• Title/Summary/Keyword: mathematics instruction

### A Degree of Difficulty in Operations Area in Elementary Mathematics (초등수학에서 연산영역의 곤란도 분석)

• Ahn, Byoung-Gon
• Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
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• v.13 no.1
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• pp.17-30
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• 2009
• This paper is about the basic skills of four operations in numbers and operations areas from step 1 to step 3 in elementary mathematics. Here are the results of the evaluation. First, addition and subtraction take the largest time. The average difficulty rate in operations area is 91.2%. Most students understand the contents of textbook well. Specifically, students easily understand the step 1. However, subtraction has lower difficulty rate than addition. Also, three mixed computation, calculation in horizontal, and rounding(rounding down) are difficult areas for students. The contents of step 2 are fully understood. However, lots of mistakes are found in the process of rounding(rounding down), and sentence problems are thought as difficult. Second, the multiplication is first starting in the step 2-Ga. The unit 'Multiplication 99' takes 13 hours, the longest. The difficulty rate in this unit is 89.4%, students understand well. However, students are influenced by addition and subtraction errors in the process of multiplication, and have difficulty in changing the sentence problem to multiplication expression. Third, the division, which starts in step 3-Ga, has 89.9% of difficulty rate. Students well understand. Result of this paper: most of students understand well four operations, but accurate concept, the relationship between multiplication and division, specific instructions in teaching principles of division calculation and sentence problems are in need. Setting the amount of the contents and difficulty rate in understanding are depends on every school's situation, so suggesting universal standard is really hard. However, studying more objects broadly and specific study will be helpful to suggest proper contents and effective teaching.

### The Effects of Instruction Using Mind-Map in Mathematical Studies on Academic Achievements and Attitudes of Underachievers (마인드 맵을 활용한 학습부진아의 지도가 수학학습 능력 및 태도에 미치는 영향)

• Park, Song-Yi;Ro, Young-Soon
• Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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• v.12 no.2
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• pp.243-260
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• 2009
• Many students have difficulty studying mathematics because of its unique characteristics and the numbers of underachievers in mathematics are increasing, not decreasing, even though great teaching-learning methods have been provided. The purpose of this research is to examine if instruction using mind-map in mathematical studies has positive effects on achievement and attitudes of underachievers in mathematics. For this, mathematics learning ability test before instruction, survey of attitudes toward mathematics before and after instruction and mathematics learning ability test before and after instruction were performed for 32 underachievers in two classes of first grade in C high school in South Chung cheong Province. The positive effects of instruction using mind-map in mathematical studies on academic achievements and attitudes of underachievers were expected, but results indicate that there is no significant effect. However, results indicate that the use of mind-map in mathematics instruction has positive effects partially on the changes of learning attitudes. Therefore, the characteristics of underachievers in mathematics should be understood first, mind-map according to them should be applied and students should have time to properly perceive and draw mind-map skillfully. In teachers' professional knowledge of mind-map and consideration for students, when follow-up researches and systematic instruction proceed together for a long period time, the desired results can be realized.