• Title, Summary, Keyword: magnetometer

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THE RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF ELECTRIC FIELD AND IONOSPHERIC CONDUCTANCE TO THE AURORAL ELECTROJETS (오로라 제트전류에 대한 전기장과 전기전도도의 상대적 기여도)

  • 조은아;안병호;문용재
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.87-98
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    • 2000
  • We examine the relative contributions of the electric field and ionospheric conductance to the auroral electrojets. For this purpose we used magnetometer data obtained from the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) meridian chains of observatories for March 17, 18, and 19, 1978. Based on the study by Allen & Kroehl (1975), we redefine the AU and AL indices by utilizing the magnetic disturbance data obtained from the AE stations located within limited magnetic local time (MLT) sectors; i.e., $1500\leq MLT\leq1800$ and$0000\leq MLT\leq0300$, respectively. The current densities of the eastward and westward electrojets are calculated based on the AU and AL indices thus defined. Under the assumption that the Hall conductance at the dusk sector is mainly caused by the solar EUV radiation, we estimate the electric field contributin to the AU index. Assuming further that electric field distributins at dawn and dusk sectors are comparable, it is also possible to estimate the contribution of the Hall conductance associated at the dusk sector is mainly caused by the solar EUV radiation, we estimate the electric field contribution to the AU index. Assuming further that electric field distributions at dawn and dusk sectors are comparable, it is also possible to estimate the contribution of the Hall conductance associated with auroral particle precipitation to the AL index. From this study it is noted that the electric fields and Hall conductances thus estimated show significant correlations with the AU and AL indices, respectively, suggesting that the AU and AL indices are closely associated with the directly driven and loading-unloading processes of substorms.

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A Quality-control Experiment Involving an Optical Televiewer Using a Fractured Borehole Model (균열모형시추공을 이용한 광학영상화검층 품질관리 시험)

  • Jeong, Seungho;Shin, Jehyun;Hwang, Seho;Kim, Ji-Soo
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.17-30
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    • 2020
  • An optical televiewer is a geophysical logging device that produces continuous high-resolution full-azimuth images of a borehole wall using a light-emitting-diode and a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor to provide valuable information on subsurface discontinuities. Recently, borehole imaging logging has been applied in many fields, including ground subsidence monitoring, rock mass integrity evaluation, stress-induced fracture detection, and glacial annual-layer measurements in polar regions. Widely used commercial borehole imaging logging systems typically have limitations depending on equipment specifications, meaning that it is necessary to clearly verify the scope of applications while maintaining appropriate quality control for various borehole conditions. However, it is difficult to directly check the accuracy, implementation, and reliability for outcomes, as images derived from an optical televiewer constitute in situ data. In this study, we designed and constructed a modular fractured borehole model having similar conditions to a borehole environment to report unprecedented results regarding reliable data acquisition and processing. We investigate sonde magnetometer accuracy, color realization, and fracture resolution, and suggest data processing methods to obtain accurate aperture measurements. The experiment involving the fractured borehole model should enhance not only measurement quality but also interpretations of high-resolution and reliable optical imaging logs.

Microencapsulation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Application in Magnetic Levitation of Cells (산화철 나노입자의 마이크로캡슐화와 이를 이용한 세포의 자력부상 배양)

  • Lee, Jin Sil;Lee, Joon ho;Shim, Jae Kwon;Hur, Won
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 2020
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles were microencapsulated using fibroin, a protein polymer of silk fiber, for theragnostic applications. The content of iron oxide was determined to be 4.28% by thermogravimetric analysis and 5.11% by magnetometer. A suspension of murine fibroblast 3T3 cells grown in medium supplemented with iron oxide-microcapsules turned clear in response to the magnetic force and the cells aggregated to the magnet direction. Neodymium magnets placed on the top of the culture dish, and attracted cells to the center of the culture surface. The cells collected on the culture surface aggregated to form a rough spheroid of 2 mm in a diameter after 72 h. In the outer layer of the cell aggregate, cells were relatively large and gathered together to form a dense tissue, but the central part was observed to undergo cell death due to the mass transfer restriction. In the outer layer, iron oxide-microcapsules were lined up like chains in the direction of magnetic force. Using microCT, it was demonstrated that the iron oxides inside the cell aggregate were not evenly distributed but biased to the magnetic direction.

A Development of Fluxgate Sensor-based Drone Magnetic Exploration System (플럭스게이트 센서 기반 드론 자력탐사 시스템 개발)

  • Noh, Myounggun;Lee, Seulki;Lee, Heuisoon;Ahn, Taegyu
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.208-214
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we have developed a drone magnetic exploration system (proto-type) using a fluxgate magnetic sensor. Hardware of the system consists of a fluxgate magnetometer, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a GPS, and a communication module. And we have developed monitoring software, which enables it to transmit the measured data to the ground control system (GCS) in real time. The measured magnetic data are finally saved as 1 Hz data after passing through a notch filter and a band-pass filter. For verification of this system, a preliminary test was conducted to check the magnetic responses of a magnetic object first, then the field test was carried out in two iron mines. We tested the developed system on the field test in Pocheon, Gyeonggi and Jeongseon, Gangwon. The magnetic data from the developed drone system was very similar to those from unmanned airship system developed by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). As a result, preliminary experiment and field test have demonstrated that this system is applicable for outdoor aeromagnetic exploration. It requires more studies to improve filter function and instrument performance to minimize noise in the future.

Changes in Magnetic Properties When Manufacturing Cobalt-substituted Barium Ferrite Powder (Cobalt가 치환된 Barium Ferrite 분말 제조 시 자기적 특성변화)

  • Um, Myeong-Heon;Yeon, Je-Uk;Lee, Cha-Jin;Ha, Beom-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.30-39
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    • 2020
  • Single-phase barium ferrite powder was synthesized using the sol-gel method. At this time, an attempt was made to find the optimal experimental conditions for the production of single-phase barium ferrite by varying the Fe to Ba molar ratio (Fe/Ba) and the heat treatment temperature. In addition, cobalt-substituted barium ferrite particles were prepared using cobalt, which has an excellent effect on coercivity control for the production of ferrite fine particles having a coercivity of 2.5 to 5.5 kOe for use in high-density magnetic recording media. The changes in the magnetic properties of these were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were used to observe the synthesis of single-phase, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) were used to analyze the chemical structure and composition. The coercivity of the cobalt-substituted barium ferrite powder was measured by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). As a result, single-phase Barium ferrites were synthesized when the Fe/Ba molar ratio was 10, and the heat treatment temperature was 900 ℃. The coercivity decreased with increasing the amount of Co added. Barium ferrite, having a coercivity of 2.5 to 5.5 kOe for use in high-density magnetic recording media, was synthesized when the Co to Fe(Co/Fe) molar ratio was less than 0.16.

The Effect of Non Magnetic ion Substitution for the FeCr2-xMxS4(M=Ga, In) by Mossbauer Spectroscopy (비자성 이온 Ga, In이 치환된 유화물 스피넬의 뫼스바우어 분광학 연구)

  • Son, Bae-Soon;Kim, Sam-Jin;Kim, Chul-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.6-10
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    • 2006
  • The sulphur spinel $FeCr_{2-x}M_xS_4$(M=Ga, In) have been studied with Mossbauer spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer. The XRB patterns for samples $FeCr_{2-x}M_xS_4$(M=Ga, In: x=0.1, 0.3) reveal a single phase, which the Ga and In ions are partially occupied to the tetrahedral (A) site. The Neel temperature for the Ga substituted samples increases from 180 to 188 K, with increase from x=0.1 to 0.3. While, it decreases from 173 to 160 K, for the In substituted samples of the x=0.1 and 0.3, respectively. The Mossbauer spectra were collected from 4.2 K to room temperature. We have analyzed the Mossbauer spectra using eight Lorentzian lines fitting method for the $FeCr_{2-x}In_xS_4$(x=0.1) at 4.2 K, yielding the 1311owing results; $H_{hf}=146.0kOe,\;{\Delta}E_Q=1.88mm/s,\;\theta=36^{\circ},\;\phi=0^{\circ},\;\eta=0.6$, and R=1.9. The Ga ions enter into the both sites octahedral (B) and tetrahedral (A), simultaneously the same amounts of Fe ions migrate from the A to the B site, this result is an agreement with XRD results, too. The ${\Delta}E_Q$ of the A and B site in Mossbauer spectra of the samples $FeCr_{2-x}Ga_xS_4$(x=0.3) are 0.83 and 2.94mm/s, respectively. While they are 0.56 and 2.36mm/s for the $FeCr_{2-x}In_xS_4$(x=0.3). It is noticeable that the ${\Delta}E_Q$ for the Ga doped samples are larger than that of the corresponding In doped samples, in spite of the larger ionic radius for In ions. The bond lengths of Cr-S, for the Ga and In doped samples (x=0.3) are found to be 2.41 and $2.43\;{\AA}$, respectively. We interpret that the larger covalence effect from the smaller bond length induces a large asymmetric charge distribution. Finally, it gives a large quadrupole interaction.

Magnetic Properties of $ThMn_{12}-type$$NdFe_{10.7}Ti_{1.2}Mo_{0.1}$>$Ti_{1.2}Mo_{0.1}$ ($ThMn_{12}$$NdFe_{10.7}Ti_{1.2}Mo_{0.1}$의 미세구조 및 자기적 성질 연구)

  • 안성용;이승화;김철성;김윤배;김창석
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 1997
  • We have studied crystallographic and magnetic properties of $NdFe_{10.7}Ti_ {1.2}Mo_{0.1}$ by Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The alloys were prepared by arc-melting under an argon atmosphere. The $NdFe_{10.7}Ti_{1.2}Mo_{0.1}$ has pure a single phase, whereas $NdFe_{10.7}Ti_{1.3}$ contains some $\alpha$-Fe, conformed with X-ray diffractometry and Mossbauer measurements. The $NdFe_{10.7}Ti_ {1.2}Mo_{0.1}$ has a $ThMn_{12}-type$ tetragonal structure with $a_0=8.637{\AA}$ and $c_0=4.807{\AA}$. The Curie temperature ($T_c$) is 600 K from the result of Mossbauer measurement performed at various temperatures ranging from 13 to 800 K. Each spectrum of below $T_c$ is fitted with five subspectra of Fe sites in the structure ($8i_1, 8i_2, 8j_2, 8j_1, 8f$). The area fractions of the subspectra at room temperature are 12.3%, 14.0%, 21.0% 11.8%, 40.9%, respectively. Magnetic hyperfine fields for the Fe sites decrease in the order, $H_{hf}(8i)>H_{hf}(8j)>H_{hf}(8f)$. The abrupt changes in the magnetic hyperfine field, an magnetic moment observed at about 160 K in $NdFe_ {10.7} Ti_{1.2}Mo_{0.1}$ are attributed to spin reorientations. The average hyperfine field of the $NdFe_{10.7}Ti_{1.2}Mo_{0.1}$ shows a temperature dependence of $[H_{hf}(T)-H_{hf}(0)]/H_{hf}(0)=-0.34(T/T_C)^{3/2}-0.14(T/T_C)^{5/2}$ for $T/T_c<0.7$, indicative of spin wave excitation. The Debye temperatures of $NdFe_{10.7}Ti_{1.2}Mo_{0.1}$ is found to be Θ=340$\pm$5 K.

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Mössbauer Study of Tb2Bi1GaxFe5-xO12(x=0, 1) (Tb2Bi1GaxFe5-xO12(x=0, 1)의 뫼스바우어 분광연구)

  • Park, Il-Jin;Kim, Chul-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.67-70
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    • 2008
  • $Tb_2Bi_1Ga_xFe_{5-x}O_{12}$(x=0, 1) fabricated by sol-gel and vacuum sealed annealing process. $Tb_2Bi_1Ga_xFe_{5-x}O_{12}$(x=0, 1) have been studied by x-ray diffraction(XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and $M\ddot{o}ssbauer$ spectroscopy. The crystal structures were found to be a cubic garnet structure with space group Ia3d. The determined lattice constants $a_0$ of x = 0, and 1 are $12.497\AA$, and $12.465\AA$, respectively. The distribution of gallium and iron in $Tb_2Bi_1Ga_xFe_{5-x}O_{12}$ is studied by Rietveld refinement. Based on Rietveld refinement results, the terbium and bismuth ions occupy the 24c site, iron ions occupy the 24d, l6a site, and nonmagmetic gallium ions occupy the 16a site. In order to verify the magnetic site occupancy of iron and gallium, we have taken $M\ddot{o}ssbauer$ spectra for $Tb_2Bi_1Ga_xFe_{5-x}O_{12}$(x=0, 1) at room temperature. From the results of $M\ddot{o}ssbauer$ spectra analysis, the absorption area ratios of Fe ions for $Tb_2Bi_1Fe_5O_{12}$ on 24d and 16a sites are 60.8 % and 39.2 %, respectively, and the absorption area ratios of Fe ions for $Tb_2Bi_1Fe_5O_{12}$ on 24d and 16a sites are 74.7 % and 25.3 %, respectively. It is noticeable that all of the nonmagnetic Ga atoms occupy the 16a site by vacuum annealing process.

Ti-Getter Effects on Magnetic Properties of Ti0.96Co0.02Fe0.02O2 (Ti-Getter가 Ti0.96Co0.02Fe0.02O2의 자기적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, H.D.;Kim, S.J.;Baek, J.K.;Lee, S.R.;Park, Cheol-Su;Kim, E.C.
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2008
  • The samples were synthesized by using a solid state reaction. The X-ray diffraction pattern for $Ti_{0.96}Co_{0.02}Fe_{0.02}O_2$ showed a pure rutile phase with tetragonal structure, Mixtures of the proper proportions of the elements sealed in evacuated quartz ampoule were heated at $870{\sim}930^{\circ}C$ for one day and then slowly cooled down to room temperature at a rate of $10^{\circ}C$/h. In order to obtain single phase material, it was necessary to grind the sample after the first firing and to press the powders into pellets before annealing them for a second time in evacuated and sealed quartz ampoule. Magnetic properties have been investigated using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Room temperature magnetic hysteresis (M-H) curve showed an obvious ferromagnetic behavior and the magnetic moment per Fe atom under the applied of 0.8 T was estimated to be about $1.5\;{\mu}_B$/CoFe. But the magnetic moment per Fe atom under the applied of 0.8 T was estimated to be about $0.02\;{\mu}_B$/CoFe without Ti-getter. Size of particles is about $1\;{\mu}m$ using the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The ingredients of sample are distributed irregular in particles. Only Fe get shown on the surface of particles.

Thickness Dependence of Amorphous CoSiB/Pd Multilayer with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy (비정질 강자성체 CoSiB/Pd 다층박막의 두께에 따른 수직자기이방성 변화)

  • Yim, H.I.
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.122-125
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    • 2013
  • Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is the phenomenon of magnetic thin film which is preferentially magnetized in a direction perpendicular to the film's plane. Amorphous multilayer with PMA has been studied as the good candidate to realization of high density STT-MRAM (Spin Transfer Torque-Magnetic Random Access Memory). The current issue of high density STT-MRAM is a decrease in the switching current of the device and an application of amorphous materials which are most suitable devices. The amorphous ferromagnetic material has low saturated magnetization, low coercivity and high thermal stability. In this study, we presented amorphous ferromagnetic multilayer that consists of an amorphous alloy CoSiB and a nonmagnetic material Pd. We investigated the change of PMA of the $[CoSiB\;t_{CoSiB}/Pd\;1.3nm]_5$ multilayer ($t_{CoSiB}$ = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 nm, and $t_{Pd}$ = 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 nm) and $[CoSiB\;0.3nm/Pd\;1.3nm]_n$ multilayer (n = 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13). This multilayer is measured by VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) and analyzed magnetic properties like a coercivity ($H_c$) and a magnetization ($M_s$). The coercivity in the $[CoSiB\;t_{CoSiB}\;nm/Pd\;1.3nm]_5$ multi-layers increased with increasing $t_{CoSiB}$ to reach a maximum at $t_{CoSiB}$ = 0.3 nm and then decreased for $t_{CoSiB}$ > 0.3 nm. The lowest saturated magnetization of $0.26emu/cm^3$ was obtained in the $[CoSiB\;0.3nm/Pd\;1.3nm]_3$ multilayer whereas the highest coercivity of 0.26 kOe was obtained in the $[CoSiB\;0.3nm/Pd\;1.3nm]_5$ mutilayer. Additional Pd layers did not contribute to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The single domain structure evolved in to a striped multi-domain structure as the bilayer repetition number n was increased above 7 after which (n > 7) the hysteresis loops had a bow-tie shapes.