• Title, Summary, Keyword: low flow hypoxia

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Hepatic Injury Studied in Two Different Hypoxic Models (저산소 모델에 따른 간장 기능 손상에 관한 연구)

  • 윤기욱;이상호;이선미
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2000
  • We hypothesized that the extent of hypoxic injury would be involved in reduction of oxygen delivery to the tissue. Livers isolated from 18 hr-fasted rats were subjected to $N_2$-induced hypoxia or low flow hypoxia. Livers were perfused with nitrogen/carbon dioxide gas for 45min or perfused with normoxic Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (KHBB) at low flow rates around 1 ml/g liver/min far 45min, which caused cells to become hypoxic because of insufficient delivery of oxygen. When normal flow rates(4 ml/g liver/min) of KHBB (pH 7.4, 37$^{\circ}C$, oxygen/carbon dioxide gas) were restored for 30min reoxygenation injury occurred. Lactate dehydrogenase release gradually increased in $N_2$-induced hypoxia, whereas it rapidly increased in low flow hypoxia. Total glutathione in liver tissue was not changed but oxidized glutathione markedly increased after hypoxia and reoxygenation, expecially in $N_2$-induced hypoxia. Similarly, lipid peroxidation in liver tissue significantly increased after hypoxia and reoxygenation in low flow hypoxia. Hepatic drug metabolizing functions (phase I, II) were suppressed during hypoxia, especially in $N_2$-induced hypoxia but improved by reoxygenation in both models. Our findings suggest that hypoxia results in abnormalities in drug metabolizing function caused by oxidative stress and that this injury is dependent on hypoxic conditions.

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Changes in drug metabolism during hypoxia/reoxygenation in isolated perfused rat

  • Seo, Min-Young;Cho, Tai-Soon;Lee, Sun-Mee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.98-98
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    • 1997
  • This study was done to investigate the effect of vitamin E on hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced hepatic injury in isolated perfused rat liver. Rats were pretreated with vitamin E or vehicle(soybean oil). Isolated livers from fasted 18 hours were subjected to 45min of low flow hypoxia or N$_2$ hypoxia followed by reoxygenation for 30min. The perfusion medium used was KHBB(pH 7.4) and 50${\mu}$㏖/$\ell$ of ethoxycoumarin was added to the perfusate to determine the ability of hepatic drug-metabolizing systems, In low flow hypoxia model, total glutathione and oxidised glutathione levels were significantly increased by hepoxia/reoxygenation with slight increase in LDH levels. These increases were prevented by vitamin E pretreatment. In N$_2$ hypoxia model, LDH, total glutathione and oxidized glutathione levels were increased significantly by hypoxia but restored to normal level by reoxygenation. Vitamin E had little effect on this hypoxic damage. There were no significant changes in the rate of hepatic oxidation of 7-EC to 7-HC in both hepoxic models. But, the subsequent conjugation of 7-HC by sulfate or glucuronic acid were significantly decreased by hypoxia, but restored by reoxygenation in both hypoxia models. As opposed to our expectation, treatment with vitamin E aggrevated the decrease of the rate of conjugation and even inhibited the restoration by reoxygenation. Our findings suggest that hypoxia/reoxygenation diminishes phase II drug metabolizing function and this is, in part, related to decreased energy level.

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Imaging Hypoxic Myocardium (심근 저산소증 영상)

  • Bae, Sang-Kyun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2005
  • Hypoxia (decreased tissue oxygen tension) is a component of many diseases such as tumors, cerebrovascular diseases and ischemic heart diseases. Although hypoxia can be secondary to a low inspired $pO_2$ or a variety of lung disorders, the most common cause is ischemia due to an oxygen demand greater than the local oxygen supply. In the heart tissue, hypoxia is often observed in persistent low-flow states, such as hibernating myocardium. Direct "hot spot" imaging of myocardial tissue hypoxia is potentially of great clinical importance because it may provide a means of identifying dysfunctional chronically ischemic but viable hibernating myocardium. A series of radiopharmaceuticals that incorporate nitroimidazole moieties have been synthesized to detect decreased local tissue pO2. In contrast to agents that localize in proportion to perfusion, these agents concentrate in hypoxic tissue. However, the ideal agents are not developed yet and the progress is very slow. Furthermore, the research focus is on tumor hypoxia nowadays. This review introduces the myocardial hypoxia imaging with summarizing the development of radiopharmaceuticals.

Effect of Hypoxia on the Doxorubicin Sensitivity of Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

  • Lim, Soo-Jeong;Kang, He-Kyung
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.287-290
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    • 2007
  • Intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is one of the major obstacles to effective cancer treatment. Hypoxia is widespread in solid tumors as a consequence of decreased blood flow in the tumor-derived neovasculature. The recent finding of a link between hypoxia and chemoresistance prompted us to investigate whether hypoxia induces doxorubicin resistance in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Low oxygen concentration decreased the doxorubicin sensitivity in MCF-7 cells. The expression of p-glycoprotein, a major MDR-related transporter, and those of apoptosis-related proteins (anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and pro-apoptotic Bax) were not altered by hypoxia in MCF-7 cells. Intracellular uptake of doxorubicin was significantly decreased under hypoxic conditions. Decreased cellular uptake of doxorubicin under hypoxia may contribute to causing doxorubicin resistance in these cells. The use of agents that can modulate the doxorubicin uptake for adjuvant therapy may contribute to improving the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in breast cancer patients.

Effect of vitamin C on hepatic drug metabolism in hypoxia/reoxygenation

  • Lee, Hae-;Jung, Ju-Yeon;Han, Suck-Hee;Cho, Tai-Soon;Lee, Sun-Mee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.191-191
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    • 1998
  • It has been hypothesized that formation of oxygen-derived free radicals may play an important part in ischemically induced tissue injury. In this study, the effects of vitamin C treatment on hepatic reperfusion model were investigated. Livers isolated from 18 hrs fasted rats were subjected to low flow hypoxia (1 $m\ell$/g liver/min, for 45min) followed by reoxygenation (for 30min). The perfusion medium used was Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (KHBB, pH 7.4) and vitamin C (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM) was added to perfusate. 7-Ethoxycoumarin was used as substrate of phase and metbolism. After hypoxia oxygen consumption significantly dropped but vitamin C 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mM treatments restored oxygen consumption to the level of control group. LDH and lipid peroxidation were not changed in all experimental groups. Oxidation, phase metabolism, significantly decreased following hypoxia but improved during reoxygenation. Vitamin C 0.25 mM treatment significantly improved the oxidation of 7-ethoxycoumarin during hypoxia and reoxygenation, but the oxidation significantly decreased by vitamin C 2.0 mM treatment. Similarly, sulfate conjugation decreased in hypoxic group, but this decrease was inhibited by vitamin C 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mM treatments. Our findings suggest that hypoxia/reoxygenation diminishes hepatic drug metabolizing function, vitamin C at concentration of 0.25-1.0 mM ameliorates but at higher concentration aggravates these hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced changes.

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Oxygen Transport in Axisymmetric Thrombosed Aneurysm (혈전이 있는 축대칭 동맥류에서의 산소전달현상)

  • 김한일;태기식;김영호
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.295-300
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    • 2002
  • Localized hypoxia, due to the diminished $O_2$supply, is reported to cause necrosis of the arterial cell and to significantly decrease resistances to physiologic distending pressures. In the present study, in order to understand the mechanism of localized hypoxia which might result in the rupture of the aneurysm. $O_2$ transport phenomena across intraluminal thrombus in axisymmetric aneurysms under steady laminar flow condition were numerically analyzed using the Fick's law and the analogy with the fluid-solid heat transfer. For computational models, varying the thickness of intraluminal thrombus, numerical results showed that for the axisymmetric aneurysm with intraluminal thrombus. $O_2$ concentration became minimal at the aneurysm wall. With increased thickness of the intraluminal thrombus in the aneurysm. regions of low $O_2$ concentration were widely distributed near the aneurysm wall, which resulted in the possibility of localized hypoxia. The present study verifis that intraluminal thrombus influences $O_2$ transport to the aneurysm wall. depending on its size and structure.

[18F]Labeled 2-nitroimidazole derivatives for hypoxia imaging

  • Seelam, Sudhakara Reddy;Lee, Yun-Sang;Jeong, Jae Min
    • Journal of Radiopharmaceuticals and Molecular Probes
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.73-83
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    • 2016
  • Imaging hypoxia using positron emission tomography (PET) is of great importance for cancer therapy. [$^{18}F$] Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) was the first PET agent used for imaging tumor hypoxia. Various radiolabeled nitroimidazole derivatives such as [$^{18}F$]fluoroerythronitroimidazole (FETNIM), [$^{18}F$]1-${\alpha}$-D-(2-deoxy-2-fluoroarabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole(FAZA), 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-[18F]-trifluoropropyl)acetamide ([$^{18}F$]EF-3), [$^{18}F$]2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl) acetamide (EF-5), 3-[$^{18}F$]fluoro-2-(4-((2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,3,-triazol-1-yl)-propan-1-ol ([$^{18}F$]HX-4), and [$^{18}F$]fluoroetanidazole (FETA) were developed successively. However, these imaging agents still produce PET images with limited resolution; the lower blood flow in hypoxic tumors compared to normoxic tumors results in low uptake of the agents in hypoxic tumors. Thus, the development of better imaging agents is necessary.

Injury and inflammation detection by the application of microcurrent through the skin

  • Hui, Timothy;Petrofsky, Jerrold
    • Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To determine the efficacy and reliability of measuring direct current microcurrent applied through the skin to determine injury in the underlying tissues. Design: Case control study. Methods: First, microcurrent was measured as decreased blood flow induced hypoxia in healthy subjects. Next, reliability was assessed by measuring over ten days with set variations in pressure and distance between the electrodes. Finally, measurements over sprained ankle were compared to measurements over comparable uninjured areas on the same injured subject. Results: For the blood flow test phase, microcurrent significantly decreased an average of 17% after 5 minutes (p<0.05), remained decreased for 30 seconds, and returned to non-occlusive levels after 2 minutes of normal circulation. The results indicate that the microcurrent decrease was not due to blood flow, and most likely from hypoxic cellular damage. For the reliability phase, the coefficients of variation averaged 10.3% for the shoulder, 14.8% for the low back, and 29.1% for the knee. Changing distance 2.5 cm between the electrodes resulted in insignificant changes. Changes in pressure had some significant effect after an increase in force of 2.6 N, affirming the need for consistent pressure for measurement. For the injury test phase, a significant 69% decrease occurred comparing injured areas to the same area on the uninjured side, and a significant 74% occurred comparing injured and non-injured areas on the same limb. Conclusions: Microcurrent through the skin shows promise as an objective method of assessing a soft tissue injury by detecting damage likely due to hypoxia.

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In vitro Expansion of Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UCB-MSCs) Under Hypoxic Conditions

  • Yang, Jungyun;Kwon, Jihye;Kim, Miyeon;Bae, Yunkyung;Jin, Hyejin;Park, Hohyun;Eom, Young Woo;Rhee, Ki-Jong
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.40-49
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    • 2015
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multi-lineage cells, thus highlighting the feasibility of using umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs) for cell-therapy and tissueengineering. However, the low numbers of UCB-MSC derived from clinical samples requires that an ex vivo expansion step be implemented. As most stem cells reside in low oxygen tension environments (i.e., hypoxia), we cultured the UCBMSCs under 3% $O_2$ or 21% $O_2$ and the following parameters were examined: proliferation, senescence, differentiation and stem cell specific gene expression. UCB-MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions expanded to significantly higher levels and showed less senescence compared to UCB-MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions. In regards to differentiation potential, UCB-MSCs cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions both underwent similar levels of osteogenesis as determined by ALP and von Kossa assay. Furthermore, UCB-MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions exhibited higher expression of OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 genes. Moreover, cells expanded under hypoxia maintained a stem cell immnunophenotype as determined by flow cytometry. These results demonstrate that the expansion of human UCB-MSCs under a low oxygen tension microenvironment significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation. These results demonstrate that hypoxic culture can be rapidly and easily implemented into the clinical-scale expansion process in order to maximize UCB-MSCs yield for application in clinical settings and at the same time reduce culture time while maintaining cell product quality.

Role of p-38 MAP Kinase in apoptosis of hypoxia-induced osteoblasts (저산소 상태로 인한 조골세포 고사사기전에서 p-38 MAP kinase의 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Jeong-Hyeon;Jeong, Ae-Jin;Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Kim, Sang-Cheol
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.169-183
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    • 2003
  • Tooth movement by orthodontic force effects great tissue changes within the periodontium, especially by shifting the blood flow in the pressure side and resulting in a hypoxic state of low oxygen tension. The aim of this study is to elucidate the possible mechanism of apoptosis in response to hypoxia in MC3T3El osteoblasts, the main cells in bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. MC3T3El osteoblasts under hypoxic conditions ($2\%$ orygen) resulted in apoptosis in a time-dependent manner as estimated by DNA fragmentation assay and nuclear morphology stained with fluorescent dye, Hoechst 33258. Pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK, a pancaspase inhibitor, or Z-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, completely suppressed the DNA ladder in response to hypoxia. An increase in caspase-3-like protease (DEVDase) activity was observed during apoptosis, but no caspase-1 activity (YVADase) was detected. To confirm what caspases are involved in apoptosis, Western blot analysis was performed using anti-caspase-3 or -6 antibodies. The 10-kDa protein, corresponding to the active products of caspase-3, and the 10-kDa protein of the active protein of caspase-6 were generated in hypoxia-challenged cells in which the processing of the full length form of caspase-3 and -6 was evident. While a time course similar to this caspase-3 and -6 activation was evident, hypoxic stress caused the cleavage of lamin A, which was typical of caspase-6 activity. In addition, the stress elicited the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol during apoptosis. Furthermore, we observed that pre-treatment with SB203580, a selective p38 mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor, attenuated the hypoxia-induced apoptosis. The addition of SB203S80 suppressed caspase-3 and -6-like protease activity by hypoxia up to $50\%$. In contrast, PD98059 had no effect on the hypoxia-induced apoptosis. To confirm the involvement of MAP kinase, JNK/SAPK, ERK, or p38 kinase assay was performed. Although p38 MAPK was activated in response to hypoxic treatment, the other MAPK -JNK/SAPK or ERK- was either only modestly activated or not at all. These results suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in hypoxia-induced apoptosis in MC3T3El osteoblasts.