• Title, Summary, Keyword: maize starch

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The Properties of Yellow Layer Cakes Made by Different Substituting Levels of Waxy Maize Starch for Shortening (Waxy Maize Starch의 대체율을 달리하여 제조한 옐로우 레이어 케이크의 특성)

  • 송은승;강명화
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2004
  • Waxy maize starches are inherently stable in soluble status and can be chemically modified to improve stability along with heat, acid and shear resistance. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of theological and sensory characteristics of the yellow layer cake made by adding different levels of waxy maize starch as a fat substitute for shortening. By increasing the substitution level of waxy maize starch for shortening, the specific gravity of cake batter increased and the viscosity decreased. The microstructures of cake crumb observed by the scanning electron microscope were not different significantly, and the size of air cells and fat particles also were not substantially decreased by increasing fat substitution level. The texture profile analysis using texture analyzer decreased by increasing the different substituting levels of waxy maize starch. Among various sensory properties, the color value of layer cake increased by increasing the level of waxy maize starch. However, the appearance, flavor, taste, texture and overall preference decreased.

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Textural Properties and Structures of Wheat and Maize Starch-Gum Mixed Gels During Storage

  • Song, Ji-Young;Kim, Young-Chang;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2008
  • Effects of commercial and lab-generated gellan gums on the textural properties, structure, and aging of wheat and maize starch gels were investigated using a rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), rheometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffractometer. Gellan and guar gums increased the peak and final viscosities, but xanthan gum and gum arabic reduced them. The maize starch had higher breakdown viscosity than the wheat starch, regardless of the type of gum. The hardness of all starch gels increased during storage, but their cohesiveness and springiness decreased. The degree of the gel hardness showed higher in maize starch than in wheat starch and the effect of gum addition had a difference with gum type. The wheat starch-guar and -gellan gum mixed gels showed higher elasticity and cohesiveness after storage. The starch-gellan gum mixed gels had dense and stable network structures, and were well maintained even after 7 days of storage. Most of the gums had anti-aging effect on X-ray diffraction pattern of starch gels.

Physicochemical Properties of Oxidized Waxy Maize Starches with Sodium Hypochlorite (찰옥수수 산화전분의 이화학적 특성)

  • Chung, Man-Gon;Jeon, Young-Seung;Lee, Sur-Koo;Park, Jong-Moon;Lim, Bun-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 1998
  • Physicochemical properties of waxy maize starch and oxidized waxy maize starch with sodium hypochlorite $(0{\sim}60\;mg\;CL_2/g\;starch,40^{\circ}C,\;pH\;10,\;3.0\;hr)$ were studied. As sodium hypochlorite concentration was increased, the content of crude lipid and crude protein of the oxidized starch were decreased. And crude protein content and whiteness was considered to show negative regression. However, the crude ash content of the oxidized starch increased significantly with oxidation and bore a positive regression to the chlorine content. There was a progressive increase in the carboxyl content with increasing oxidant level. After pasting in hot water and cooling, viscosity of the oxidized starches were drastically lower than that of native starch . As carboxyl contents of the oxidized starch increased, the solubility and swelling power was increased. When waxy maize starch treated with 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0% sodium hypochlorite, temperature of initial gelatinization of oxidized starch was shown to 65, 65, 60 and $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. The oxidized waxy maize starches also form clearer pastes. Water binding capacity of the oxidized starch decreased as the degree of carboxyl group substitution increased. Waxy maize starch has polygonal and some round granules which range from about 3.7 to $20\;{\mu}m$ in diameter. Surface appearance of the waxy maize starch became rough when oxidized with sodium hypochlorite. When homogenate of the oxidized waxy maize starch solution and corn germ oil was stored under room temperature for 24 hours, the emulsion stability was considered to depend on starch concentration and degree of substitution.

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The Effects of Annealing on Resistant Starch Contents of Cross-linked Maize Starches (Annealing 처리가 가교결합 옥수수전분의 저항전분 수율에 미치는 영향)

  • Mun, Sae-Hun;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.431-436
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    • 2002
  • To develop a method for increasing RS level in maize starch, cross-linked resistant starches treated with annealing were prepared. Maize starch and amylomaize VII were used in the study and annealed at $40{\sim}60^{\circ}C$ before cross-linking modification. To compare effect of annealing below gelatinization temperature, starches were heat treated at 70 and $100^{\circ}C$. RS contents were assayed by pancreatin-gravimetric (P/G) method. When maize starch and amylomaize VII were cross-linked at $45^{\circ}C$ and pH 11.0 by slurrying the starch on a solution of STMP(sodium trimetaphosphate), STPP(sodium tripolyphosphate), and sodium sulfate, RS content was 14.7% and 45.3%, respectively. Annealing below gelatinization temperature before cross-linking increased RS contents of prepared cross-linked starches but did not affect the swelling power. Heat treatment above gelatinization temperature increased the swelling power of cross-linked starch prepared from maize starch. The characteristics by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy of cross-linked resistant starch were not changed by annealing.

Effects of Amylose Content on Properties of Lintnerized Maize Starches and Yield of Resistant Starch (아밀로오스 함량이 산처리 옥수수전분의 특성 및 저항전분수율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.395-399
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    • 1997
  • Lintnerization properties and yield of enzyme-resistant starch in maize starches with different amylose content were investigated. Hydrolytic patterns of starches showed two distinct stages. With decreasing the amylose content, hydrolysis extents of starch increased. X-ray diffraction patterns of Amloca, PFP and commercial maize starch were the A crystalline type, and those of Amaizo 5 and Amylomaize VII were the B crystalline type. As acid hydrolysis time increased, the relative crystallinity of starches increased. After heating-cooling treatment was repeated up to 4 times, the yield of RS increased with increasing the amylose content. The yields of RS in lintnerzed maize starches decreased with acid treatment.

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Resistant Starch Yield from Autoclaved Maize Starches with Different Enzymatic Assay (분리방법에 따른 효소저항전분의 수율 비교)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Mun, Sae-Hun;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.383-386
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    • 1997
  • Maize starches with different amylose content were repeated autoclaving-cooling cycles up to 4 times, and the yield of resistant starch (RS) from autoclaved maize starches was investigated by enzymatic-gravimetric method and ${\alpha}-amylase$ treatment. With increasing amylose content in starch and the number of autoclaving-cooling cycles, RS yield was also increased, regardless of isolation method. Enzymatic-gravimetric method severely hydrolyzed amorphous region of autoclaved maize starches. Crystalline region was obtained more effectively by enzymatic-gravimetric method than by ${\alpha}-amylase$ treatment.

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Physicochemical Properties of Enzymatically Modified Maize Starch Using 4-${\alpha}$-Glucanotransferase

  • Park, Jin-Hee;Park, Kwan-Hwa;Jane, Jay-Iin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.902-909
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    • 2007
  • Granular maize starch was treated with Thermus scotoductus 4-${\alpha}$-glucanotransferase (${\alpha}$-GTase), and its physicochemical properties were determined. The gelatinization and pasting temperatures of ${\alpha}$-GTase-modified starch were decreased by higher enzyme concentrations. ${\alpha}$-GTase treatment lowered the peak, setback, and [mal viscosity of the starch. At a higher level of enzyme treatment, the melting peak of the amylose-lipid complex was undetectable on the DSC thermogram. Also, ${\alpha}$-GTase-modified starch showed a slower retrogradation rate. The enzyme treatment changed the dynamic rheological properties of the starch, leading to decreases in its elastic (G') and viscous (G") moduli. ${\alpha}$-GTase-modified starch showed more liquid-like characteristics, whereas normal maize starch was more elastic and solid-like. Gel permeation chromatography of modified starch showed that amylose was degraded, and a low molecular-weight fraction with $M_w$ of $1.1{\times}10^5$ was produced. Branch chain-length (BCL) distribution of modified starch showed increases in BCL (DP>20), which could result from the glucans degraded from amylose molecules transferred to the branch chains of amylopectin by inter-/intra-molecular transglycosylation of ${\alpha}$-GTase. These new physicochemical functionalities of the modified starch produced by ${\alpha}$-GTase treatment are applicable to starch-based products in various industries.

Enzyme-Resistant Starch Formation from Mild Acid-Treated Maize Starches (약산처리 옥수수전분으로 호소저항전분의 생성)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Mun, Sae-Hun;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1309-1315
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    • 1997
  • Yields of enzyme-resistant starch (RS) from three kinds of maize starches (Amioca, normal starch and Amylomaize VII) which were treated with 1 N HCl for 24 hr and physicochemical characteristics were investigated. Hydrolysis rate of maize starches decreased with increasing amylose content. Maximum wavelength $({\lambda}_{max})$ and iodine affinity were decreased by the acid treatment. The yields of RS increased with acid treatment up to 12 hr and then decreased. The yield of for 12 hr acid-treated Amioca increased 8 times more than untreated sample, but those of normal starch and Amylomaize VII slightly increased. Using SEM, acid-treated and autoclaved maize starches showed gel like structure, but RS had round and rod shape small particles. X-ray diffraction patterns of autoclaved starches showed amorphous structure in Amioca and B-type in normal starch and Amylomaize VII, and those of RS showed all completely crystalline structure.

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The Effect of Mild-Acid Treated Waxy Starches on the Yield of Resistant Starch (약산 처리가 찰전분의 저항전분수율에 미치는 영향)

  • 이신경;홍윤호;신말식
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.418-425
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    • 1999
  • The characteristics and yield of resistnat starch (RS) in waxy starches which were treated with 0.1N HCl were investigated. Hydrolysis rate of waxy starches were 0.32-0.88%. The yields of RS in waxy maize and waxy barley starches increased with acid treatment time up to 12hr and then decreased. The yield of RS in waxy rice starches increased with acid treatment up to 8hr and then decreased. The hydrolysis and yield of RS were different depending upon the varieties of starch source. Autoclaved normal maize starch showed a gel-like structure, but autoclaved normal maize starch showed crystal particle on the surface by SEM. The shape of autoclaved resistant starch was not different from acid treated ones. X-ray diffraction patterns of native and acid treated starches were all A-types. X-ray diffraction patterns of autoclaved waxy maize starches showed amorphous structures, however, those of RS showed all completely crystalline structure.

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Morphological Properties of Lintnerized Maize Starches with Different Amylose Content (아밀로오스 함량이 다른 산처리 옥수수전분의 형태학적 특성)

  • 신말식;이신경
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1086-1090
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    • 1997
  • Morphological properties on lintnerized maize starches with different amylose content were investigated. With increasing the lintnerization periods and decreasing the amylose content, hydrolysis rate was increased. As amylose content of starch was increased, the degree of damage with acid treatment was decreased by SEM. With increasing hydrolysis, iodine affinity, apparent amylose content and ${\lambda}_{max}$ of lintnerized starches were decreased. Water binding capacities of lintnerized starches were higher than those of native starches.

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