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Electrochemical Properties of Zr0.8Ti0.2Mn0.4V0.6Ni1-xFex Alloy Electrodes (Zr0.8Ti0.2Mn0.4V0.6Ni1-xFex 합금 전극의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Song, MyoungYoup;Kwon, IkHyun;Lee, DongSub
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2002
  • A series of multicomponent $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{1-x}Fe_{x}$ (x=0.00, 0.08, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30) alloys are prepared and their oystal structure and P-C-T curves are examined. The electrochemical properties of these allqys such as activation conditions, discharge capacity, cycling performance are also investigated. $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{1-x}Fe_{x}$ (x=0.00, 0.08, 0.15, 0.22 and 0.30) have the C14 Laves phase hexagonal structure. The electrode was activated by the hot-charging treatment. The best activation conditions were the current density 120 mA/g and the hot-charging time 12h at $80^{\circ}C$ in the case of the alloy with x=0.00. The discharge capacity increased rapidly until the fourth cycle and then decreased. The discharge capacity increased again from the 13th cycle, arriving at 234 mAh/g at the 50th cycle. The discharge capacily just after activation decreases with the increase in the amount of the substituted Fe but the cycling performance is improved. The discharge capacity after activation of the alloy with x=0.00 is 157 mAh/g at the current density 120 mA/g. $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{0.85}Fe_{0.15}$ is a good composition with a medium quantity of discharge capacities and a good cycling performance. The ICP analysis of the electrolyte for these electrodes after 50 charge-discharge cycles shows that the concentrations of V and Zr are relatively high. Another series of multicomponent $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{0.85}M_{0.15}$ (M = Fe, Co, Cu, Mo and Al) alloys are prepared. They also have the C14 Laves phase hexagonal structure. The alloys with M = Co and Fe have relatively larger hydrogen storage capacities. The discharge capacities just after activation are relatively large in the case of the alloys with M = Al and Cu. They are 212 and 170 mAh/g, respectivety, at the current density 120mA/g. The $Zr_{0.8}Ti_{0.2}Mn_{0.4}V_{0.6}Ni_{0.85}Co_{0.15}$ alloy is the best one with a relatively large discharge capacity and a good cycling performance.

Effect of Swine Liquid Manure on Soil Chemical Properties and Growth of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) (양돈분뇨 발효액비 시용이 토양 화학성과 벼 (Oryza sativa L.) 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyu-Hoi;Yoo, Jae-Hong;Park, Eun-Ju;Jung, Yeong-In;Tipayno, S.C.;Shagol, C.C.;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.945-953
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of swine liquid manure (SLM) on rice grown in Yeonggwang-gun in 2008. The treatments consisted of SLM and chemical fertilizer (CF) based on the recommended amount of nitrogen (11 kg N $10a^{-1}$). The Total N content of the SLM used was 2,881 mg $L^{-1}$. Plant height at the early stage of growth and tiller number were not significantly different between plots applied with swine liquid manure and those with chemical fertilizer in all areas. Plant height at the later stage of growth, lodging and yield were not significantly different between plots applied with swine liquid manure and those with chemical fertilizer in three areas (Baeksu, Gunnam, Beopseong). Plant height at the later stage of growth, as well as lodging were higher in SLM plots than in chemically fertilized plots in Yeonggwang and Yeomsan. However, grain yield was lower in SLM plots than in chemically fertilized plots in these areas. Soil organic matter content and exchangeable cations increased in the swine liquid manure applied plots. Moreover, heavy metal content did not increase in the plots treated with swine liquid manure. Further research to determine the suitable rate of swine liquid manure is needed to reduce lodging damage and to increase the yield and quality of rice.

Classification of Hydrologic Soil Groups of Soil Originated from Limestone by Assessing the Rates of Infiltration and Percolation (석회암 유래 토양의 침투 및 투수속도 평가에 따른 수문유형 분류)

  • Hur, Seung-Oh;Jung, Kang-Ho;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Ha, Sang-Keun;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Kim, Nam-Won
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2009
  • Soils originated from limestone, located at the southern part of Kangwon province and Jecheon, Danyang of Chungbuk province are mainly composed of fine texture, and have different properties from soils originated from granite and granite gneiss, especially for water movement. This study was conducted for classification of hydrologic soil group (HSG) of soils originated from limestone by measuring the infiltration rate of surface soils and percolation rate of sub soils. Soils used for the experiment were 6 soils in total : Gwarim, Mosan, Jangseong, Maji, Anmi and Pyongan series. Infiltration and percolation rate were measured by a disc tension infiltrometer and a Guelph permeameter, respectively. Particle size distribution and organic matter content of the soils were analyzed. HSG, which was made by USDA NRCS(National Resources Conservation Service) for hydrology, of Gwarim series with O horizon of accumulated organic matter was classified as type A which show the properties of low runoff potential, rapid infiltration and percolation rate. HSG of Mosan series, which has high gravel content and very rapid permeability, was classified as type B/D because of the impermaeble base rock layer under 50cm from surface. HSG of Jangseong series with shallow soil depth was classified as type C/D owing to the impermaeble base rock layer under 50cm from surface. HSG of Maji series was type B, and HSG of Anmi series used as paddy land was type D because of slow infiltration and percolation rate caused by the disturbance of surface soil by puddling. HSG of Pyeongan series having a sudden change of layer in soil texture was type D because of the slow percolation rate caused a the layer.

Effects of Barley Straw Management Practices on Greenhouse Gases(GHGs) Emission During Rice Cultivation in Rice-barley Double Cropping System (벼보리 이모작 재배에서 보리짚 처리 방법이 벼재배시 온실가스 배출에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Jee-Yeon;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Jung, Ki-yul;Choi, Young-Dae;Ramos, Edwin P;Yun, Eul-Soo;Kang, Hwang-Won;Park, Seong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2008
  • Because main barley straw management is changing these days from off-fields to burning that may relate to air quality concerning the global warming, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley-straw management practices on greenhouse gas emissions during rice cultivation in rice-barley double cropping system. The treatments were barley straw burning, off-field usage of barley straw and incorporation of barley straw in paddy fields. Laboratory experiment showed that burning of barley straw at the rate of $4.5Mg\;ha^{-1}$ emitted GHGs in the amounts of 4,607, 19.5, and $0.9kg\;ha^{-1}$ of $CO_2$, $CH_4$, and $N_2O$, respectively. During the rice cultivation of the rice-barley double cropping system, the highest GHG emission by evaluated close-static chamber method was observed from the soil incorporation of barley straw with 387 and $1.0kg\;ha^{-1}$ of $CH_4$ and $N_2O$, respectively. The GHGs emissions from the barley straw burning and off-field usage treatments were 233 and $160kg\;ha^{-1}$ for $CH_4$ and 0.80 and $0.79kg\;ha^{-1}$ for $N_2O$, respectively. The barley straw burning treatment showed the greatest GHGs emission among barley straw management practices in rice-barley double cropping system when considering GHGs emissions both during burning and from paddy fields during the cropping seasons. As a result, the GHGs emissions recorded in the barley straw incorporation to soil and off-field usage treatments were 22.4 and 66.8%, respectively, less than sum of GHGs emissions from the burning of barley straw and from paddy fields during rice cultivation.

The Effect of Tillage Methods after Application of Liquid Pig Manure on Silage Barley Growth and Soil Environment in Paddy Field (돈분액비 시용 논에서 경운방법이 청보리 생육 및 토양환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Chang-Hyu;Lee, Sang-Bog;Kim, Taek-Kyum;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Yoo, Chul-Hyun;Lee , Jeong-Jun;Kim, Jae-Duk;Jung, Kwang-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.285-292
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    • 2008
  • To investigate the effect of tillage methods on the silage barely growth and the soil environment in paddy field, liquid pig manure(LPM) was applied after harvesting rice at Jisan series soil for 2 years. Five plots, a LPM applied rate as N%; 0, 100, 150, 200(basal dressing) and 100(basal dressing)+50(additional fertilizer) were divided by tillage methods; non-tillage, non-tillage+rice straw and rotary tillage method. Emission amounts of $NH_3$ gas highly decreased in the rotary tillage and the non-tillage+rice straw plot compared to non-tillage plot. The contents of soil organic matter and exchangeable cation were increased in the applied LPM plot. $NH_4-N$ and $NO_3-N$ contents in soil were the highest in the non-tillage+rice straw plot and followed by the rotary tillage and highly decreased along with the growth of plant. Run-off rate of mineral components were higher in order of the rotary tillage plot£æthe non-tillage plot£æthe non-tillage+rice straw plot and then leached to $SO_4$, $NO_3-N$, K plentifully. The yield of silage barley in dry weight was higher in order of the non-tillage+rice straw plot>the rotary tillage plot>the non-tillage plot. To estimate the feed value of silage barley, crude protein, acid detergent fiber(ADF) and neutral detergent fiber(NDF) contents were analyzed. Crude protein and ADF contents were the highest at rotary tillage N150% plot as 9.7 and 29.4%, respectively. NDF contents was the highest at non-tillage+rice straw N150% plot as 56.7%. In conclusion, we recommend not to incinerate rice straw and to apply LPM at non-tillage status in cultivating the silage barley. This may prevent water pollution and increase barley yields.

Composting Impacts on Soil Properties and Productivity in a Fluvio-marine Deposit Paddy Field (하해혼성 평야지 논토양의 부산물퇴비 시용효과)

  • Yang, Chang-Hyu;Kim, Byeong-Su;Yoo, Chul-Hyun;Park, Woo-Kyun;Yoo, Young-Seok;Kim, Jae-Duk;Jung, Kwang-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2007
  • Objective of this research was to identify by-product composting impacts on paddy soil properties and rice yield. Research was conducted in Iksan (soil was identified as a Jeonbug series) located in Honam plain area from 2001 to 2004. Composts, such as cow manure sawdust compost(CMSC), Chicken manure sawdust compost(ChMSC) and Pig manure sawdust compost(PMSC) were treated in the reseach plots for every, 2, and 3 year term. Some physical properties, such as, soil hardness, and bulk density tended to decrease with application of compost and decreased in order of CMSC, ChMSC, and PMSC, while surface soil depth and porosity were increased in order of CMSC, PMSC, and ChMSC. Some chemical soil properties, such as organic matter, available phosphorus, available silicate, and exchangeable cations were increased with application of compost and every year application plots. Nitrogen uptake was higher in order of CMSC, ChMSC, SF, and PMSC. Nitrogen use efficiency was higher in order of CMSC, ChMSC, SF, and PMSC. Rice yields was increased in all application plot of CMSC, in every other year application plot ChMSC and PMSC compared with SF($5.07Mg\;ha^{-1}$). Also average rice yield on years were increased in all application plot of CMSC and in every other year application plot ChMSC, while decreased in all application plot of PMSC compared with SF($5.27Mg\;ha^{-1}$). Head rice ratio and perfect grain ratio on hulled rice was high in all application plot of PMSC and in every year, in every other year app lication plot of ChMSC while its lowered percentage of 10~13 caused by application of CMSC compared with SF.

Effects of Chitosan, Grain Amino Acid and Wood Vinegar Foliar Spray on the Quality and Storability of Grapes(Campbell Early) (키토산, 곡물아미노산, 목초액의 엽면살포가 포도(Campbell Early)의 품질 및 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ju, In-Ok;Jung, Gi-Tai;Cheong, Seong-Soo;Moon, Young-Hun;Ryu, Jeong;Choi, Joung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.119-123
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    • 2007
  • Sprays containing chitosan, grain amino acids, or wood vinegar, were applied to vine leaves of the Campbell Early grape variety, and effects on the quality and storability of grapes were investigated. Weights of grape clusters and individual bemies did not differ significantly from the values seen when traditional agnicultural chemical treatment was used. The percentage of clusters over 300g in weight was, however, higher after spraying with chitosan, grain amino acids, or wood vinegar, than after agricultural chemical treatment, Grape moisture contents, levels of soluble solids, and reducing sugar concentrations, did not differ when the traditional treatment and the newer sparys were compared. Among minerals, the levels of potassium, iron and zinc measured in fresh grapes were increased by the clitosan, grain amino acids, and wood vinegar spray. After 8 weeks of MA storage, reducing sugar levels decreased, and titratable acidities increased, compared to levels measured at the beginning of storage. This was true regardless of the method of vine treatment the hardness of berries decreased slightly over 4-6 weeks of storage, and increased thereafter. The weight losses of grapes were relatively low(0.28-0.35%) on storage after any vine treatment tested. Grapes from vines sprayed with chitosan or grain amino acids showed a lower decay rate than did fruit from vines that had received a traditional agricultural chemical treatment. Sensory evaluation results indicated that the marketability of grapes from vines treated with traditional agricultural chemicals was better than that of grapes from vines sprayed with chitosan, grain amino acids, or wood vinegar.

The Components of the Sap from Gorosoe(Acer mono Max.) and Sugar Maple(Pseudo-sieboldianum Kom.) (고로쇠나무 및 당단풍나무 수액의 성분조성)

  • 성낙주;정미자;김윤숙;이일숙;조종수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.911-916
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    • 1995
  • Even though the saps have been consumed as beverage in Korea for a very long period of time, a little research has been conducted on the chemical composition. We determined mineral, free sugar, composition amino acids and nucleotides in the sap of Gorosoe(Acer mono Max.) and Sugar Maple(Pseudo-sieboldianum Kom.) collected from Sancheong, Kurye and Hamyang. The contents of solid, crude protein and ash were 1.1~3.3%, 0.03~0.12% and 0.02~0.05% in the sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple, respectively. The detectable nucleotides were CMP, UMP, IMP, GMP, AMP and hypoxanthine. Free sugar that we determined in the sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple were sucrose, fructose and glucose, but maltose was not detected. The chief component of saccharides in the sap was sugar and ranged from 7.1 to 36.6g/L. Especially, the sucrose contents in the sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple from Hamyang were higher 3.7 and 2.2 times than those from the other samples. The prominent minerals in the sap were calcium and potassium. The calcium concentration was ranged from 99.0~153.3mg/L in the sap of Gorosoe and was ranged from 21.2~32.4mg/L in that of sugar maple. The sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple were composed of 18 and 15 kinds of amino acid respectively, and the total contents of amino acid were in the range of 0.7~29.3mg%. The major amino acids in the sap of Gorosoe were taurine, serine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid in decreasing order. Taurine contents in the sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple was found to be the dominant amino acid.

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Effects of Astringent Persimmon Paste on Quality Properties of Injeolmi (떫은감 농축액을 첨가한 인절미의 품질 특성)

  • Hong, Jin-Sook;Kim, Myoung-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.1232-1238
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to find the optimum addition amount of astringent persimmon paste to glutinous rice flour in the preparation of Gaminjeolmi (persimmon glutinous rice cake). The moisture contents of Gaminjeolmi with added astringent persimmon paste were 57$\∼$59$ \% $. With increasing addition of astringent persimmon paste, the L- and b-value were decreased. The a-value was the highest at the 8$\%$ level. In the mechanical evaluation of Gaminjeolmi, the hardness was the highest in the 0$\%$ astringent persimmon paste-lnjeolmi but the 0$\%$ level was decomposed after 2 day of storage. The adhesiveness and cohesiveness were the lowest at the 0$\%$ and 16$\%$ levels. The springiness did not differ significantly with the addition of astringent persimmon paste for 2 days of storage. The gumminess was the highest at the 0$\%$ level for 1 day of storage, significantly. In the sensory evaluation of Gaminjeolmi, the acceptance of the softness characteristics was the best at the 8$\%$ level. Addition of astringent persimmon paste improve preservation of Injeolmi and the addition of 8$\%$ of astringent persimmon paste to glutinous rice flour was found to be the best recipe in terms of the sensory qualities of softness and overall acceptability.

Detection of Pathogenic Yersinia Enterocolitica in Drinking Water and Vegetables by Mutiplex-PCR (Multiplex-PCR에 의한 먹는샘물 및 야채류로부터의 병원성 Yersinia enterocolitica의 신속검출)

  • 이택수;박부길;오덕환
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2003
  • The study was conducted to develope a rapid method for the detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in spring water and vegetables via multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using ail, yst, uirF and subgenus-specific Y16S primers. Specificity and sensitivity of multiplex PCR and application of best primers for the detection of Y. enterocolitica from spring water and vegetables were investigeted. Y. enterocolitica ATCC 27729 strains gave 356 bP and 200 bp (Y16S) and 134 bp (yst) bands. but Y. enterocolitica ATCC 9610 and ATCC 23715 strains gave 200 bp and 134 bp bands.In the meanwhile, non-pathogenic Yersinia species, such as Y. frederikseni, Y. inter-media, Y. kristenseni and Y. pseudotuberculosis gave only single 200 bp band, and other bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 25392, Shigella dysenteri. Staphylococcu aureus ATCC 25923 and Listeria mo-nocytogenes ATCC 19111 did not show any bands. Among primers, yst and Y16S primer showed the best sensitivity. Seven CFU/mL Y. enterocolitica cells could be detected with yst and Y16S primers and the sensitivity was significantly improved by the further 2nd PCR after 38 cycles of first PCR amplication. Spring water, cabbage and mushroom were inoculated with Y. enterocolitica to determine the sensitivity of multiplex-PCR for the rapid detection of Y. enterocolitica. Multiplex-PCR assay could detect 7 or 70 cells in spring water and vegetables using whole cell lysate with repeating PCR amplication.