertising message needs to be developed more rigorously from theoretical and managerial perspective. Also experimental procedure could be improved for more realistic data collection. For example, web-based experiment and real product stimuli and multimedia presentation could be employed. Or, one can display products together in simulated shop. In addition, demand and social desirability threats of internal validity could influence on the results. In order to handle the threats, results of the model-intended advertising and other "pseudo" advertising could be compared. Furthermore, one can try various level of innovativeness in order to check whether it make any different results (cf. Moon 2006). In addition, if one can create hypothetical product that is really innovative and new for research, it helps to make a vacant impression status and then to study how to form impression in more rigorous way.
INTRODUCTION Due to the high broadband internet penetration rate and its group-oriented culture, various types of online communities operate in Korea. This study use 'Uses and Gratification Approach, and argue that members' usage-needs satisfaction with brand community is an important factor for promoting community commitment. Based on previous studies identifying the effect of brand image on consumers' responses to various marketing stimuli, this study hypothesizes that brand image can be a moderate variable affecting the relationship between usage-needs satisfaction with brand community and members' commitment to brand community. This study analyzes the influence of usage-needs satisfaction on brand community commitment and how apparel brand image affects the relationships between usage-needs satisfactions and community commitments. The hypotheses of this study are proposed as follows. H1-3: The usage-needs satisfaction of apparel brand community (interest, transaction, relationship needs) influences emotional (H1), continuous (H2), and normative (H3) commitments to apparel brand communities. H4-6: Apparel brand image has a moderating effect on the relationship between usage-needs satisfaction and emotional (H4), continuous (H5), and normative (H6) commitments to apparel brand communities. METHODS Brand communities founded by non-company affiliates were excluded and emphasis was placed instead on communities created by apparel brand companies. Among casual apparel brands registered in 6 Korean portal sites in August 2003, a total of 9 casual apparel brand online communities were chosen, depending on the level of community activity and apparel brand image. Data from 317 community members were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, moderated regression analysis, ANOVA, and scheffe test. Among 317 respondents answered an online html-type questionnaire, 80.5% were between 16 to 25 years old. There were a total of 150 respondents from apparel brand communities(n=3) recording higher-than-average brand image scores (Mean > 3.75) and a total of 162 respondents from apparel brand communities(n=6) recording lower-than-average brand image scores(Mean < 3.75). In this study, brand community commitment was measured by a 5-point Likert scale: emotional, continuous and normative commitment. The degree of usage-needs satisfaction (interest, transaction, relationship needs) was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The level of brand image was measured by a 5-point Likert scale: strength, favorability, and uniqueness of brand associations. RESULTS In the results of exploratory factor analysis, the three usage-needs satisfactions with brand community were classified as interest, transaction, and relationship needs. Brand community commitment was also divided into the multi-dimensional factors: emotional, continuous, and normative commitments. The regression analysis (using a stepwise method) was used to test the influence of 3 independent variables (interest-needs satisfaction, transaction-needs, and relationship-needs satisfactions) on the 3 dependent variables (emotional, continuous and normative commitments). The three types of usage-needs satisfactions are positively associated with the three types of commitments to apparel brand communities. Therefore, hypothesis 1, 2, and 3 were significantly supported. Moderating effects of apparel brand image on the relationship between usage-needs satisfaction and brand community commitments were tested by moderated regression analysis. The statistics result showed that the influence of transaction-needs on emotional commitment was significantly moderated by apparel brand image. In addition, apparel brand image had moderating effects on the relationship between relationship-needs satisfaction and emotional, continuous and normative commitments to apparel brand communities. However, there were not significant moderate effects of apparel brand image on the relationships between interest-needs satisfaction and 3 types of commitments (emotional, continuous and normative commitments) to apparel brand communities. In addition, the influences of transaction-needs satisfaction on 2 types of commitments (continuous and normative commitments) were not significantly moderated by apparel brand image. Therefore, hypothesis 4, 5 and 6 were partially supported. To explain the moderating effects of apparel brand image, four cross-tabulated groups were made by averages of usage-needs satisfaction (interest-needs satisfaction avg. M=3.09, transaction-needs satisfaction avg. M=3.46, relationship-needs satisfaction M=1.62) and the average apparel brand image (M=3.75). The average scores of commitments in each classified group are presented in Tables and Figures. There were significant differences among four groups. As can be seen from the results of scheffe test on the tables, emotional commitment in community group with high brand image was higher than one in community group with low brand image when transaction-needs satisfaction was high. However, when transaction-needs satisfaction was low, there was not any difference between the community group with high brand image and community group with low brand image regarding emotional commitment to apparel brand communities. It means that emotional commitment didn't increase significantly without high satisfaction of transaction-needs, despite the high apparel brand image. In addition, when apparel brand image was low, increase in transaction-needs did not lead to the increase in emotional commitment. Therefore, the significant relationship between transaction-needs satisfaction and emotional commitment was found in only brand communities with high apparel brand image, and the moderating effect of apparel brand image on this relationship between two variables was found in the communities with high satisfaction of transaction-needs only. Statistics results showed that the level of emotional commitment is related to the satisfaction level of transaction-needs, while overall response is related to the level of apparel brand image. We also found that the role of apparel brand image as a moderating factor was limited by the level of transaction-needs satisfaction. In addition, relationship-needs satisfaction brought significant increase in emotional commitment in both community groups (high and low levels of brand image), and the effect of apparel brand image on emotional commitment was significant in both community groups (high and low levels of relationship-needs satisfaction). Especially, the effect of brand image was greater when the level of relationship-needs satisfaction was high. in contrast, increase in emotional commitment responding to increase in relationship-needs satisfaction was greater when apparel brand image is high. The significant influences of relationship-needs satisfaction on community commitments (continuous and normative commitments) were found regardless of apparel brand image(in both community groups with low and high brand image). However, the effects of apparel brand image on continuous and normative commitments were found in only community group with high satisfaction level of relationship-needs. In the case of communities with low satisfaction levels of relationship needs, apparel brand image marginally increases continuous and normative commitments. Therefore, we could not find the moderating effect of apparel brand image on the relationship between relationship-needs satisfaction and continuous and normative commitments in community groups with low satisfaction levels of relationship needs, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS From the results of this study, we draw several conclusions; First, the increases in usage-needs satisfactions through apparel brand communities result in the increases in commitments to apparel brand communities, wheres the degrees of such relationship depends on the level of apparel brand image. That is, apparel brand image is a moderating factor strengthening the relationship between usage-needs satisfaction and commitment to apparel brand communities. In addition, the effect of apparel brand image differs, depending on the level and types of community usage-needs satisfactions. Therefore, marketers of apparel brand companies must determine the appropriate usage-needs, depending on the type of commitment they wish to increase and the level of their apparel brand image, to promote member's commitments to apparel brand communities. Especially, relationship-needs satisfaction was very important factor for increasing emotional, continuous and normative commitments to communities. However the level of relationship-needs satisfaction was lower than interest-needs and transaction-needs. satisfaction. According to previous study on apparel brand communities, relationship-need satisfaction was strongly related to member's intention of participation in their communities. Therefore, marketers need to develope various strategies in order to increase the relationship- needs as well as interest and transaction needs. In addition, despite continuous commitment was higher than emotional and normative commitments, all types of commitments to apparel brand communities had scores lower than 3.0 that was mid point in 5-point scale. A Korean study reported that the level of members' commitment to apparel brand community influenced customers' identification with a brand and brand purchasing behavior. Therefore, marketers should try to increase members' usage-needs satisfaction and apparel brand image as the necessary conditions for bringing about community commitments. Second, marketers should understand that they should keep in mind that increasing the level of community usage needs (transaction and relationship) is most effective in raising commitment when the level of apparel brand image is high, and that increasing usage needs (transaction needs) satisfaction in communities with low brand image might not be as effective as anticipated. Therefore, apparel companies with desirable brand image such as luxury designer goods firms need to create formal online brand communities (as opposed to informal communities with rudimentary online contents) to satisfy transaction and relationship needs systematically. It will create brand equity through consumers' increased emotional, continuous and normative commitments. Even though apparel brand is very famous, emotional commitment to apparel brand communities cannot be easily increased without transaction-needs satisfaction. Therefore famous fashion brand companies should focus on developing various marketing strategies to increase transaction-needs satisfaction.
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