• Title/Summary/Keyword: non-identity

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THE IDENTITY-SUMMAND GRAPH OF COMMUTATIVE SEMIRINGS

  • Atani, Shahabaddin Ebrahimi;Hesari, Saboura Dolati Pish;Khoramdel, Mehdi
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.189-202
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    • 2014
  • An element r of a commutative semiring R with identity is said to be identity-summand if there exists $1{\neq}a{\in}R$ such that r+a = 1. In this paper, we introduce and investigate the identity-summand graph of R, denoted by ${\Gamma}(R)$. It is the (undirected) graph whose vertices are the non-identity identity-summands of R with two distinct vertices joint by an edge when the sum of the vertices is 1. The basic properties and possible structures of the graph ${\Gamma}(R)$ are studied.

Radiation Pattern of Multibeam Array Antenna with Digital Beamforming for Stratospheric Communication System: Statistical Simulation

  • Ku, Bon-Jun;Ahn, Do-Seob;Lee, Seong-Pal;Shishlov, A.V.;Reutov, A.S.;Ganin, S.A.;Shubov, A.G.
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 2002
  • This paper presents the results of the numerical simulation of a multibeam active phased array antenna for a High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS). The simulation takes into account the random errors caused by the non-identity of the array elements and the inaccuracy of the antenna calibration. The results of our statistical simulation show that the strict requirements on the sidelobe envelope for HAPSs can be met when the amplitude and phase distribution errors are minor, a condition which may be achieved by using digital beamforming.

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Analysis of the Required Limit on APAA Aperture using Statistical Simulation for HAPS

  • Ku, Bon-Jun;Park, Jong-Min;Kim, Yang-Su;Ahn, Do-Seob
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.1335-1338
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    • 2002
  • This paper presents the analysis of the required limit on a multibeam active phased array antenna (APAA) aperture using the statistical simulation for a High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS). The simulation takes into account the random errors caused by the non-identity of the array elements and the inaccuracy of the antenna calibration. The results of our statistical simulation show that the strict requirements on the sidelobe envelope for HAPSs can be met when the amplitude and phase distribution errors are minor, a condition which may be achieved by using digital beam forming.

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A Dynamic Approach to Anaphoric Resolution (조응어 해석을 위한 역동적 모델)

  • Chung, So-Woo
    • Language and Information
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-26
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    • 2008
  • This paper proposes a dynamic approach to anaphoric resolution in conjunction phrases, in terms of Discourse Representation Theory. Unlike Kamp, van Genabith, and Reyle (forthcomming)'s analysis, it proposes two different types of discourse representation structures for conjunction phrases; one for coordinate phrases such as and conjunction phrases and the other one for subordination conjunction phrases such as when subordination phrases. Following Chung (1992), Chung (2004), every element is processed in the order of occurrence and conjunction operators in a non-sentence-initial position cause the ongoing DR to split in two with the same index. DRS conditions and accessibility are accordingly modified so that DRs for conjunction clauses can be accessible from DRs for main clauses.

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REDUCED PROPERTY OVER IDEMPOTENTS

  • Kwak, Tai Keun;Lee, Yang;Seo, Young Joo
    • Korean Journal of Mathematics
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.483-492
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    • 2021
  • This article concerns the property that for any element a in a ring, if a2n = an for some n ≥ 2 then a2 = a. The class of rings with this property is large, but there also exist many kinds of rings without that, for example, rings of characteristic ≠2 and finite fields of characteristic ≥ 3. Rings with such a property is called reduced-over-idempotent. The study of reduced-over-idempotent rings is based on the fact that the characteristic is 2 and every nonzero non-identity element generates an infinite multiplicative semigroup without identity. It is proved that the reduced-over-idempotent property pass to polynomial rings, and we provide power series rings with a partial affirmative argument. It is also proved that every finitely generated subring of a locally finite reduced-over-idempotent ring is isomorphic to a finite direct product of copies of the prime field {0, 1}. A method to construct reduced-over-idempotent fields is also provided.

Characterization of the Organic Matrix Protein in the Freshwater Pelecypod Shells (담수산 이매패류 패각내 유기각질 단백질 특성)

  • 박성빈;조동현
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.3-14
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    • 1987
  • The electrophoretic and innunological cnalyses of organic matrices in the shells of freshwater bivalves were made in order to dlucidate the biochemical characteristics and species-specific differinces of the applied shells, The water-soluble and insoluble matrices of four species of freshwater bivalves, Andodonta fukudai, Unio douglasiae, Lanceolaria and Chrbicula fluminea, were used as analytical materials, There was non-identity in immuno affinity between anti soluble matrix(anti-Sm) and anti insoluble matrix(anti-ISM)sera against the organic matrix of Andodnta fukudai. The SMs of four species (S. fukudai, U.douglasiae, L. acrorhyncha, and C. fluminea) showed the differences in the precipitate arcs at the level of family, though ISMs did mot show differences. In the electrophoretic analysis, all foru species had two SDS-electrophoretic bands of SM, of which molecular wights appeared to be lower than 55,000, shereas the native organic matrices of foru speceis had higher molecular weighrs than those from SDS-dldctrophoresis. Only calcium ion among many ions in extrapallial fluid(EPF) caused SM to change into insoluble molecules, thus the EPF pretreated with Ca++did not form the precipitate arc when did the immuno diffusion whth anti SM serum. ISM precursor may be polymerized into macromolecules like periostracin, a precusor of periostracum, judging from the similat polymerization patterns in 0.1M Tris formate buffer(pH 3); they may be made insoluble macromolecules due to their strong natrue of hydrophobicity.

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Theoretical Studies on the Acyl Transfer Reactions Involving a Tetrahedral Intermediate$^\dag$

  • 이도영;김창곤;이본수;이익준
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1203-1208
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    • 1995
  • Theoretical studies of the effect of the nonleaving group (RY) on the breakdown mechanism of the tetrahedral anionic intermediate, T-, formed by the addition of a less basic phenoxide nucleophile (X) to phenyl benzoates with a more basic phenoxide leaving group (Z) have been carried out using the PM3 MO method. The identity acyl transfer reactions (X=Z) are facilitated by an electron-withdrawing RY whereas they are inhibited by an electron-donating RY group. The results of non-identity acyl transfer reactions indicate that a more electron-donating RY group leads to a greater lowering of the higher barrier, TS2, with a greater degree of bond cleavage, and a greater negative charge development on the phenoxide oxygen atom, whereas the opposite is true for a more electron-withdrawing RY group, i.e., leads to a greater lowering of the lower barrier, TS1. The results provide theoretical basis for the signs of ρXY(>0) and ρYZ(<0) observations.

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ON A PERMUTABLITY PROBLEM FOR GROUPS

  • TAERI BIJAN
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.20 no.1_2
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    • pp.75-96
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    • 2006
  • Let m, n be positive integers. We denote by R(m,n) (respectively P(m,n)) the class of all groups G such that, for every n subsets $X_1,X_2\ldots,X_n$, of size m of G there exits a non-identity permutation $\sigma$ such that $X_1X_2{\cdots}X_n{\cap}X_{\sigma(1)}X_{/sigma(2)}{\cdots}X_{/sigma(n)}\neq\phi$ (respectively $X_1X_2{\cdots}X_n=X_{/sigma(1)}X_{\sigma(2)}{\cdots}X_{\sigma(n)}$). Let G be a non-abelian group. In this paper we prove that (i) $G{\in}P$(2,3) if and only if G isomorphic to $S_3$, where $S_n$ is the symmetric group on n letters. (ii) $G{\in}R$(2, 2) if and only if ${\mid}G{\mid}\geq8$. (iii) If G is finite, then $G{\in}R$(3, 2) if and only if ${\mid}G{\mid}\geq14$ or G is isomorphic to one of the following: SmallGroup(16, i), $i\in$ {3, 4, 6, 11, 12, 13}, SmallGroup(32, 49), SmallGroup(32, 50), where SmallGroup(m, n) is the nth group of order m in the GAP [13] library.

Policing the Border: Is Kitsch Still the Antagonist of Art? (예술과 문화의 영역에 대한 재고 - 문화의 타자 키치, 아직도 예술의 적인가?)

  • Kim, Hee-Young
    • The Journal of Art Theory & Practice
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    • no.5
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    • pp.25-41
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    • 2007
  • Despite continuous efforts to redraw the boundaries between art and culture, the conventional concept of originality has persisted in approaches to the practice of contemporary art. In the discourse of originality, various forms of lesser arts that employ the method of replication have been referred to as kitsch, or "rear-guard," the opposite of avant-garde. This categorization points to the contested issue regarding the oppositional relation between modernism and mass culture. With its easily accessible content and financial affordability, mass culture has become both an irresistible attraction and a most powerful threat to modernism. This threat has instigated a discursive system that has situated mass culture as a cultural other of modernism. Taking the marginalized category of kitsch as the area of contention, this paper examines a discursive repression of kitsch. It analyzes the conceptual framework that defends originality and autonomy in art and, conversely, degrades kitsch as an inferior and dangerous cultural category. Greenberg'S concept of kitsch as a by-product of industrialization evolved into the criticism that advocates the autonomy of art. The Frankfurt School scholars, particularly Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, practiced comparable cultural critiques. Focusing on mass culture such as film, radio, and television, instead of art works, they critically analyzed the system of mass culture and theorized the negative implications of the ubiquitous presence of kitsch. Some critics, on the other hand, perceived the growth of mass culture as opening possibilities in cultural development. Walter Benjamin and Harold Rosenberg asserted the socio-cultural dynamics of mass culture underlining the potential for continual transformation in reality and in the subject. They acknowledged that technological advances changed the condition of creation and enabled unmediated interactions between media. By scrutinizing conflicting views on kitsch, this paper intends to reassess arts that draw "the forces of the outside."

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