• Title/Summary/Keyword: p21

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Asiatic Acid Promotes p21WAF1/CIP1 Protein Stability through Attenuation of NDR1/2 Dependent Phosphorylation of p21WAF1/CIP1 in HepG2 Human Hepatoma Cells

  • Chen, Jin-Yuan;Xu, Qing-Wen;Xu, Hong;Huang, Zong-Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.963-967
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    • 2014
  • Previous studies have suggested anti-tumor effects of asiatic acid in some human cancer cell lines. This agent is reported to increase the levels of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ in human breast cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been established. Here we report that asiatic acid up-regulates $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ protein expression but not the level of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ mRNA in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the asiatic acid induced increase of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ protein was associated with decreased phosphorylation (ser-146) of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$. Knockdown of NDR1/2 kinase, which directly phosphorylates $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ protein at ser-146 and enhances its proteasomal degradation, increased the levels of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ protein and eliminated the regulation of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ stability by asiatic acid. At the same time, the expression of NDR1/2 kinase decreased during treatment with asiatic acid in HepG2 cells. Moreover, asiatic acid inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells, this being attenuated by knockdown of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$. In conclusion, we propose that asiatic acid inhibits the expression NDR1/2 kinase and promotes the stability of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ protein through attenuating NDR1/2 dependent phosphorylation of $p21^{WAF1/CIP1}$ in HepG2 cells.

IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF P21 AND P53 EXPRESSION IN AMELOBLASTOMA (법랑아세포종에서 p21 및 p53 발현에 관한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Shin, Dong-Joon;Myoung, Hoon;Hwang, Kyeng-Kyun;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2003
  • The p53 protein was discovered in 1979 as cellular 53-kD nuclear phosphoprotein bound to the large transforming antigen of SV40 virus. $P21^{WAF1/CIP1}$, which has been described as the critical downstream mediator of p53, is known to suppress DNA replication and arrest the G1 cell cycle by quaternary complex with cyclin D, cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA). In these days, some studies shows that the p21 can be induced by independent pathways. There are various reports about the expression of p21 (67%.82.4%) in oral squamous cell carcinoma. But these studies are mostly done in malignant tumor not in benign tumor. So we decided to study the expression of p21 in ameloblastoma and the relationship between p53 and p21 as a downstream mediator of p53 in ameloblastoma. We investigated the expression of p21 and p53 with the method of immunohistochemistry. We selected 30 cases of ameloblastoma tissue blocks (acanthomatous type: 5 cases, follicular type: 8 cases, plexiform type: 17 cases) imbedded in paraffin. We used 30 cases of normal gingival tissues and 30 cases of squamous cell carcinoma tissues (SCC) respectively and compared their results with those of ameloblastoma. We made slides with the streptavidin-biotin methods and used monoclonal antibody DO-7 (Novocastra, Newcastle, United Kingdom) as p53 antibody and monoclonal antibody M7202 (DAKO, California, U.S.A.) as p21 antibody. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyse the relationship. The results were as follows: 1. p21 was expressed in ameloblastoma about 30% and this is lower than that of normal gingiva and SCC. 2. In normal gingiva and ameloblastoma, p21 expression was correlated with p53 expression. 3. In SCC, p21 were expressed about 83.3% and this is more than that of p53. But there was no correlation between p21 and p53 expression. We confirmed p21 expression and relation with p53 in ameloblastoma. But, to confirm the function of p21, more studies about p21 expression in malignant ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma are needed.

Clinical Analysis According to $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}\;and\;p27^{kip1}$ Expression in Gastric Cancer (위암에서의 $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}\;and\;p27^{kip1}$ 단백 발현)

  • Kim, Sin-Sun;Park, Yong-Geun;Jun, Kyong-Hwa;Jung, Hun;Song, Gyo-Young;Kim, Jin-Joo;Chin, Hyung-Min;Kim, Wook;Park, Cho-Hyun;Park, Seung-Man;Lim, Keun-Woo;Kim, Seung-Nam;Jeon, Hae-Myung
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}$ protein Inhibits the cell cycle by Inhibiting the phosphorylation at the $G1{\rightarrow}S$ check point, and the $p27^{kip1}$ protein similarly performs the suppressor function by controlling the p27-mediated G1 arrest. In this study, we analysed the clinical status and survival rates in correlations with p21 and p27 expression patterns in gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Between 1993 and 1997, 192 patients who underwent surgeries in Catholic Medical Center were analysed retrospectively in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and if the nuclei of the tumor cells were stained, we assumed those as positive results. Statistical analysis was based on clinicopathological findings and differences in survival rates. Results: The expression rate of p27 was 28.1% and 15.6% in p21 each. The ratio of T1-2(80.0%) was significantly high in p21 (+), but the ratio of T3-4 (50.6%) was slightly high in p21 (-). There was no statistical significance regarding other factors. The results in p27 was not much different from expression rate of p21 in T-stage. In addition, p27 expression in diffuse type (91.3%) was higher than in intestinal type (62.7%) by Lauren's classification (P<0.05). Also, there was no statistical significance in other factors. In the correlation of p21 and p27, p27 was positive when p21 was positive (53.5%). Conversely, p27 was negative when p21 was negative (76.5%, p<0.05). In the p21 and p27 combination test, there was higher rate of T1-2 (87.5%) in p21 (+)/p27 (+), and higher rate of T3-4 (58.1%) in p21 (-)/p27 (-) (P<0.05). Results showed higher rate of intestinal type (100%) in p21 (+)/p27 (+), and diffuse type (87.0%) was dominant in p21 (-)/p27 (-) (P<0.05) by Lauren's classification. Moreover, there was no statistical significance in the 5-year survival rate in the expression of p21 and p27, and the 5-year survival rate was highest in the case of p21 (+)/p27 (+) without statistical significance. Conclusion: In our study, $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}\;and\;p27^{kip1}$ expressed similar patterns. The expression of $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}\;and\;p27^{kip1}$ affected the degree of invasiveness of the tumor, and. Combined examination result revealed the correlation of $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}\;and\;p27^{kip1}$ with Lauren's classification and depth of invasion of the tumor. However, we assumed that little difference between the survival rates depending on expression of $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}\;and\;p27^{kip1}$ has limited their value as predictable prognostic indicators.

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Induction of p21 and apoptosis by C11 in human hepatocarcinoma cells

  • Kim, Won-Ho;Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Choi, Kyung-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Zoological Society Korea Conference
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    • pp.360-360
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    • 1998
  • C11, a chloride-containing VK3 analog, acts as a mediator of programmed cell death in SK-Hep-1 cell lines, but its molecular mechanisms linked to cell death are not understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of p21 gene and its relationship to apoptosis induced by C11. In SK -hep-1 cells, the addition of C11 resulted in time-dependent growth suppression and DNA fragmentation characteristics of apoptosis. p21 protein was induced during this process, while the protein level of p53 was not changed at the same condition. This apoptotic cell death with p21 induction was also observed in the Hep3B cells lacking functional p53 after treatment of C11. These results suggest that C11-induced apoptosis is associated with up-regulation of p21 protein in p53-independent pathway. Next, in order to confirm whether the p53-independent p21 induction is required for C11-induced apoptosis, we introduced the p21 gene into Hep3B. Overexpression of p21 did not affect the expression of the bcl-2 gene, but DNA fragmentation and PARa cleavage were significantly increased. These data indicate that p21 is involved in C11-induced apoptosis. Although Bcl-2 has been implicated to interfere with an essential signaling molecule involved in the apoptosis pathway, its molecular mechanism and target molecule are poorly understood. To determine the effects of bcl-2 overexpression on apoptosis and to investigate whether BcI-2 interfers with the p53-independent p21 pathway, we transfected the bcl-2 expression vector into SK - Hep-1 cels. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented C11-induced apoptosis. Taken together, C11-induced apoptosis is regulated by p52-independent p21 pathway and bcl-2 may inhibit functional activity of p21, therebe may inhibit the C11-induced apoptosis.ptosis.

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Screening of Anti-cancer Compounds Originated from Filamentous Fungi (Monascus sp.) (사상성 곰팡이 (Monascus sp.) 유래 항암 물질의 탐색)

  • Sin, Yeong-Min;Park, Hae-Ryoun;An, Won-Gun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.671-676
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    • 2005
  • In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effect of extract from Monascus pillosus, on the human wild-type p53 and p21 expressing A549 lung epithelial cell line and MCF-7 mammary adenocarcinoma cell line stimulated by NO. $P21^{waf/cip1}$ was identified as a gene induced in senescent cells. It is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and has been shown to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. While p53-regulated stimulation of p21 appears to be central for the permanent growth-arrest, the role of p21 in p53-triggered cell death is unclear. Low dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the development of senescence associated with increased expression of p53 and p21 in A549 cells. Inhibition of p21 transactivating activity requires high level correlates with the amount of p53 necessary to cause cell death. Association of p21 and p53 results in inhibition of p21-stimulated transcription. This requires a higher p53 level than is necessary for transcriptional activation of endogenous p53-responsive gene but correlates well with the level of p53 necessary to cause cell death. Exposure to W-1 inhibited oxidative stresses-induced senescence-like arrest, resulting in a significant reduction in p53 and p21 steady state levels. These results suggest that p53 and p21 play a central role in the onset of senescence. Thus, it is important to emphasize control of oxidative balance in tumor prevention and aging.

Involvement of Putative Heat Shock Element in Transcriptional Regulation of $p21^{WAF1/ClP1/SDl1}$ by Heat Shock

  • Woo, Sang-Hyeok;Oh, Su-Young;Han, Song-Iy;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Kang, Kwang-Il;Yoo, Mi-Ae;Kim, Han-Do;Kang, Ho-Sung
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2000
  • The expression of $p21^{WAF1/ClP1/SDl1}$, one of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, is regulated by a variety of transcription factors including p53 and STAT. Heat shock induces the expression of p21 in a temperature- and time-dependent manner. Although the p21 induction by heat shock has been reported to be controlled by p53, a p53-independent mechanism Is also involved. To understand the p53-independent regulation of heat shock-induced p21 expression, we searched the promoter region of p21 gene and found one or two heat shock element (HSE)-like sequences in human, rat, and mouse. Electromobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that heat shock factor (HSF) could bind to these HSE-like sequences In response to heat shock, even though to a lesser extent than to HSE. In addition, p21 promoter deletion analysis revealed that heat shock activated a p21 deletion promoter construct containing the HSE-like sequences but lacking p53-binding sites, but not a promoter construct containing neither HSE-like sequences nor the p53-responsive element. Furthermore, the p21 induction by heat shook was significantly inhibited in confluent cells in which heat shock-induced HSF activation was reduced. These results suggest that the transcriptional regulation of p21 by heat shock may be mediated through activation and binding to HSE-like sequences of HSF.

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Fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials Between P21 Tool Steel and Cu by Using Laser-Aided Layered Manufacturing (레이저 적층조형을 이용한 P21 툴 스틸과 Cu 간 기능성 경사 복합재의 제작)

  • Jeong, Jong-Seol;Shin, Ki-Hoon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2013
  • With the development of layered manufacturing, thermally conductive molds or molds embedding conformal cooling channels can be directly fabricated. Although P21 tool steel is widely used as a mold material because of its dimensional stability, it is not efficient for cooling molds owing to its low thermal conductivity. Hence, the use of functionally graded materials (FGMs) between P21 and Cu may circumvent a tradeoff between the strength and the heat transfer rate. As a preliminary study for the layered manufacturing of thermally conductive molds having FGM structures, one-dimensional P21-Cu FGMs were fabricated by using laser-aided direct metal tooling (DMT), and then, material properties such as the thermal conductivity and specific heat that are related to the heat transfer were measured and analyzed.

Transcriptional Repression of High-Mobility Group Box 2 by p21 in Radiation-Induced Senescence

  • Kim, Hyun-Kyung;Kang, Mi Ae;Kim, Mi-Sook;Shin, Young-Joo;Chi, Sung-Gil;Jeong, Jae-Hoon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.362-372
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    • 2018
  • High mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) is an abundant, chromatin-associated, non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and recombination. Recently, the HMGB2 gene was found to be significantly downregulated during senescence and shown to regulate the expression of senescent-associated secretory proteins. Here, we demonstrate that HMGB2 transcription is repressed by p21 during radiation-induced senescence through the ATM-p53-p21 DNA damage signaling cascade. The loss of p21 abolished the downregulation of HMGB2 caused by ionizing radiation, and the conditional induction of p21 was sufficient to repress the transcription of HMGB2. We also showed that the p21 protein binds to the HMGB2 promoter region, leading to sequestration of RNA polymerase and transcription factors E2F1, Sp1, and p300. In contrast, NF-Y, a CCAAT box-binding protein complex, is required for the expression of HMGB2, but NF-Y binding to the HMGB2 promoter was unaffected by either radiation or p21 induction. A proximity ligation assay results confirmed that the chromosome binding of E2F1 and Sp1 was inhibited by p21 induction. As HMGB2 have been shown to regulate premature senescence by IR, targeting the p21-mediated repression of HMGB2 could be a strategy to overcome the detrimental effects of radiation-induced senescence.

Clinical Significance of the Expression of p53, p21, EGFR and c-erbB-2 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (두경부 편평세포암종에서 p53, p21, EGFR 및 c-erbB-2 발현의 임상적 의의)

  • Lee Jun-Han;Do Nam-Yong;Park Sung-Yong;Kim Gun-Hyung;Cho Sung-Il
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2005
  • Background and Objectives: Because of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck undergoes a generally poor hospital course, the prognostic significance of the squamous cell carcinomas in head and neck have been evaluated to identify those features associated with aggressive biologic behavior according to the immunologic and histopathologic characteristics. Materials and Method: To assess the significance of EGFR, c-erbB-2, p21 and p53 protein in head and neck tumors and their correlation with prognostic factors, samples from 74 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of larynx, pharynx, and oral cavity were studied immunohistochemically. Results: EGFR, c-erbB-2, p21, and p53 protein were expressed 94.6%, 24.3%, 85.1%, and 55.4% in 74 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. The positive expression of EGFR was associated significantly with clinical stage and the negative expressions of p21 was associated significantly with histopathologic differentiation. There were no significant relationships between the reactivity of EGFR, c-erbB-2, p21, and p53 protein. Conclusion: The expression of EGFR, c-erbB-2, p21 and p53 protein could be related to oncogenesis, and the expression of p21 and EGFR protein can be used as a prognosticator in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma under certain limitations, but c-erbB-2 and p53 protein expression alone is not enough for evaluating prognosis of the carcinoma.

MDM2 T309G has a Synergistic Effect with P21 ser31arg Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on the Risk of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  • Ebid, Gamal T.;Sedhom, Iman A.;El-Gammal, Mosaad M.;Moneer, Manar M.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4315-4320
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    • 2012
  • Background: The P53 tumor suppressor gene plays a pivotal role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by preventing the propagation of genome mutations. P53 in its transcriptionally active form is capable of activating distinct target genes that contribute to either apoptosis or growth arrest, like P21. However, the MDM2 gene is a major negative regulator of P53. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in codon Arg72Pro of P53 results in impairment of the tumor suppressor activity of the gene. A similar effect is caused by a SNP in codon 31 of P21. In contrast, a SNP in position 309 of MDM2 results in increased expression due to substitution of thymine by guanine. All three polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk of tumorigenesis. Aim of the study: We aimed to study the prevalence of SNPs in the P53 pathway involving the three genes, P53, P21 and MDM2, among acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and to compare it to apparently normal healthy controls for assessment of impact on risk. Results: We found that the P21 ser31arg heterozygous polymorphism increases the risk of AML (P value=0.017, OR=2.946, 95% CI=1.216-7.134). Although the MDM2 309G allele was itself without affect, it showed a synergistic effect with P21 ser/arg polymorphism (P value=0.003, OR=6.807, 95% CI=1.909-24.629). However, the MDM2 309T allele abolish risk effect of the P21 polymorphic allele (P value=0.71). There is no significant association of P53 arg72pro polymorphism on the risk of AML. Conclusion: We suggest that SNPs in the P53 pathway, especially the P21 ser31arg polymorphism and combined polymorphisms especially the P21/MDM2 might be genetic susceptibility factors in the pathogenesis of AML.