• Title/Summary/Keyword: mechanical ventilation

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The Impact of Mechanical Ventilation Duration on the Readmission to Intensive Care Unit: A Population-Based Observational Study

  • Lee, Hyun Woo;Cho, Young-Jae
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.83 no.4
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 2020
  • Background: If the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) is related with the intensive care unit (ICU) readmission must be clarified. The purpose of this study was to elucidate if prolonged MV duration increases ICU readmission rate. Methods: The present observational cohort study analyzed national healthcare claims data from 2006 to 2015. Critically ill patients who received MV in the ICU were classified into five groups according to the MV duration: MV for <7 days, 7-13 days, 14-20 days, 21-27 days, and ≥28 days. The rate and risk of the ICU readmission were estimated according to the MV duration using the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: We found that 12,929 patients had at least one episode of MV in the ICU. There was a significant linear relationship between the MV duration and the ICU readmission (R2=0.85, p=0.025). The total readmission rate was significantly higher as the MV duration is prolonged (MV for <7 days, 13.9%; for 7-13 days, 16.7%; for 14-20 days, 19.4%; for 21-27 days, 20.4%; for ≥28 days, 35.7%; p<0.001). The analyses adjusted by covariables and weighted with the multinomial propensity scores showed similar results. In the adjusted regression analysis with a Cox proportional hazards model, the MV duration was significantly related to the ICU readmission (hazard ratio, 1.058 [95% confidence interval, 1.047-1.069], p<0.001). Conclusion: The rate of readmission to the ICU was significantly higher in patients who received longer durations of the MV in the ICU. In the clinical setting, closer observation of patients discharged from the ICU after prolonged periods of MV is required.

The Timing of Femur Fracture Fixation is an Important Factor for Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

  • Choi, Hyung Chul;Jung, Kwang Hwan;Kyoung, Kyu Hyouck;Choi, Seong Ho
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.220-225
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential life-saving modality for severely injured patients. However, the long-term use of MV is a major risk factor for late mortality. The surgical correction of long bone fractures plays a critical role not only in improving functional outcomes, but also in reducing physiological derangements, including MV duration. This study investigated the factors affecting prolonged MV (PMV) in severely injured patients with femur fractures. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all severely injured patients (injury severity score >15) with femur fractures who were taken to the emergency department within 12 hours of the causative accidents between January 2016 and December 2018. PMV was defined as MV lasting for ≥7 days. We analyzed the factors affecting PMV. Results: In total, 35 patients were enrolled and 21 (33.3%) were included in the PMV group. The PMV group required more red blood cell (RBC) transfusions within 7 days RBC (7dRBC) (12.8 vs. 6.8 units; p=0.03) and the time to femur fracture fixation (TFFF) was longer (7.9 vs. 2.7 days; p=0.018). The area under the curve (AUC) for TFFF was 0.740 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.572-0.908; p=0.018) and the AUC for 7dRBC was 0.718 (95% CI: 0.546-0.889; p=0.031). Conclusions: This study indicates that TFFF is an independent risk factor for PMV. Early fixation of femur fractures might prevent PMV and its associated complications.

Characteristics of Active Tuberculosis Patients Requiring Intensive Care Monitoring and Factors Affecting Mortality

  • Filiz, Kosar A.;Levent, Dalar;Emel, Eryuksel;Pelin, Uysal;Turkay, Akbas;Aybuke, Kekecoglu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.79 no.3
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 2016
  • Background: One to three percent of cases of acute tuberculosis (TB) require monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study is to establish and determine the mortality rate and discuss the causes of high mortality in these cases, and to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of TB patients admitted to the pulmonary ICU. Methods: The data of patients admitted to the ICU of Yedikule Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Education and Research Hospital due to active TB were retrospectively evaluated. Demographic characteristics, medical history, and clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated. Results: Thirty-five TB patients (27 males) with a median age of 47 years were included, of whom 20 died within 30 days (57%). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were significantly higher, and albumin and $PaO_2/FIO_2$ levels were significantly lower, and shock, multiple organ failure, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and drug resistance were more common in the patients who died. The mortality risk was 7.58 times higher in the patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. The SOFA score alone was a significant risk factor affecting survival. Conclusion: The survival rate is low in cases of tuberculosis treated in an ICU. The predictors of mortality include the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation and multiple organ failure. Another factor specific to TB patients is the presence of drug resistance, which should be taken seriously in countries where there is a high incidence of the disease. Finding new variables that can be established with new prospective studies may help to decrease the high mortality rate.

The 3 years Prognosis of Patients with Long Term Mechanical Ventilation in Medical Intensive Care Unit at a University Hospital (한 대학병원 내과계중환자실에서 장기간 기계 환기를 받은 환자들의 3년 예후)

  • Chon, Gyu Rak;Choi, Ik Su;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Younsuck;Oh, Yeon-Mok;Shim, Tae Sun;Lee, Sang Do;Kim, Woo Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won Dong;Hong, Sang-Bum
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.62 no.5
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    • pp.398-405
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    • 2007
  • Background: There is little data on the 3 year prognosis and quality of life of patients on long-term (>72 hour) mechanical ventilation in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Methods: Patients with long-term mechanical ventilation from May 2003 through July 2003 in MICU of Asan Medical Center, Seoul were enrolled in this studay. The survival rates were observed prospectively at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 months, and the quality of life of survivor was measured at 12 months by using Short Form 36 (SF-36). Results: The survival rate at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months was 54.8% (40/73), 39.7% (29/73), 30.1% (22/73), 20.5% (15/73), 18.3% (13/71) and 16.9% (12/71), respectively. There was a similar survival rate regardless of the diseases that required mechanical ventilation. A neoplasm or chronic liver disease had a worse survival rate than chronic lung or kidney disease (p<0.05). Each SF-36 domain except for the Role-emotional was inferior to the general population. Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with mechanical ventilation more than 72 hours is decreases continuously until 12 months but is relatively constant from 12 to 36 months. In these patients quality of life is also decrased.

The Usefulness of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation as a New Weaning Method (새로운 이탈방법으로서 비침습적 양압환기법의 유용성)

  • Shim, Tae-Sun;Koh, Youn-Suck;Lee, Sang-Do;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong;Lim, Chae-Man
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.500-511
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    • 1999
  • Background: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using facial or nasal mask have been widely used for several years in stable patients with chronic neuromuscular disease or central alveolar hypoventilation, and recently have been tried in patients with acute respiratory failure. In a few studies, NPPV was also used to rescue the patients with post-extubation respiratory failure. However, yet it has not been adopted as a weaning method in patients on long-term mechanical ventilation. So we performed this prospective clinical study to evaluate the usefulness of NPPV as a weaning method after removing endotracheal tube intentionally in patients on long-term mechanical ventilation. Method: Twelve patients who had been on invasive mechanical ventilation over 10 days were enrolled and 14 trials of NPPV were done. All had failed at least one weaning trial and showed ventilator dependence(pressure support requirement between 8-15cm $H_2O$, and PEEP requirement between 5-10cm $H_2O$), so tracheostomy was being considered. After removing the endotracheal tube, NPPV was applied using facial mask. Respiratory rate, arterial blood gas, pressure support level, and PEEP level were monitored just before intended extubation, at 30 minutes, 1 to 6, 6 to 12, 12 to 24 hours, 2nd day, and 3rd day following initiation of NPPV, and just before weaning from NPPV. The successful weaning was defined as spontaneous breathing off the ventilator for 48 hours or longer without respiratory distress. Results: The weaning through NPPV after intended extubation was successful in 7(50%) of 14 trials, and tracheostomy could be avoided in them. There were no differences in age, sex, APACHE III score, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, baseline respiratory rate, $PaCO_2$ $PaO_2/FiO_2$, and ventilatory requirement(PS and PEEP) between the success and failure groups. In the success group, respiratory rate, pH, $PaCO_2$, and $PaO_2/FiO_2$ were not different between invasive MV and NPPV period. But in the failure group, pH decreased after 30 minutes of NPPV initiation compared with that of invasive MV($7.40\pm0.08$ vs. $7.34\pm0.06$, p<0.05). The causes of failure were worsening of ABG(n=3), retained tracheal secretion(n=2), mask intolerance(n=1), and flail chest(n=1). Conclusion: NPPV may be worth trying as a bridge method in weaning patients on long-term invasive mechanical ventilation.

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Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Elderly Patients Receiving Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in the Medical Intensive Care Unit at a University Hospital (한 대학병원 내과계 중환자실에서 장기간 기계환기를 받은 노인 환자들의 특징 및 예후)

  • Han, Min Soo;Moon, Kyoung Min;Lee, Yang Deok;Cho, Yongseon;Na, Dong Jib
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.64 no.6
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    • pp.445-450
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    • 2008
  • Background: As the number of older-aged people increases, the number of elderly patients who receive critical care services is expected to increase substantially. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients who receive mechanical ventilation for more than 30 days in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) at a university hospital. Methods: We retrospectively examined forty-one elderly patients (${\geq}65$ years old) who were receiving mechanical ventilation, from April 2004 to March 2007, for periods exceeding 30 days at the MICU at Eulji University Hospital. Results: The MICU and hospitalmortality rate were 60.9% and 65.9%, respectively. The mean length of the ICU stay was 57.5 days and the mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 49.3 days. The most common reason for MICU admission was acute respiratory failure (73.2%), followed by sepsis (12.2%), neurological problems (9.8%), and gastrointestinal bleeding (4.9%). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were higher for the nonsurvivors than for the survivors (28.0 vs. 25.0, respectively, p=0.03). The nonsurvivors received more red blood cell (RBC) transfusions during their ICU stay than did the survivors (84.0% vs. 43.8%, respectively p=0.007). The factors associated with hospital death were the APACHE II score and if the patient had received a RBC transfusion. Conclusion: The APACHE II score and a RBC transfusion were predictors of increased hospital mortality for the elderly patients who were on prolonged mechanical ventilation. These predictors may assist physicians to make clinical decisions for this patient population.

The Changes of Cuff Pressure from Endotracheal Intubation for Long-term Mechanical Ventilation (장기간 기계호흡 환자에서 기관내 관의 기낭압의 변화)

  • Jung, Bock-Hyun;Park, Whan;Koh, Youn-Suck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.156-165
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    • 2002
  • Background: A tracheal stenosis is caused by mucosal ischemic injury related to a high cuff pressure ($P_{cuff}$) of the endotracheal tube. In contrast, aspiration of the upper airway secretion and impaired gas exchange due to cuff leakage is related to a low $P_{cuff}$. To prevent these complications, the $P_{cuff}$ should be kept appropriately because the appropriate $P_{cuff}$ appears to change according to the patient's daily respiratory mechanics. However, the constant cuff volume($V_{cuff}$) has frequently been instilled to the cuff balloon on a daily basis to maintain the optimal $P_{cuff}$ instead of monitoring the $P_{cuff}$ directly at the patients' bedside. To address the necessity of continuous $P_{cuff}$ monitoring, the change in the $P_{cuff}$ was evaluated at various $V_{cuff}$ levels on a daily basis in patients with long-term mechanical ventilation. The utility of mercury column sphygmomanometer for the continuous monitoring $P_{cuff}$ was also investigated. Method: The change in $P_{cuff}$ according to the increase in $V_{cuff}$ was observed in 17 patients with prolonged endotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation for 2 week or more. This maneuver measured the change in $P_{cuff}$ daily during the mechanical ventilation days. In addition, the $P_{cuff}$ measured by mercury column sphygmomanometer was compared with the $P_{cuff}$ measured by an automatic cuff pressure manager. Results : There were no statistically significant changes of $P_{cuff}$ during more than 14 days of intubation for mechanical ventilation. However the $V_{cuff}$ required to maintain the appropriate $P_{cuff}$ varied from 1.9 cc to 9.6 cc. In addition, the intra-individual variation of the $P_{cuff}$ was observed from 10 $cmH_2O$ to 46 $cmH_2O$ at constant 3 cc $V_{cuff}$. The $P_{cuff}$ measured by the bedside mercury column sphygmomanometer is well coincident with that measured by the automatic cuff pressure manager. Conclusion: Continuous monitoring and management of the $P_{cuff}$ to maintain the appropriate $P_{cuff}$ level in order to prevent cuff related problems during long-term mechanical ventilation is recommended. For this purpose, mercury column sphygmomanometer may replace the specific cuff pressure monitoring equipment.

Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Lung Cancer Patients Admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit at a University Hospital (한 대학병원 내과계 중환자실로 입원한 폐암 환자들의 임상 특성 및 예후)

  • Moon, Kyoung Min;Han, Min Soo;Lee, Sung Kyu;Jeon, Ho Seok;Lee, Yang Deok;Cho, Yong Seon;Na, Dong Jib
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.66 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2009
  • Background: The management of patients with lung cancer has improved recently, and many of them will require admission to the medical intensive care unit (MICU). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics and to identify risk factors for mortality in patients with lung cancer admitted to the MICU. Methods: We conducted retrospective analysis on 88 patients with lung cancer admitted to the MICU between April 2004 and March 2008. Results: Of the 88 patients (mean age, 66 years), 71 patients (80.7%) had non-small cell lung cancer and 17 patients (19.3%) had small cell lung cancer. Distant metastasis were present in 79 patients (89.8%). The main reasons for MICU admission were acute respiratory failure (77.3%), sepsis (11.4%), and central nervous system dysfunction (4.5%). Mechanical ventilation was used in 54 patients (61.4%). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, length of MICU stay, need for mechanical ventilation, source of MICU admission were correlated with MICU mortality. The type of lung cancer and metastasis were not predictive factors of death in MICU. Conclusion: Most common reason for ICU admission was acute respiratory failure. Mortality rate of lung cancer patients admitted to the MICU was 65.9%. APACHE II score, length of ICU stay, need for mechanical ventilation, source of MICU admission were predicted factors of death in the MICU.

Update of minimally invasive surfactant therapy

  • Shim, Gyu-Hong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.60 no.9
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    • pp.273-281
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    • 2017
  • To date, preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) after birth have been managed with a combination of endotracheal intubation, surfactant instillation, and mechanical ventilation. It is now recognized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) such as nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants is a reasonable alternative to elective intubation after birth. Recently, a meta-analysis of large controlled trials comparing conventional methods and nasal CPAP suggested that CPAP decreased the risk of the combined outcome of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death. Since then, the use of NIV as primary therapy for preterm infants has increased, but when and how to give exogenous surfactant remains unclear. Overcoming this problem, minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) allows spontaneously breathing neonates to remain on CPAP in the first week after birth. MIST has included administration of exogenous surfactant by intrapharyngeal instillation, nebulization, a laryngeal mask, and a thin catheter. In recent clinical trials, surfactant delivery via a thin catheter was found to reduce the need for subsequent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, and improves short-term respiratory outcomes. There is also growing evidence for MIST as an alternative to the INSURE (intubation-surfactant-extubation) procedure in spontaneously breathing preterm infants with RDS. In conclusion, MIST is gentle, safe, feasible, and effective in preterm infants, and is widely used for surfactant administration with noninvasive respiratory support by neonatologists. However, further studies are needed to resolve uncertainties in the MIST method, including infant selection, optimal surfactant dosage and administration method, and need for sedation.