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Intonation Types of Sentence Terminal in Korean Dialects (방언의 월 끝 억양의 유형)

  • Lee, Byung-Woon
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2002
  • This study is to classify intonation types of sentence terminal in accordance with sentence form in Korean dialects. Intonation types of sentence terminal in declarative, interrogative (yes-no and wh-sentence), imperative, suggestive of Gyeongnam dialect are low fall, high fall, high fall, low fall, so are not distinctive by intonation, but distinctive by final ending morphemes. But those of Jungbu dialect are low fall, rise-fall and full rise, high level, low rise-fall. Those of Jeonnam dialect are low level, rise-fall and full rise, high level, high level. So those of Jungbu dialect are similar to Jeonnam dialect.

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The proposal of urban regeneration methods for deteriorated downtown residential area, considering the development condition of urban blocks - A case study of Kwangju City (쇠퇴한 구도심 주거지의 개발여건별 재활성화 방법 제안 - 광주광역시 구도심을 사례로)

  • Yoon, Yong-Suk;Yang, Woo-Hyun;Kim, Lee-Won
    • Proceeding of Spring/Autumn Annual Conference of KHA
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    • pp.132-137
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to suggest urban regeneration methods for deteriorated downtown residential area, considering the development condition of urban blocks. Through the research that are based on literature, field survey, urban planning map and local experts consulting, it found out suitable sites for development such as a deteriorated residential zone or a unused site and it was deduced eight development types from analyzing the characters of developable sites. And then it is suggested various housing forms which were applied to eight development types of developable sites. The consequences of this research are summarized as follows. There are various housing forms by eight development types; block housing, low rise-high density court housing, medium low rise-high density housing, urban housing for low-income groups belong to T1-development of urban strategic position; block housing, housing on hilly site, semi-detached house, lodging house, urban housing for low-income groups, elderly housing belong to T2-development for living benefit; block housing, low rise-high density court housing, housing on hilly site, low rise housing, lodging housing, urban housing for low-income groups, elderly housing belong to T3-development of a small-scale rental housing; block housing, low rise-high density court housing, medium low rise-high density housing, terrace-house, housing on hilly site, low rise housing, block-typed detached house, semi-detached house, cluster-typed low rise housing, town house, urban housing for low-income groups belong to T4-residential environment renewal development; terrace-house, housing on hilly site, low rise housing, block housing, semi-detached house belong to T5-development of a small-scale housing; terrace-house, housing on hilly site, low rise housing, cluster-typed low rise housing belong to T6-development to adapt natural environment; block housing, low rise-high density court housing, low rise housing, block-typed detached house, town house belong to T7-development for community; block housing, low rise-high density court housing block housing, medium low rise-high density housing, terrace-house, housing on hilly site, low rise housing, elderly housing belong to T8-development of environment-friendly.

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Wind pressure coefficients on low-rise structures and codification

  • Letchford, Chris;Holmes, J.D.;Hoxey, Roger;Robertson, Adam
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.283-294
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    • 2005
  • This paper describes the work of the Working Group on wind pressure coefficients on low-rise structures, one of the groups set up by the International Association of Wind Engineering in 1999. General aspects of wind loading on low-rise structures are summarized. The definition, derivation and codification of loading coefficients is described. Comparisons of pressure coefficients on low rise structures are made between a selection of wind loading standards. Recommendations for consistency and for the harmonization of these coefficients are given.

A Study on the Improvement of the Environment-Friendly Low-rise House using Amenity (어메니티를 활용한 친환경 저층집합주거 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Young-Woo;Lee, Jong-Kuk
    • Proceeding of Spring/Autumn Annual Conference of KHA
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    • pp.124-128
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    • 2009
  • As the problem of destroying natural environment is emerging as a common social issue world widely, recently in the filed of architecture there has been increasing interests in environment-friendly architecture according to the awakening and understanding of environmental pollution. The social problem caused by pursuing affluent urban life is now making the quality of life an issue against the urban policy that has been simply emphasizing quantitative expansion only. Accordingly, development and popularization of such a type as environment-friendly low-rise house is being suggested as an alternative idea, because it can combine secured independent space, which is a merit of independent houses, and characteristic architectural shapes, making possible the development of large scale environment-friendly complexes. Based on the analysis of the examples of Environment-friendly low-rise house in other countries that are utilizing amenity concepts, such as environment, ecology, culture and history, the present research proposed an alternative idea for highly dense high-rise houses, by resolving the problems of low-rise house complex caused by the variable of ecological environment. An effort was made to understand the concept of low-rise house through theoretical investigation, and based on the analysis of domestic and foreign cases, a method for improving the problems was deduced as a conclusion.

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A comparative study on dynamic behavior of high-rise building and low-rise building considering SSI analysis (SSI 해석을 고려한 초고층 및 저층 건물 동적거동 비교 연구)

  • You, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Seung-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.973-987
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    • 2018
  • Most of the previous seismic analyses have been carried out by separating the ground and structures, and there is a lack of comparative study on the dynamic behavior of high-rise and low-rise buildings. Therefore, in this study, the sensitivity analysis was performed with selected parameters by using a finite element analysis program in order to grasp the dynamic behavior of high-rise and low-rise buildings. As a result, it was turned out that the horizontal displacement, the interstory drift ratio, and the bending stress of a high-rise building were more affected by a long seismic wave than a low-rise buildings. Also, the weak parts of a high-rise and low-rise building were more affected by type of seismic wave than the ground conditions. Therefore, it is inferred that it will be helpful for seismic designs to consider the influence of ground conditions and seismic wave type on buildings.

Low-energy Tall Buildings? Room for Improvement as Demonstrated by New York City Energy Benchmarking Data

  • Leung, Luke;Ray, Stephen D.
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 2013
  • This paper proposes a framework for understanding the energy consumption differences between tall and low-rise buildings. Energy usage data from 706 office buildings in New York illustrates expected correlations from the framework. Notable correlations include: taller buildings tend to use more energy until a plateau at 30~39 floors; tall buildings in Manhattan use 20% more energy than low-rise buildings in Manhattan, while tall buildings outside Manhattan use 4% more energy than low-rise buildings outside Manhattan. Additional correlations are discussed, among which is the trend that the Energy Star program in New York City assigns higher ratings to tall buildings with higher EUIs than low-rise buildings with the same EUI. Since Energy Star is based on regressions of existing buildings, the Energy Star ratings suggest taller buildings have higher EUIs than shorter buildings, which is confirmed by the New York City energy benchmarking data.

The development of a field measurement instrumentation system for low-rise construction

  • Porterfield, Michelle L.;Jones, Nicholas P.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.247-260
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    • 2001
  • In the last three decades several comprehensive field measurement programs have produced significant insight into the wind effects on low-rise structures. The most notable and well published of these efforts are measurements being collected at the Wind Engineering Field Laboratory (WERFL) at Texas Tech University, measurements on low-rise structures in Silsoe, England and measurements on groups of low-rise structures collected in Aylesbury, England. Complementary to these efforts, an additional full-scale field investigation program has recently collected meteorological, pressure, strain and displacement data on a low-rise structure in Southern Shores, North Carolina. To date over seventy-five hundred data sets have been collected at the Southern Shores site in a variety meteorological conditions up to and including hurricane-force winds. This paper provides details of the system, its development, and preliminary assessment of its performance. A description of the field site, the instrumented structure, and the instrumentation system is provided. In addition, an example of the data collected during three hurricanes is presented. The primary goal of this paper is to provide the reader with the necessary technical details to appropriately interpret data from this experiment, which will be presented in future publications currently under development.

Monitoring of wind effects on an instrumented low-rise building during severe tropical storm

  • Li, Q.S.;Hu, S.Y.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.469-488
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    • 2015
  • A full-scale instrumented low-rise building with gable roof was built at a coastal site with a high incidence of tropical cyclones for monitoring of wind effects on the building during windstorms. This paper presents the field measurements of the wind velocity field around and the wind-induced pressures on the low-rise building during the passage of severe tropical storm Soudelor. Near-ground wind characteristics such as wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity, gust factor, turbulence integral length scale and wind velocity spectra were investigated. The wind-induced pressures on the roof of the building were analyzed and discussed. The results revealed that the eave and ridge edges on the roof were subjected to the most severe suction pressures under quartering winds. These suction pressures showed obvious non-Gaussian behavior. The measured results were compared with the provisions of ASCE 7-10 to assess the suitability of the code of practice for the wind-resistant design of low-rise buildings under tropical cyclones. The field study aims to provide useful information that can enhance our understanding of the extreme wind effects on low-rise buildings in an effort to reduce tropical cyclone wind damages to residential buildings.

Seismic Risk Assessment of Existing Low-rise Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Korea

  • LEE, Kang Seok;Jung, Ju-Seong;Choi, Yun-Chul
    • Architectural research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2018
  • Countermeasures against earthquake disasters such as the seismic capacity evaluation and/or retrofit schemes of buildings, especially existing low-rise reinforced concrete buildings, have not been fully performed since Korea had not experienced many destructive earthquakes in the past. However, due to more than 1200 earthquakes with low or moderate intensity in the off-coastal and inland of Korea during the past 20 years, and due to the recent moderate earthquakes in Korea, such as the 2016 Gyeongju Earthquake with M=5.8 and the 2017 Pohang Earthquake with M=5.4, the importance of the future earthquake preparedness measures is highly recognized in Korea. The main objective of this study is to provide the basic information regarding seismic capacities of existing low-rise reinforced concrete buildings in Korea. In this paper, seismic capacities of 14 existing low-rise reinforced concrete public buildings in Korea are evaluated based on the Japanese Standard for Evaluation of Seismic Capacity of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings. Seismic capacities between existing buildings in Korea and those in Japan is compared, and the relationship of seismic vulnerability of Korean buildings and Japanese buildings damaged due to severe earthquakes are also discussed. Results indicated that Korean existing low-rise reinforced concrete buildings have a narrow distribution of seismic capacities and they are relatively lower than Japanese buildings, and are also expected to have severe damage under the earthquake intensity level experienced in Japan. It should be noted from the research results that the high ductility in Korean existing low-rise buildings obtained from the Japanese Standard may be overestimated, because most buildings investigated herein have the hoop spacing wider than 30 cm. In the future, the modification of strength and ductility indices in the Japanese Standard to propose the seismic capacity evaluation method of Korean buildings is most needed.

A Study to Set up Guideline for Public Facilities as Infrastructure of Low-rise Residential Community in Seoul (서울 저층주거 밀집지역 공공생활지원시설 설정방향에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Jee-Hun;Lee, Na-Rae;Kim, Jong-Pil;Kim, Donyun
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.127-137
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    • 2019
  • Low-rise residential community is the most popular type (51%) of residential neighborhoods in Seoul. Currently, there is a shortage of public facilities needed for living conditions and the quality of life in low-rise residential areas. This study defines 'public facility' as infrastructure to improve the living environment and used by residents jointly in low-rise residential areas. In this regard, this study analyzes current legal and institutional standards, latest trends in public facility of apartments, and residents' demand and satisfaction level in order to find out the criteria for installation of priority public facilities. As a result, the essential facility basically conforms to the number of household which is the standard of the facility supply in apartment. However, considering the limitations on the accessibility due to low density, it should consider two standards at the same time: the number of household and distance (radius of neighborhood). In conclusion, it is necessary to install legally prescribed facilities according to the number of household and distance: 500 households facilities in 250m radius neighborhood and 1,000 households facilities in 400m radius neighborhood. Also, considering the reality of low-rise residential area, it is necessary to integrate some facilities that can be functionally linked to improve level of utility and efficiency of operation and management. It is expected that the output of this study can be applied to institutionalize of the legal basis for the public facility of low-rise residential community.