• 제목, 요약, 키워드: mixing ratio

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에폭시 수지 모르터의 특성에 관한 실험적 연구 (Experimental Studies on the Properties of Epoxy Resin Mortars)

  • 연규석;강신업
    • 한국농공학회지
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.52-72
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    • 1984
  • This study was performed to obtain the basic data which can be applied to the use of epoxy resin mortars. The data was based on the properties of epoxy resin mortars depending upon various mixing ratios to compare those of cement mortar. The resin which was used at this experiment was Epi-Bis type epoxy resin which is extensively being used as concrete structures. In the case of epoxy resin mortar, mixing ratios of resin to fine aggregate were 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 6, 1: 8, 1:10, 1 :12 and 1:14, but the ratio of cement to fine aggregate in cement mortar was 1 : 2.5. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1.When the mixing ratio was 1: 6, the highest density was 2.01 g/cm$^3$, being lower than 2.13 g/cm$^3$ of that of cement mortar. 2.According to the water absorption and water permeability test, the watertightness was shown very high at the mixing ratios of 1: 2, 1: 4 and 1: 6. But then the mixing ratio was less than 1 : 6, the watertightness considerably decreased. By this result, it was regarded that optimum mixing ratio of epoxy resin mortar for watertight structures should be richer mixing ratio than 1: 6. 3.The hardening shrinkage was large as the mixing ratio became leaner, but the values were remarkably small as compared with cement mortar. And the influence of dryness and moisture was exerted little at richer mixing ratio than 1: 6, but its effect was obvious at the lean mixing ratio, 1: 8, 1:10,1:12 and 1:14. It was confirmed that the optimum mixing ratio for concrete structures which would be influenced by the repeated dryness and moisture should be rich mixing ratio higher than 1: 6. 4.The compressive, bending and splitting tensile strenghs were observed very high, even the value at the mixing ratio of 1:14 was higher than that of cement mortar. It showed that epoxy resin mortar especially was to have high strength in bending and splitting tensile strength. Also, the initial strength within 24 hours gave rise to high value. Thus it was clear that epoxy resin was rapid hardening material. The multiple regression equations of strength were computed depending on a function of mixing ratios and curing times. 5.The elastic moduli derived from the compressive stress-strain curve were slightly smaller than the value of cement mortar, and the toughness of epoxy resin mortar was larger than that of cement mortar. 6.The impact resistance was strong compared with cement mortar at all mixing ratios. Especially, bending impact strength by the square pillar specimens was higher than the impact resistance of flat specimens or cylinderic specimens. 7.The Brinell hardness was relatively larger than that of cement mortar, but it gradually decreased with the decline of mixing ratio, and Brinell hardness at mixing ratio of 1 :14 was much the same as cement mortar. 8.The abrasion rate of epoxy resin mortar at all mixing ratio, when Losangeles abation testing machine revolved 500 times, was very low. Even mixing ratio of 1 :14 was no more than 31.41%, which was less than critical abrasion rate 40% of coarse aggregate for cement concrete. Consequently, the abrasion rate of epoxy resin mortar was superior to cement mortar, and the relation between abrasion rate and Brinell hardness was highly significant as exponential curve. 9.The highest bond strength of epoxy resin mortar was 12.9 kg/cm$^2$ at the mixing ratio of 1:2. The failure of bonded flat steel specimens occurred on the part of epoxy resin mortar at the mixing ratio of 1: 2 and 1: 4, and that of bonded cement concrete specimens was fond on the part of combained concrete at the mixing ratio of 1 : 2 ,1: 4 and 1: 6. It was confirmed that the optimum mixing ratio for bonding of steel plate, and of cement concrete should be rich mixing ratio above 1 : 4 and 1 : 6 respectively. 10.The variations of color tone by heating began to take place at about 60˚C, and the ultimate change occurred at 120˚C. The compressive, bending and splitting tensile strengths increased with rising temperature up to 80˚ C, but these rapidly decreased when temperature was above 800 C. Accordingly, it was evident that the resistance temperature of epoxy resin mortar was about 80˚C which was generally considered lower than that of the other concrete materials. But it is likely that there is no problem in epoxy resin mortar when used for unnecessary materials of high temperature resistance. The multiple regression equations of strength were computed depending on a function of mixing ratios and heating temperatures. 11.The susceptibility to chemical attack of cement mortar was easily affected by inorganic and organic acid. and that of epoxy resin mortar with mixing ratio of 1: 4 was of great resistance. On the other hand, when mixing ratio was lower than 1 : 8 epoxy resin mortar had very poor resistance, especially being poor resistant to organicacid. Therefore, for the structures requiring chemical resistance optimum mixing of epoxy resin mortar should be rich mixing ratio higher than 1: 4.

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산성폐광폐수를 이용한 매립지 침출수의 응집처리 (Coagulation Treatment of Landfill Leachate Using Acid Mine Drainage(AMD))

  • 최봉종;이승목;이상호
    • 한국환경보건학회지
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2000
  • The objective of this study was to invetigate the coagulation effects of landfill leachate by using Acid Mine Drainage(AND). The coagulation efficiency was investigated by mixing landfill leachate with F $e^{+3}$ solution earned by oxidation of pyrite(AMD). In the results of this experiment, it was found that the amount of removed COD and SS was approximately 30% respectively by mixing at the ratio of AMD three to leachate one. And it showed highest turbidity removal efficiency at all mixing ratio. Concentration of Fe was decreased with increasing mixing ratio, however it was increased inversely at mixing ratio 4. Optimal mixing ratio was 3 at the results obtained by leachate coagulation experiments. Also removal efficiency at mixing ratio 3 corresponded to 500mg/$\ell$ of FeC $l_3$ dosage. it was suggested that pretreatment by mixing of AMD and leachate remove both suspended organic material of leachate and metal of AMD.

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연속회분식반응조 공정에서 교반/폭기비와 SRT가 영양염류제거에 미치는 영향 (Effects of mixing/aeration ratio and SRT on nutrient removal in SBR process)

  • 전석준;김한수
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.291-301
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    • 2002
  • In this study, nutrients treatment by sequencing batch reactors(SBR) was performed. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were evaluated by changing SRT and mixing/aeration ratio. Not only nitrogen but also phosphorus removal patterns were investigated through track studies on 1 cycle. As SRT was fixed and mixing/aeration ratio was changed, maximum nitrogen removal efficiency was 87.6% at mixing/aeration ratio 0.67. Phosphorus removal efficiencies were more than 85.5% except no mixing condition. As mixing/aeration ratio was fixed and SRT was changed, nitrogen removal efficiencies were 70.5~79.8%, which represented slight changes, while phosphorus removal efficiencies were 49.0~97.3%, which represented sharply decreasing tendency at less than 20 day. Both phosphorus release rate k and maximum phosphorus release rate $P_{max}/M$ were are decreased as SRT was decreased, but they were not affected by mixing/aeration ratio. It was found that there is a linear relationship between ortho-phosphate uptake and maximum ortho-phosphate release.

도로의 축광차선 도료 개발을 위한 축광안료 최적 배합비 산정에 관한 연구 (Determination of Optimal Mixing Ratio of Phosphorescent Pigment to Develop Phosphorescent Paint for Road Line Marking)

  • 이영문;김상태;김흥래
    • 한국도로학회논문집
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2015
  • PURPOSES : This study was conducted to derive the optimum mixing ratio of phosphorescent pigment for the development of phosphorescent line marking. METHODS: In this study, we utilized a literature review and case study methodology, to describe the domestic and foreign state of practice for the production and mixing of phosphorescent pigment for use in line marking. The optimal mixing ratio was derived by comparing the reduction in luminance over time for the various phosphorescent pigment mixing ratios identified in the literature. In addition, performance and construction characteristics were analyzed using field testing techniques. RESULTS : The results were as follows: 1) the results of the luminance performance standards tests showed that all of the phosphorescence test specimens satisfied the phosphorescent fire protection standard. As the phosphorescent pigment mixing ratio increased, the luminance value increased, 2) the luminance reduction rate was minimum at the mixing ratio of 50%. However, when compared to a mixing ratio 40%, a small difference was recorded, the luminance reduction rate from the mixing ratio of 40% is judged as being converged. Therefore, in view of the economic efficiency, it was determined that the optimal mixing ratio was 40%, 3) as a result of construction on the field, a mixing ratio of 40% was found to have a higher luminance value than the general line marking for up to three hours after sunset, 4) it was found that the phosphorescent line markings without glass beads spraying had a higher luminance value than the phosphorescent line markings with glass beads spraying. CONCLUSIONS : Through the results of the basic experiments of the line markings obtained by blending a phosphorescent pigment, the results could be applied to play an important role in the development of phosphorescent line marking paint technology and in establishing application planning for on-site construction characteristics.

혐기성처리를 위한 탄소원의 최적 혼합비율 결정에 관한 연구 (A study on determining the optimum mixing ratio of carbon source for anaerobic treatment)

  • 김은호;장성호
    • 환경위생공학
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study were to determine the optimum mixing ratio of sewage sludge and papermill sludge as carbon source required to SRB in treating abandoned mine drainage with natural purification wetland. If mixing sewage sludge/papermill sludge 2.0 SO42- reduced 46.2%, and then 30% in mixing ratio 0.5.Because sewage sludge was faster biodegradability than papermill sludge, effluent SCOD was 40mg/L in mixing ratio 0.5, and after that was all but regular. pH and ORP were almost neutral and -160mV, but after that was all but regular and it indicated that SRB activity was suitable. Fe removal rate was 60% in mixing ratio 2.0, and 54% in mixing ratio 0.5. In point of carbon source supply, It indicated that mixing ration 0.5 was considered as the most appropriate, because degradability of swewage sludge under short time was higher than that of papermill sludge.

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CNG/Diesel Dual-fuel 엔진의 CNG 혼합율에 따른 엔진성능 및 배출가스 특성에 관한 연구 (The Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of CNG/Diesel Dual-fuel Engine by CNG Mixing Ratio)

  • 최건호;임옥택
    • 한국자동차공학회논문집
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2011
  • A CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine uses CNG as the main fuel and injects a small amount of diesel as an ignition priming. This study proposed the modification of the existing diesel engine into a dual-fuel engine that injects diesel with a high pressure by common rail direct injection (CRDI) and by injecting CNG at the intake port for premixing. And experiment was progressed for understanding about effect of CNG mixing ratio. The CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine showed equally satisfactory coordinate torque and power regardless of CNG mixing ratio. The PM emission was low at any CNG mixing ratio because of very small diesel pilot injection. In case of NOx and HC, high CNG mixing ratio showed low NOx and HC emissions at low speed. At medium & high speed, low CNG mixing ratio showed low NOx and HC emissions. Therefore, it would be optimized by controlling CNG mixing ratio.

액상 충돌 제트의 혼합에 대한 분사공 직경비의 영향 (Effect of Orifice Diameter Ratio on Unlike Impinging Jet Mixing)

  • 이성웅;조용호;유병일
    • 한국분무공학회지
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.220-227
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    • 2006
  • Experimental studies has been conducted to investigate the effect of orifice diameter ratio on the mixing characteristics of the split element of doublet and triplet elements. The spray characteristics of non-reacting immiscible liquids have been investigated using a patternator. The local volume fraction is measured by use of mean value of each component. This volume measurement represents the mixing characteristics of the liquid, which affect the overall combustion efficiency. The ratio of the orifice diameter, ranging from 1 to 1.5, and that of the jet-momentum, ranging from 0.5 to 6.0, we used. The jet impinging behavior with use of various ratios exhibits substantially different mixing characteristics. Mixing efficiency is maximized when the jet-momentum ratio is increased; this behavior is particularly prominent when the orifice diameter ratio is greater than unity. The split of the triplet element yields better mixing characteristics and is more effective than that of the doublet element in regard to achieving high combustion efficiency. The optimum mixing factor for the triplet element is found to be 0.75, according to our measurement.

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조경용 탄성포장의 재료 배합비에 따른 결합력과 탄성분석 (An Analysis of Coherence and Resilience Depending on Materials Mixing Ratio in Elastic Landscape Pavement)

  • 박원규
    • 한국조경학회지
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2010
  • 탄성포장은 보행자의 만족감이 매우 높아 수요가 지속적으로 증가할 것으로 예상되나, 탄성포장의 재료 배합기준 즉, 합성고무 칩(EPDM chip)과 폴리우레탄 바인더의 적정배합기준이 미비하여 시공 시 많은 시행착오를 겪고 있는 실정이다. 따라서, 본 연구는 조경용 탄성포장의 폴리우레탄 바인더 배합비에 따른 결합력과 반발탄성의 변화를 실험을 통해 분석하고, 이를 바탕으로 적정한 재료배합 비율을 제시하고자 하였으며, 실험결과는 다음과 같다. 인장실험에서는 시료 B와 시료 C가 바인더 배합비율과 인장강도 간에 강한 양의 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타나, 배합비율이 증가하면 인장강도가 증가한다는 것을 알 수 있다. 경도실험에서는 시료 A,시료 B,시료 C모두 바인더 배합비율과 경도 간에 통계적으로 상관관계가 없는 것으로 나타나, 탄성포장재의 경도는 바인더의 배합비율에 따라 달라지지는 않는 것으로 판단된다. 반발탄성실험에서는 시료 A와 시료 B가 배합비율과 반발탄성 간에 강한 음의 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타나, 배합비율이 증가하면 반발탄성이 낮아진다는 것을 알 수 있다. 실험결과를 바탕으로 적정배합비율을 분석해 보면 인장강도의 경우, 인장강도의 증가가 둔화되거나 오히려 감소하는 배합비율 포인트는 20%이며, 반발탄성의 경우, 반발탄성이 급격하게 감소하는 배합비율 포인트는 22%이다. 따라서 두가지 요인을 감안할 때, 적정 배합비는 20~22% 사이로 판단된다. 본 연구의 결과는 조경용 탄성포장 시공 시 결합력과 탄성을 제고할 수 있는 재료배합의 지침을 제공할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

Studies on mixing of pharmaceutical powders

  • Choi, Woo-Sik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 1982
  • The mixing of salicylic acid and wheat starch powders was studied using a V-type mixer. After the optimum operating conditions of the mixer were examined, the mixing characteristics relating to dilution ratio, particle size of active ingradient and addition ratio of lubricants were investigated. The coefficient of variation was expressed by a power law relating to the dilution ratio and the particle size of active ingredient. Furthermore, the comparison of results with the theoretically estimated value of mixing index suggested that the mixing of cohesive pharmacceutical powders is a complex stochastic process and cannot be explained fully by a simple theory based on a complete random mixing.

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FA 및 BS의 혼합비율 변화에 따른 3성분계 고강도 콘크리트의 기초적 특성 (Fundamental Characteristics of High Strength SCMs Concrete According to Mixing Ratio of FA and BS)

  • 김민상;문병룡;이재진;박성배;한민철;한천구
    • 한국건축시공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.154-155
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    • 2017
  • With the recent development in construction industry, industrial by-products fly ash(FA) and blast furnace slag(BS) have been used in large quantities as an alternative to cement, as a solution for environmental problems and resource exhaustion. This study analyzed the basic characteristics according to the changes in replacement ratio and mixing ratio of FA and BS in high strength SCMs concrete, from which in turn it sought to find the optimal mixing ratio for high strength concrete The results showed that in unhardened concrete the more the replacement ratio and FA mixing ratio increases the slump flow will increase while amount of air decreases, and setting time is delayed. In hardened concrete the more the replacement ratio and FA mixing ratio increases the more the overall compression strength decreases, but until 28 days of material age the larger of the BS ratio displayed the best compression strength.

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