• Title, Summary, Keyword: oolong tea

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Structure and Isolation of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor from Oolong Tea (우롱차로부터 Xanthine Oxidase 저해물질 분리 및 구조)

  • An, Bong-Jeun;Kim, Won-Keuk;Choi, Jang-Youn;Kwon, Ik-Boo;Choi, Cheong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.558-562
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    • 1992
  • Xanthine oxidase involved in pruine metabolism oxidizes hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. The derangement of pruine metabolism results in gout that associates painful deposit of monosodium urate in the cartilage of joints. In the continuous study for natural compound, six flavan-3-ols have been isolated from the leaves of Oolong tea. The structures of procyanidin B-1, B-3, procyanidin B-3-3-O-rhamnose, procyanidin B-1-3-O-gallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate were established by NMR and their inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activity was investigated. Flavan-3-ols containing the gallate had a high inhibitory capacity. Procyanidin B-1-3-O-gallate showed complete inhibition at $50\;{\mu}M$ and inhibited on the xanthine oxidase competitively.

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Isolation of Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from Semi-fermented Tea and Its Effects on Oxidative Stress

  • Chung, Ha-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 2009
  • Antioxidative activities of major pentacyclic terpenoids from the semi-fermented tea of Camellia sinensis L. were investigated. The free radical scavenging activities of triterpenoids $1{\sim}3$ were examined with of DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The $IC_{50}$ of compounds 1 and 2 for DPPH radical scavenging activities were 23.1 and $37.2{\mu}g/mL$ respectively, and for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were 37.2 and $35.2{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. According to this result, compounds 1 or 2 in semi-fermented tea could be the candidates for bioactive material having antioxidant activity.

Study on the Characteristic of Physicochemical Quality of Oolong herbs tea by Extraction Conditions (추출조건에 따른 우롱차의 이화학적 품질특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Kyu;Kim, Jong-Kuk;Kim, Jun-Han;Moon, Kwang-Deok;Oh, Sang-Lyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.411-417
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    • 1994
  • The extraction condition and quality attributes components in Oolong tea were investigated. Extraction yield was high in $80{\sim}85^{\circ}C$ above 50% ethanol solution. Sucrose content most high among the free sugar ranged $37.2{\sim}55.0\;mg/100\;g$, while arabinose was the least. Organic acids in ethanolic extracts were furmaric, citric and malic acid. Free amino acids were 15 kinds and contents of proline, tyrosine and glutamic acid were comparatively high. Tannin content extracted from water and 25% ethanol solution were 38.6 and $38.5\;{\mu}g/100\;g$, it decreased as ethanol concentration increase. Caffeine content did not changed as extraction conditions. Ascorbic acid content was $6.5\;{\mu}g/g$ when extracted from 25% ethanol solution, it decreased as ethanol concentration increase. Bitter and astringent taste affected to overall preference of Oolong tea. Tea manufactured from 25% ethanol solution extracts recorded most high organoleptic score than any other extraction condition.

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Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Fumigation on the Biological Qualities of Green, Black, and Oolong Teas

  • Kwon, Joong-Ho;Kausar, Tusneem;Kwon, Yong-Jung;Kim, Jung-Ae;Huh, Eun-Youp;Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll;Saeed, Shafqat
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2006
  • The biological qualities of green, black, and oolong teas were monitored by observing their microbial decontamination and insect disinfestation following gamma irradiation (0-10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr or $PH_3$) during 6-month storage at room temperature. Plodia interpunctella Hubner was found as an important quarantine pest in teas used. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective in disinfecting the stored samples. An irradiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of teas, while fumigation with methyl bromide and phosphine showed no appreciable decontamination effect on the microorganisms. As a result, irradiation was found an effective alternative to fumigants for the improvement of biological tea qualities during storage.

Fermentation: The Key Step in the Processing of Black Tea

  • Jolvis Pou, K.R.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2016
  • Background: The same plant, Camellia sinensis, is used to produce all types of tea, and the differences among the various types arise from the different processing steps that are used. Based on the degree of fermentation, tea can be classified as black, green, white, or oolong tea. Of these, black tea is the most or fully fermented tea. The oxidized polyphenolic compounds such as theaflavins (TF) and thearubigins (TR) formed during fermentation are responsible for the color, taste, flavor, and aroma of black tea. Results: Research indicates that an optimum ratio of TF and TR (1:10) is required to ensure a quality cup of tea. The concentrations of TF and TR as well as desirable quality characteristics increase as fermentation time increases, reaching optimum levels and then degrading if the fermentation time is prolonged. It is also necessary to control the environment for oxidation. There are no established environment conditions that must be maintained during the fermentation of the ruptured tea leaves. However, in most cases, the process is performed at a temperature of $24-29^{\circ}C$ for 2-4 h or 55-110 min for orthodox tea or crush, tear, and curl (CTC) black tea, respectively, under a high relative humidity of 95-98% with an adequate amount of oxygen. Conclusion: The polyphenolic compounds in black tea such as TF and TR as well as un-oxidized catechins are responsible for the health benefits of tea consumption. Tea is rich in natural antioxidant activities and is reported to have great potential for the management of various types of cancers, oral health problems, heart disease and stroke, and diabetes and to have other health benefits such as the ability to detoxify, improve urine and blood flow, stimulate, and improve the immune system.

Antimicrobial Activities of Commercially Available Tea on the Harmful Foodborne Organisms (식품유해균에 대한 차류 추출물의 항균효과)

  • 오덕환;이미경;박부길
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 1999
  • Use of chemical preservative for controlling harmful microorganisms in food products has been debated due to public concerns about food quality because of perceived toxic and carcinogenic potential. Thus, use of non toxic natural antimicrobial agents has become essential. This study was investigated to determine the antimicrobial activity of water or ethanol extract of commercially available tea, and of solvent fractionated ethanol extracts obtained from steamed green tea. Both of water and ethanol extracts of green tea(steamed or roasted), oolong tea and black tea exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria, but not effective against yeast and mold. Also, antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of 4 different kinds of tea was stronger than that of water extract. Among 4 different tea, ethanol extract of steamed green tea was further fractionated. One thousand g/disk buthanol extract had the strongest antimicrobial activity against bacteria and mold. The concentration of the antimicrobial activity of buthanol extract in tested microorganisms ranged from 125~1000 g/disk except for Rhizopus javanicus. Antimicrobial activity of buthanol extract of steamed green tea was not destroyed by heating at 100oC for 60 min and at 121oC for 15 min, which is very stable over heat treatment. The inhibitory effect of the buthanol extract on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Growth of both strains was started in the presence of 250 and 500 g/ml after 12 and 24 hour respectively, whereas complete inactivation of both strains was occurred in the presence of 1000 g/ml.

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The Exposure Risk Assessment of Residual Pesticides in Tea (다류에 존재하는 잔류농약 노출 안전성 평가)

  • Kim, Jae-Kwan;Oh, Moon-Seog;Kim, Ki-Yu;Kim, Yeong-Su;Son, Mi-Hee;Bae, Ho-Jung;Kang, Chung-Won;Park, Young-Bok;Yoon, Mi-Hye;Lee, Jong-Bok;Jeong, Ju-Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 2011
  • The investigation of 218 residual pesticides for 19 types of tea (persimmon leaf tea, chrysanthemum tea, green tea, lavender tea, rosemary tea, dandelion leaf tea, puer tea, mulberry leaf tea, hydrangea leaf tea, jasmine tea, nuomixiang tea, buckwheat tea, mugwort tea, lotus leaf tea, oolong tea, longjing tea, rose tea, tiehkwanyin tea and huoguo tea) obtained from markets in Ansan and Suwon was carried out to assess the risk for residual pesticides in tea. The detection rate was 23.1 % (19 samples of total 65 tea samples) and the detected pesticides were 15 pesticides, such as bifenthrin, bromopropylate, chlorpyrifos, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, dicofol, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, fenvalerate, iprobenfos, isoprothiolane, tetradifon and triazophos. The range of concentrations for the detected residual pesticides was 0.01 to 1.24 mg/kg which showed below their maximum residue limits (MRL), but the residual concentration of bifenthrin in a puer tea showed above the legal limit of 0.3 mg/kg. The result of risk assessment of residual pesticides for the detected 15 samples showed that EDI (estimated daily intake) of the pesticides detected ranged 0.0001~0.0844% of their ADI (acceptable daily intake).

The Effect of Plant Ethanolic Extracts on Oxidation of Soybean Oil (다류원류 식물류의 에탄올 추출물이 대두유의 산화에 미치는 영향)

  • 김미혜;김명철;박종석;박은지;김종욱;송경희;신동우;목진민;이종옥
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1355-1364
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    • 1998
  • This study was planned to investigate the effect of 40 plant ethanolic extracts on antioxidant activities in vitro. The total phenolics, $\beta$-carotene, $\alpha$-tocopherol and selenium contents were also determined . Antioxidant activities fo the ethanolic extracts(0.02%, w/w) in the soybean oil were measured both by determining the peroxide value (POV) during 35 days of storage at 4$0^{\circ}C$ in a forced draft air-incubator and by determining changes in conductivity at 11$0^{\circ}C$(Rancimat method.). Soybean oil without any additives was used as a control and that treated with 0.02% BHT was used as a positive control. Based on the POV determination, green tea extract was found to be the most effective in stabilizing soybean oil, then followed by long tea, which both of them showed higher antioxidant activities compared to the BHT treatment. The antioxidant activities of them showed higher antioxidant activities compared to the BHT treatment. the antioxidant activities of coffee, cinnamomi cortex, acanthopanacis cortex, black tea, orange peel , instant coffee, peony and crni fructus extracts were stronger compared to the control .By the Rancimat method, green tea leaf and oolong tea leaf, foxglove, acanthopanacis cortex and peony extracts. Compared to other extracts, green tea leaf, black tea leaf, foxglove, acanthopanacis cortex and peony extracts had stronger antioxidative effects in both the POV and Rancimat methods used in this study. ethanolic extracts which showed the stronger antioxidative effect also has the higher contents of total phenolics, $\beta$-carotene, and/or $\alpha$-tocopherol. The antioxidative effect of ethanolic extracts was found to be due to the combined effect of various antioxidants.

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Determination of Antioxidants Contents in Various Plants Used as Tea Materials (다류소재 식물류 중의 황산화물질 함량 분석)

  • Kim, Mee-Hye;Kim, Myung-Chul;Park, Jong-Seok;Park, Eun-Ji;Lee, Jong-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 1999
  • Forty plants used as tea materials were chosen for determining the contents of total phenolics, selenium (Se), ${\beta}-carotene$, ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ and ascorbate. Total phenolics and ascorbate contents were analyzed colorimetrically. The Se contents were measured by hydride-atomic absorption spectrometry. The contents of ${\beta}-carotene$ and ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ were simultaneously determined by high performance liquid chromatography using separate detectors, UV for ${\beta}-carotene$ and FL for ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ analyses. The contents of these antioxidants were as follows (per 100 g dry plant); Contents of total phenolics in green tea leaf, black tea leaf, oolong tea leaf and instant coffee were about 7 g and the Se contents in corni fructus and arrowroot were found to be about $4{\mu}g$, which were the highest among all plants used. Contents of ${\beta}-carotene$ in eucommiae cortex, persimmon leaf and green tea leaf were 8587, 6222 and $3652\;{\mu}g$ respectively. The persimon leaf contained the highest ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ content (33 mg) and then followed by eucommiae cortex (26 mg), green tea leaf (16 mg) and black tea leaf (13 mg) in order. Ascorbate contents were found to be high in green tea leaf (199 mg) and black tea leaf (117 mg).

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Physical and Microbiological Approach in Proving the Identity of Gamma-irradiated Different Teas

  • Kausar, Tusneem;Kim, Byeong-Keun;Kim, Dong-Ho;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2005
  • Photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL), electron spin resonance (ESR), and direct epiflourescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC) were applied to detect dried green, black, and oolong teas irradiated between 0-10 kGy. Teas irradiated at 2.5 kGy and higher showed over 5000 photon counts/60 sec, while non-irradiated teas yielded 650-1000 photon counts/60 sec. TL glow curves for minerals separated from teas were detected at about $300^{\circ}C$ with low intensity in non-irradiated samples, whereas around $150^{\circ}C$ with high intensity in all irradiated samples. Ratio of $TL_1/TL_2$ based on re-irradiation step, showing lower than 0.1 and higher than 1.44 for non-irradiated and irradiated samples, respectively, enhanced reliability of TL results. ESR measurements for irradiated teas showed signals specific to irradiation. Log DEFT/APC ratio increased with irradiation dose; this result could be applied to identify irradiated tea samples.