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A Numerical Study on the Karman Vortex Generated by Breaking of Mountain Wave

  • Sung-Dae Kang;Fujio Kimura
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.105.2-117
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    • 1992
  • The formation mechanism of the vortex streets in the lee of the mountain Is Investigated by a three-dimensional numerical model. The model is based upon the hydrostatic Boussinesq equations in which the vertical turbulent momentum flux is estimated by a turbulence parameterization scheme, but the horizontal viscosity is assumed to be constant. The results show that Karman vortex streets can form even without surface friction in a constant ambient flow with uniform stratification. The vortex formation is related to breaking of the mountain wave, which depends on the Froude number (Fr). In the case of a three-dimensional bell-shaped mountain, the wave breaking occurs when Fr is less than about 0.8, while a barman vortex forms when Fr is less than about 0.22. Vortex formation also depends on Reynolds number, which is estimated from the horizontal diffusivity. The vortex formation can be explained by the wave saturation theory given by Lindzen (1981) with some modification. Simulations in this study show that in the case of Karman vortex formation the momentum flux in the lower level is much larger than the saturated momentum flux, whereas it is almost equal to the saturated momentum at the upper levels as expected from the saturation theory. As a result, large flux divergence is produced in the lower layer, the mean flow is decelerated behind the mountain, and the horizontal wind shear forms between unmodified ambient wind. The momentum exchange between the mean flow and the mountain wave is produced by the turbulence within a breaking wave. From the result, well developed vortices like Karman vortex can be formed. . The results of the momentum budget calculated by the hydrostatic model are almost the same as nonhydrostatic results as long as horizontal scale of the mountain is 10 km. A well developed barman vortex similar to the hydrostatic one was simulated in the nonhydrostatic case. Therefore, we conclude that the hydrostatic assumption is adequate to investigate the origin of the Km8n vortex from the viewpoint of wave breaking.

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A Numerical Study on the Karman Vortex Generated by Breaking of Mountain Wave

  • Kang Sung-Dae;Kimura Fujio
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.105-117
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    • 1997
  • The formation mechanism of the vortex streets in the lee of the mountain is investigated by a three-dimensional numerical model. The model is based upon the hydrostatic Boussinesq equations in which the vertical turbulent momentum flux is estimated by a turbulence parameterization scheme, but the horizontal viscosity is assumed to be constant. The results show that Karman vortex streets can form even without surface friction in a constant ambient flow with uniform stratification. The vortex formation is related to breaking of the mountain wave, which depends on the Froude number (Fr). In the case of a three-dimensional bell-shaped mountain, the wave breaking occurs when Fr is less than about 0.8, while a Karman vortex forms when Fr is less than about 0.22. Vortex formation also depends on Reynolds number, which is estimated from the horizontal diffusivity. The vortex formation can be explained by the wave saturation theory given by Lindzen (1981) with some modification. Simulations in this study show that in the case of Karman vortex formation the momentum flux in the lower level is much larger than the saturated momentum flux whereas it is almost equal to the saturated momentum at the upper levels as expected from the saturation theory. As a result, large flux divergence is produced in the lower layer, the mean flow is decelerated behind the mountain, and the horizontal wind shear forms between unmodified ambient wind. The momentum exchange between the mean flow and the mountain wave is produced by the turbulence within a breaking wave. From the result, well developed vortices like Karman vortex can be formed. The results of the momentum budget calculated by the hydrostatic model are almost the same as nonhydrostatic results as long as horizontal scale of the mountain is 10 km. A well developed Karman vortex similar to the hydrostatic one was simulated in the nonhydrostatic case. Therefore, we conclude that the hydrostatic assumption is adequate to investigate the origin of the Karman vortex from the viewpoint of wave breaking.

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A Simple Simulation of Parabola-Shaped Clouds in the Lee of a Low Bell-Shaped Mountain Using the ARPS

  • Lee, Seung-Jae;Lee, Hwa-Woon;Kang, Sung-Dae
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.541-548
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    • 2007
  • A three-dimensional linear model and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) were used to simulate parabola-shaped disturbances and clouds in the lee of a bell-shaped mountain. The ARPS model was compared in the x-y plane against the linear model's analytic solution. Under similar conditions with the linear theory, the ARPS produced well-developed parabola-shaped mountain disturbances and confirmed the features are accounted for in the linear regime. A parabola-shaped cloud in the lee of an isolated bell-shaped mountain was successfully simulated in the ARPS after 6 hours of integration time with the prescribed initial and boundary conditions, as well as a microphysical scheme.

An Investigation of Synoptic Condition for Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT) Events Occurred over South Korea (한국에서 발생한 청천난류 사례에서 나타나는 종관규모 대기상태에 대한 연구)

  • Min, Jae-Sik;Chun, Hye-Yeong;Kim, Jung-Hoon
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.69-83
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    • 2011
  • The synoptic condition of clear-air turbulence (CAT) events occurred over South Korea is investigated, using the Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System (RDAPS) data obtained from the Korea Meteorological Agency (KMA) and pilot reports (PIREPs) collected by Korea Aviation Meteorological Agency (KAMA) from 1 Dec. 2003 to 30 Nov. 2008. Throughout the years, strong subtropical jet stream exists over the South Korea, and the CAT events frequently occur in the upper-level frontal zone and subtropical jet stream regions where strong vertical wind shears locate. The probability of the moderate or greater (MOG)-level turbulence occurrence is higher in wintertime than in summertime, and high probability region is shifted northward across the jet stream in wintertime. We categorize the CAT events into three types according to their generation mechanisms: i) upper-level front and jet stream, ii) anticyclonically sheared and curved flows, and iii) breaking of mountain waves. Among 240 MOG-level CAT events reported during 2003-2008, 103 cases are related to jet stream while 73 cases and 25 cases are related to the anticyclonic shear flow and breaking of mountain wave, respectively.

A Numerical Study on Clear-Air Turbulence Events Occurred over South Korea (한국에서 발생한 청천난류 사례들에 대한 수치연구)

  • Min, Jae-Sik;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Chun, Hye-Yeong
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.321-330
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    • 2012
  • Generation mechanisms of the three moderate-or-greater (MOG)-level clear-air turbulence (CAT) encounters over South Korea are investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The cases are selected among the MOG-level CAT events occurred in Korea during 2002-2008 that are categorized into three different generation mechanisms (upper-level front and jet stream, anticyclonic flow, and mountain waves) in the previous study by Min et al. For the case at 0127 UTC 18 Jun 2003, strong vertical wind shear (0.025 $s^{-1}$) generates shearing instabilities below the enhanced upper-level jet core of the maximum wind speed exceeding 50 m $s^{-1}$, and it induces turbulence near the observed CAT event over mid Korea. For the case at 2330 UTC 22 Nov 2006, areas of the inertia instability represented by the negative absolute vorticity are formed in the anticyclonically sheared side of the jet stream, and turbulence is activated near the observed CAT event over southwest of Korea. For the case at 0450 UTC 16 Feb 2003, vertically propagating mountain waves locally trigger shearing instability (Ri < 0.25) near the area where the background Richardson number is sufficiently small (0.25 < Ri < 1), and it induces turbulence near the observed CAT over the Eastern mountainous region of South Korea.

Flow Regimes of Continuously Stratified Flow over a Double Mountain (두 개의 산악 위에서의 연속적으로 성층화된 흐름의 흐름 체계)

  • Han, Ji-Young;Kim, Jae-Jin;Baik, Jong-Jin
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.231-240
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    • 2007
  • The flow regimes of continuously stratified flow over a double mountain and the effects of a double mountain on wave breaking, upstream blocking, and severe downslope windstorms are investigated using a mesoscale numerical model (ARPS). According to the occurrence or non-occurrence of wave breaking and upstream blocking, three different flow regimes are identified over a double mountain. Higher critical Froude numbers are required for wave breaking and upstream blocking initiation for a double mountain than for an isolated mountain. This means that the nonlinearity and blocking effect for a double mountain is larger than that for an isolated mountain. As the separation distance between two mountains decreases, the degree of flow nonlinearity increases, while the blocking effect decreases. A rapid increase of the surface horizontal velocity downwind of each mountain near the critical mountain height for wave breaking initiation indicates that severe downslope windstorms are enhanced by wave breaking. For the flow with wave breaking, the numerically calculated surface drag is much larger than theoretically calculated one because the region with the maximum negative perturbation pressure moves from the top to the downwind slope of each mountain as the internal jump propagating downwind occurs.

Development of the Global-Korean Aviation Turbulence Guidance (Global-KTG) System Using the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) (기상청 전지구 수치예보모델을 이용한 전지구 한국형 항공난류 예측시스템(G-KTG) 개발)

  • Lee, Dan-Bi;Chun, Hye-Yeong
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2018
  • The Global-Korean aviation Turbulence Guidance (G-KTG) system is developed using the operational Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System of Korea Meteorological Administration with 17-km horizontal grid spacing. The G-KTG system provides an integrated solution of various clear-air turbulence (CAT) diagnostics and mountain-wave induced turbulence (MWT) diagnostics for low [below 10 kft (3.05 km)], middle [10 kft (3.05 km) - 20 kft (6.10 km)], and upper [20 kft (6.10 km) - 50 kft (15.24 km)] levels. Individual CAT and MWT diagnostics in the G-KTG are converted to a 1/3 power of energy dissipation rate (EDR). 12-h forecast of the G-KTG is evaluated using 6-month period (2016.06~2016.11) of in-situ EDR observation data. The forecast skill is calculated by area under curve (AUC) where the curve is drawn by pairs of probabilities of detection of "yes" for moderate-or-greater-level turbulence events and "no" for null-level turbulence events. The AUCs of G-KTG for the upper, middle, and lower levels are 0.79, 0.69, and 0.63, respectively. Comparison of the upper-level G-KTG with the regional-KTG in East Asia reveals that the forecast skill of the G-KTG (AUC = 0.77) is similar to that of the regional-KTG (AUC = 0.79) using the Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System with 12-km horizontal grid spacing.

Comparative Analysis of Observation and NWP Data of Downslope Windstorm Cases during 3-Dimensional Meteorological Observation Project in Yeongdong Region of Gangwon province, South Korea in 2020 (2020 강원영동 공동 입체기상관측 기간 강풍 사례에 대한 관측자료와 수치모델 비교 분석)

  • Kwon, Soon-Beom;Park, Se-Taek
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.395-404
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    • 2021
  • In order to investigate downslope windstorm by using more detailed observation, we observed 6 cases at 3 sites - Inje, Yongpyeong, and Bukgangneung - during "3-D Meteorological Observation Project in Yeongdong region of Gangwon province, South Korea in 2020." The results from analysis of the project data were as follows. First, AWS data showed that a subsidence inversion layer appeared in 800~700 hPa on the windward side and 900~850 hPa on the leeward side. Second, before strong wind occurred, the inversion layer had descended to about 880~800 hPa. Third, with mountain wave breaking, downslope wind was intensified at the height of 2~3 km above sea level. After the downslope wind began to descend, the subsidence inversion layer developed. When the subsidence inversion layer got close to the ground, wind peak occurred. In general, UM (Unified Model) GDAPS (Global Data Assimilation Prediction System) have had negative bias in wind speed around peak area of Taebaek mountain range, and positive bias in that of East Sea coast area. The stronger wind blew, the larger the gap between observed and predicted wind speed by GDAPS became. GDAPS predicted strong p-velocity at 0600 LST 25 Apr 2020 (4th case) and weak p-velocity at 2100 LST 01 Jun 2020 (6th case) on the lee-side of Taebaek mountain range near Yangyang. As hydraulic jump theory was proved, which is known as a mechanism of downslope windstorm in Yeongdong region, it was confirmed that there is a relationship between p-velocity of lee-side and wind speed of eastern slope of Taebaek mountain range.

Analysis of Spatial Variability of Surface Wind during the Gangwon Yeongdong Wind Experiments (G-WEX) in 2020 (2020 강원영동 강풍 관측에서 지상 바람의 공간 변동성 분석)

  • Kim, Yu-Jeong;Kwon, Tae-Yong
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.377-394
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    • 2021
  • The recent largest forest fire in the Yeongdong region, Goseung/Okgae fires of 2019 occurred during YangGang wind event. The wind can be locally gusty and extremely dry, particularly in the complex terrain of Yeongdong. These winds can cause and/or rapidly spread wildfires, the threat of which is serious during the dry spring season. This study examines the spatial variability of the surface wind and its coupling with the upper atmospheric wind using the data during the IOP of the Gangwon Yeongdong Wind Experiments (G-WEX) conducted in 2020 and the data during YangGang wind event on 4~5 April 2019. In the case of IOPs, strong wind at the surface with a constant wind direction appears in the mountain area, and weak wind with large variability in wind direction appears from foothill to the coast in the vicinity of Gangneung region. However, in the 2019 event, strong wind at the surface with a constant wind direction appears in the entire region from the mountain to the coast, even with the stronger wind in the coast than in some part of the mountain area. The characteristics of the upper atmospheric wind related with the spatial distribution of surface wind show that during IOPs of G-WEX, a strong downdraft exists near the mountaintop in the level of about 1 to 4 km. However, in the 2019 event a strong downdraft is reinforced, when its location moves toward the coast and descends close to the ground. These downdrafts are generated by the breaking of mountain waves.