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Thinning Intensity for Large Diameter Trees in Korean White Pine Plantation of South Korea

  • Lee, Daesung;Seo, Yeongwan;Park, Jiyoung;Choi, Jungkee
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.74-77
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of thinning intensity on the growth of large diameter trees in Korean white pine (Pinus koraiensis S. et Z.) plantation. Eight thinning plots were analyzed by categorizing into heavy thinning, light thinning, no thinning (control) according to thinning intensity. As a result, average DBH increased more in heavy thinning plots than in light thinning or unthinned plots. The number of large trees (DBH>25 cm) were obviously shown the most in heavy thinning plots. It is considered that heavy thinning is needed for the production of the large diameter trees.

Reduction of surface roughness during high speed thinning of silicon wafer

  • Heo, W.;Ahn, J.H.;Lee, N.E.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.392-392
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    • 2010
  • In this study, high-speed chemical dry thinning process of Si wafer and evolution of surface roughness were investigated. Direct injection of NO gas into the reactor during the supply of F radicals from $NF_3$ remote plasmas was very effective in increasing the Si thinning rate due to the NO-induced enhancement of surface reaction but thinned Si surface became roughened significantly. Addition of Ar gas, together with NO gas, decreased root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of thinned Si wafer significantly. The process regime for the thinning rate enhancement with reduced surface roughness was extended at higher Ar gas flow rate. Si wafer thinning rate as high as $22.8\;{\mu}m/min$ and root-mean-squared (RMS) surface roughness as small as 0.75 nm could be obtained. It is expected that high-speed chemical dry thinning process has possibility of application to ultra-thin Si wafer thinning with no mechanical damage.

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Effect of N2/Ar flow rates on Si wafer surface roughness during high speed chemical dry thinning

  • Heo, W.;Lee, N.E.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.128-128
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we investigated the evolution and reduction of the surface roughness during the high-speed chemical dry thinning process of Si wafers. The direct injection of NO gas into the reactor during the supply of F radicals from NF3 remote plasmas was very effective in increasing the Si thinning rate, due to the NO-induced enhancement of the surface reaction, but resulted in the significant roughening of the thinned Si surface. However, the direct addition of Ar and N2 gas, together with NO gas, decreased the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of the thinned Si wafer significantly. The process regime for the increasing of the thinning rate and concomitant reduction of the surface roughness was extended at higher Ar gas flow rates. In this way, Si wafer thinning rate as high as $20\;{\mu}m/min$ and very smooth surface roughness was obtained and the mechanical damage of silicon wafer was effectively removed. We also measured die fracture strength of thinned Si wafer in order to understand the effect of chemical dry thinning on removal of mechanical damage generated during mechanical grinding. The die fracture strength of the thinned Si wafers was measured using 3-point bending test and compared. The results indicated that chemical dry thinning with reduced surface roughness and removal of mechanical damage increased the die fracture strength of the thinned Si wafer.

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Effects of thinning intensity on nutrient concentration and enzyme activity in Larix kaempferi forest soils

  • Kim, Seongjun;Han, Seung Hyun;Li, Guanlin;Yoon, Tae Kyung;Lee, Sang-Tae;Kim, Choonsig;Son, Yowhan
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.5-11
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    • 2016
  • Background: As the decomposition of lignocellulosic compounds is a rate-limiting stage in the nutrient mineralization from organic matters, elucidation of the changes in soil enzyme activity can provide insight into the nutrient dynamics and ecosystem functioning. The current study aimed to assess the effect of thinning intensities on soil conditions. Un-thinned control, 20 % thinning, and 30 % thinning treatments were applied to a Larix kaempferi forest, and total carbon and nitrogen, total carbon to total nitrogen ratio, extractable nutrients (inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium), and enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, ${\beta}$-glucosidase, ${\beta}$-xylosidase, ${\beta}$-glucosaminidase) were investigated. Results: Total carbon and nitrogen concentrations were significantly increased in the 30 % thinning treatment, whereas both the 20 and 30 % thinning treatments did not change total carbon to total nitrogen ratio. Inorganic nitrogen and extractable calcium and magnesium concentrations were significantly increased in the 20 % thinning treatment; however, no significant changes were found for extractable phosphorus and potassium concentrations either in the 20 or the 30 % thinning treatment. However, the applied thinning intensities had no significant influences on acid phosphatase, ${\beta}$-glucosidase, ${\beta}$-xylosidase, and ${\beta}$-glucosaminidase activities. Conclusions: These results indicated that thinning can elevate soil organic matter quantity and nutrient availability, and different thinning intensities may affect extractable soil nutrients inconsistently. The results also demonstrated that such inconsistent patterns in extractable nutrient concentrations after thinning might not be fully explained by the shifts in the enzyme-mediated nutrient mineralization.

Comparative analysis of forest fire danger rating on the forest characteristics of thinning area and non-thinning area on forest fire burnt area (산불피해지역에서 숲 가꾸기 실행유무가 산불에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Si-Young;Lee, Myung-Woog;Yeom, Chan-Ho;Kwon, Chun-Geun
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.153-156
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    • 2008
  • Comparative analysis of forest fire danger rating on the forest characteristics of thinning area and non-thinning area on forest fire burnt area was studied in this work. To investigate the effect of thinning slash in forest fire, Gangneung-si Wangsan-myeon, Ulgin-gun Wonnam-Myeon, Samchok-si Gagok-Myeon, in which forest fire broke out, were selected. As a result that investigated forest fire danger ratio between thinning slash and non-thinning slash, leeward scorching ratio(36%), crown damage ratio(29%), mortality of branch at the former are higher than those at the latter, leeward scorching ratio of tree, where thinning slash is around, is 10%-20% higher than that of independent tree. So I estimate that thinning slash has a some effect on the intensity of forest fire. And the result to investigate damage of forest fire according to tree species shows that leeward scorching ratio of conifer is 5% higher than that of non-conifer, and mortality of branch of the former is 19% higher than that of the latter. It is considered that forest fire may affect directly to a tree trunk if it diffuse to piled thinning tree because there was no space between thinning trees and trees. Furthermore, it was found that re-ignition had a chance to occur due to lots of piled thinning trees.

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Effects of Cluster and Flower Thinning on Yield and Fruit Quality in Highbush 'Jersey' Blueberry (적방.적화 처리가 하이부쉬 'Jersey' 블루베리 과실의 수량과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Gook;Ryou, Myung-Sang;Jung, Sung-Min;Hwang, Yong-Soo
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.392-396
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    • 2010
  • This research focused on determining the effectiveness of cluster and/or flower thinning in highbush 'Jersey' blueberry on the yield and fruit quality. The total yield and quality of fruit were compared between thinning methods of control (no thinning), 1/3 cluster thinning, 1/3 cluster thinning + 1/2 flower thinning, 2/3 cluster thinning, and 2/3 cluster thinning + 1/2 flower thinning per each bearing shoot, respectively. Thinning strength significantly affected the yield of bearing shoot and, thus, total yield of control and 1/3 cluster thinning was higher than others. Both cluster and flower thinning, however, significantly affected the fruit growth resulting in the increase of fruit weight, length and width. Even total yield was similar between control and 1/3 cluster thinning, more larger fruit (> 1.6 g) were produced by 1/3 cluster thinning treatment, indicating that flower and/or cluster thinning contributed to the increase of individual fruit growth. Unlike fruit growth, fruit quality was less affected except total soluble solid contents. Total soluble solid level significantly increased in treatments (2/3 cluster thinning, 2/3 cluster thinning + 1/2 flower thinning) with yield decrease. No significant difference in levels of acidity and firmness of fruit was found. Results indicated that fruit growth and total yield of highbush blueberry was more influenced by the thinning strength regardless of cluster or flower than internal quality of fruit such as solid and acid levels.

The Three-year Effect of Thinning Intensity on Biomass in Larix kaempferi and Pinus koraiensis Plantation

  • Chhorn, Vireak;Seo, Yeongwan;Lee, Daesung;Choi, Jungkee
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed to figure out and compare the increment of biomass by thinning intensity focused on the plantation of the two major coniferous species (Larix kaempferi and Pinus koraiensis) of South Korea. The inventory interval was three years under the effects of three types of thinning treatments; control (no thinning), light (20% thinning) and heavy (40% thinning). The results showed standing biomass increment of both species decreased as thinning intensity increased (heavylight>control). Meanwhile, the lowest of on-site biomass changes occurred in the control plot, and the greatest was in the heavy thinning plot because thinning was involved with leaving the felling residual biomass (leaves, branches and roots) on the site. According to the results from this short-term study, unthinned stands is preferable for maximizing standing biomass as well as carbon sequestration. However long-term investigation should be considered in order to see more clear results.

Prediction and optimization of thinning in automotive sealing cover using Genetic Algorithm

  • Kakandikar, Ganesh M.;Nandedkar, Vilas M.
    • Journal of Computational Design and Engineering
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2016
  • Deep drawing is a forming process in which a blank of sheet metal is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch and converted to required shape. Deep drawing involves complex material flow conditions and force distributions. Radial drawing stresses and tangential compressive stresses are induced in flange region due to the material retention property. These compressive stresses result in wrinkling phenomenon in flange region. Normally blank holder is applied for restricting wrinkles. Tensile stresses in radial direction initiate thinning in the wall region of cup. The thinning results into cracking or fracture. The finite element method is widely applied worldwide to simulate the deep drawing process. For real-life simulations of deep drawing process an accurate numerical model, as well as an accurate description of material behavior and contact conditions, is necessary. The finite element method is a powerful tool to predict material thinning deformations before prototypes are made. The proposed innovative methodology combines two techniques for prediction and optimization of thinning in automotive sealing cover. Taguchi design of experiments and analysis of variance has been applied to analyze the influencing process parameters on Thinning. Mathematical relations have been developed to correlate input process parameters and Thinning. Optimization problem has been formulated for thinning and Genetic Algorithm has been applied for optimization. Experimental validation of results proves the applicability of newly proposed approach. The optimized component when manufactured is observed to be safe, no thinning or fracture is observed.

The Effects of Thinning on Fine Root Distribution and Litterfall in a Pinus koraiensis Plantation

  • Park, Byung-Bae;Lee, Im-Kyun;Yang, Hee-Moon
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thinning on fine root biomass and vertical distribution. and litterfall amount in a 50 year old Pinus koraiensis plantation in Chuncheon, Kangwon Province. Fine root (< 2 mm in diameter) biomass ($367\;g/m^2$) in the site 'OC_75', thinning once in 1975, was 68% of those in the site 'CON', no thinning after planting, and in the site 'TC_00', thinning twice in 1975 and 2000. There were no significant differences of dead roots among treatments. Diameter $0{\sim}1\;mm$ roots were vertically decreased only in the TC_00 site. The litterfall was very similar between OC_75 ($5.2\;Mg\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$) and TC_00 ($4.7\;Mg\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$), but the composition of litterfall was different: The proportion of leaves and branches was 80% and 13% in OC_75 and 56% and 36% in TC_00, respectively. Reduction of P. koraiensis density by thinning decreased leaf litter as well as fine roots of P. koraiensis, but increased fine roots production by neighboring understory plants offset the reduction of fine roots of P. koraiensis. We suggest that belowground as well as aboveground responses, including both over- and understory vegetation, should be considered to measure the responses of trees in thinned forest ecosystems.

Comparative Analysis of Forest Fire Danger Rating on Accumulation Types of the Leaving of Thinning Slash (숲가꾸기 산물의 적재형태에 따른 산불위험성 비교 분석)

  • Lee, Si-Young;Lee, Myung-Woog;Lee, Hae-Pyeong
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2008
  • The effect of thinned trees which are produced from forest thinning on forest fire was studied in this work. To investigate the effect of thinning slash, Yang-yang, In-je, and Ga-pyeong-gun were selected as thinning-areas and non-thinning areas. The research was carried out with the variations of tree's types, area's characteristics, thinning strength, thinning types, and pile types of thinned tree. The survey areas of 14 areas were selected at Yangyang-gun(5 areas), Gapyeong-gun(4 areas), and Inje-gun(5 areas), and on-the-spot investigations were carried out at the thinning areas of 9 and the non-thinning areas of 5, respectively. Non-thinning areas of 5, which are adjacent to thinning areas, were selected for the comparison with thinning areas and for the analysis of risk of forest fire. It is considered that forest fire have no chance to diffuse to a tree trunk because the height of thinned trees was lower than 1 m. However, it is considered that forest fire may affect directly to a tree trunk if it spread to piled thinned tree because there was no space between thinned trees and trees. Furthermore, it was found that re-ignition had a chance to occur due to lots of piled thinning trees.