• Title/Summary/Keyword: livestock building

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Troubleshooting System for Environmental Problems in a Livestock Building Using an Expert System and a Neural Network (전문가시스템과 신경회로망에 의한 축사환경개선시스템)

  • ;Don D. Jones
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 1994
  • Since parameters influencing the indoor environment of livestock building interrelate so complicatedly, it is of great difficulty to identify the exact cause of environmental problems in a livestock building. Therefore, the approaches for the problem solving based on experience not numerical calculation will be helpful to the management of livestock building This study was attempt to develop the decision supporting system to diagnose environmen- tal problems in a livestock building based on an expert system and a neural network. HClips$^3$), attaching the Hangeul user interface to Clips which is known as a powerful shell for develop- ing expert system, was used. The multilayer perceptron consisting of 4 layers including back propagation learning algorithm was adpoted, which was rapidly converged within the allowable range at 50,000 learning sweeps. The expert system and neural network seemed to work well for this specific application, providing proper suggestions for some environmental problems: particularly, the neural net- work trained by an environmental problem and its corresponding answer with certainty factor, produced the same results as those by expert system.

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Evaluation of Odor Dispersion from Livestock Building through Field Experiment (현장실험을 통한 축산시설로부터 배출되는 축산악취의 확산 평가)

  • Yeo, Uk-Hyeon;Lee, In-Bok;Ha, Tae-Hwan;Decano, Cristina;Kim, Rack-Woo;Lee, Sang-Yeon;Kim, Jun-Gyu;Choi, Young-Bae;Park, You-Me
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2019
  • Livestock odor is comprised of mixed type of odorous compounds. Among these, ammonia ($NH_3$) and hydrogen sulfide ($H_2S$) are the two known major odor causing substances. Because high odor concentration reduces productivity of livestock and causes damage to the surrounding communities, quantitative analysis is needed to manage the odor inside and outside the livestock facilities. It is also necessary to evaluate odor dispersion according to the distance between the receptors taking into account the influence of odor source and weather condition. Therefore, in this study, we tried to evaluate the internal environment and odor dispersion from experimental pig house considering weather conditions. An experimental farm was specifically selected to eliminate the interference of odors generated by adjacent farms. $NH_3$ and complex odor were quantitatively analyzed using a gas detector and air dilution sensory method. The concentration of $NH_3$ and complex odor in pig house showed a distinct concentration difference according to the cleaning and ventilation conditions. $NH_3$ concentration and complex odor was lower than emission standard in the pig house and at the site boundary. The average $NH_3$ concentration (P1~P3) and the $NH_3$ concentration at the site boundary (S1) were strongly correlated with R=0.77. While the correlation for complex odor inside and at the site boundary had R=0.52. The correlation coefficient between $NH_3$ and the complex odor was 0.80.

Field Experiment for Developing an Atmospheric Diffusion Model of a Livestock Odor (축산 악취의 확산 모델 개발을 위한 현장 실험)

  • Hong, S.W.;Lee, I.B.;Hwang, H.S.;Seo, I.H.;Kwon, H.J.;Bitog, J.P.;Yoo, J.I.;Kwon, K.S.;Ha, T.H.;Kim, Y.H.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2008
  • Odor is one of the major nuisances in the environment. In most countries, odor annoyance from livestock production is an increasing problem in community. In order to reduce the odor inconvenience and establish a good relation between livestock industries and the surrounding communities, many studies, such as diffusion simulations and field experiments, on the odor dispersion and its reduction have been investigated. These studies need to accompany the aerodynamic approach, as a main mechanism of diffusion phenomenon, and computational fluid dynamics(CFD) can be effectively used to study this kind of research. CFD considers both various wind conditions as well as topographical conditions to study aerodynamic phenomenon. Therefore the ultimate objective of the study was to develop an aerodynamic model to predict qualitatively and quantitatively odor diffusion from livestock. In this study, as the first step of this study, various phenomena and factors of odor diffusion from livestock houses were investigated through field experiments in 2007. Later, those data will be also used to verify the CFD accuracy as well as to develop 3-dimensional CFD model.

Analysis of the Disease Spread in a Livestock Building Using Tracer Gas Experiment (추적가스 실험을 통한 축사 내 질병 확산 분석)

  • Song, Sang-Hyeon;Lee, In-Bok;Kwon, Kyeong-Seok;Ha, Tae-Hwan;Bitog, Jessie P.;Hong, Se-Woon;Seo, Il-Hwan;Moon, Oun-Kyeong;Kim, Yeon-Joo;Choi, Eun-Jin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2012
  • Recently, the livestock industry in Korea was heavily affected by the outbreak of official livestock diseases such as foot and mouse disease, high pathogenic avian influenza, swine influenza, and so on. It has been established that these diseases are being spread through direct contact, droplet and airborne transmission. Among these transmissions, airborne transmission is very complex in conducting field investigation due to the invisibility of the pathogens and unstable weather conditions. In this study, the airborne transmission was thoroughly investigated inside a pig house by conducting tracer gas ($CO_2$) experiment because experiment with real pathogen is limited and dangerous. This is possible as it can be assumed that the flow is similar pattern very fine particles and gas. In the experiment, the ventilation structure as well as the location of gas emission were varied. The $CO_2$ detection sensors were installed at 0.5 and 1.3 m height from the floor surface. The tracer gas level was measured every second. Results revealed that the direction of spread can be determined by the response time. Response time refers to the time to reach 150 ppm from the gas emission source at each measuring points. The location of the main flow as well as the gas emission was also found to be very important factor causing the spread.

The Effect of Thermal Buoyancy on Air Flow and Temperature Distribution in a Slot-Ventilated Livestock Building (환기중(換氣中)인 축사(畜舍)의 열부력(熱浮力)이 공기유동 및 온도분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, H.L.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.144-157
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    • 1993
  • 환기중인 실험축사내에서 가축의 현열과 환기공기의 온도차에 의한 열부력(熱浮力)(thermal buoyancy)이 공기유동 및 온도분포에 미치는 영향을 구명(究明)하기 위하여 TEACH 컴퓨터프로그램($k-{\varepsilon}$ 난류모형 및 SIMPLE계열 Algorithm)을 Curvilinear Coordinates에 맞게 변형하였다. 계산한 축사내 공기유통 및 온도분포의 유의성(有意性) 검증은 Boon(1978)의 실험결과를 이용하였다. 열부력의 크기에 따른 유동의 변화를 관찰하기 위하여 유입공기의 온도를 $17^{\circ}C$$10^{\circ}C$ 두 수준으로 입력하였으며, 가축의 현열플릭스(flux)는 실내온도에 따라 변화하므로 유압공기의 온도가 $17^{\circ}C$일 때는 130W/$m^2$, $10^{\circ}C$일 때는 170W/$m^2$을 경계조건으로 입력하였다. 예측한 공기유동의 형태는 실험값(Boon, 1978)과 비교하여 대체로 만족할만한 결과를 얻었다. 그러나 유입공기의 온도가 $10^{\circ}C$인 경우, 예측 공기유동은 실험 유동형태와 차이가 있었다. 즉, 실험에서는 수평슬롯으로 유입된 공기가 바로 아래로 굴절되어 유동(流動)하였으나, 계산의 결과는 일정 거리로 수평방향으로 유동하다가 아래로 굴절하였다. 이런 유동의 차이는 경험적으로 열부력(熱浮力)에 민감하게 반응하지 않는 k-${\varepsilon}$ 난류(亂流)모형의 적용이 원인이 되거나 실험의 부적절한 수행이 원인이 될 수도 있다. 이 유동(流動)의 Reynolds 수(數) (Re)는 약 3,300, 수정Ar수(修正Ar數)(Corrected Archimedes Number : $Ar_c$)64로써, $Ar_c$ <30 이거나 $Ar_c$ >75이면 유입공기의 제트는 수평유동한다는 Randall & Battams(1979)의 연구결과와는 일치하였다. 그러나 공기제트의 굴절은 유동의 특성이 같다하더라도 유체의 성질, 축사의 기하학적 형태에 따라서 매우 민감하게 반응하므로 실제 실험을 통한 재검정과정을 거쳐야 할 것으로 판단된다. Fig. 9와 Fig. 10의 기하학적 형태의 지점별 예측온도와 측정온도(Boon, 1978)와의 편차는 대부분의 지점에서는 $1^{\circ}C$ 미만으로 상당히 정확하였으며, 최대의 온도차는 Fig. 10의 지점 13에서 $1.7^{\circ}C$이었다.

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Calculated external pressure coefficients on livestock buildings and comparison with Eurocode 1

  • Kateris, D.L.;Fragos, V.P.;Kotsopoulos, T.A.;Martzopoulou, A.G.;Moshou, D.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.481-494
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    • 2012
  • The greenhouse type metal structures are increasingly used in modern construction of livestock farms because they are less laborious to construct and they provide a more favorable microclimate for the growth of animals compared to conventional livestock structures. A key stress factor for metal structures is the wind. The external pressure coefficient ($c_{pe}$) is used for the calculation of the wind effect on the structures. A high pressure coefficient value leads to an increase of the construction weight and subsequently to an increase in the construction cost. The EC1 in conjunction with EN 13031-1:2001, which is specialized for greenhouses, gives values for this coefficient. This value must satisfy two requirements: the safety of the structure and a reduced construction cost. In this paper, the Navier - Stokes and continuity equations are solved numerically with the finite element method (Galerkin Method) in order to simulate the two dimensional, incompressible, viscous air flow over the vaulted roofs of single span and twin-span with eaves livestock greenhouses' structures, with a height of 4.5 meters and with length of span of 9.6 and 14 m. The simulation was carried out in a wind tunnel. The numerical results of pressure coefficients, as well as, the distribution of them are presented and compared with data from Eurocodes for wind actions (EC1, EN 13031-1:2001). The results of the numerical experiment were close to the values given by the Eurocodes mainly on the leeward area of the roof while on the windward area a further segmentation is suggested.

A Farm Scale Study on the Modified Ventilation System for Improving Environmental Factors in a Confined Nursery Pig Building (무창자돈사의 환경요인 개선을 위한 변형환기시스템의 현장 평가 연구)

  • Kim, H.T.;Ko, H.J.;Kim, K.Y.;Nishizu, T.;Choi, H.L.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 2006
  • Nursery pig building is imperative to provide environmental conditions favorable to maintenance of piglet health and the efficiency of growth rate. To meet the ultimate goal, it is necessary to apply proper ventilation design and construction to a confinement livestock building. This study was conducted to investigate the performance of a modified ventilation system in terms of devised slot-inlet (modification I) and exhaust fan (modification II) to improve air change rate in a confined nursery pig building, with dimension of 5.9 m(W) ${\times}$ 12.6 m(L) ${\times}$ 2.2 m(H) in an Darby Genetic Station. The experiment was carried out in August, especially when the outdoor peak temperature were above $30^{\circ}C$ and the measured indoor environmental factors were temperature, air velocity, humidity and ammonia concentration which have been known to affect the piglet health and growth. There was no difference in indoor temperature between the original and modified ventilation systems, however the air velocity and ammonia concentration in confined nursery pig building with modified ventilation system were, in most cases, better performance than original ventilation system. Therefore, it was concluded that the slot-inlet system that kept indoor environmental factors pertinent and had an economic advantage, should be considered as a ventilation system for decreasing sensible heat from piglet in confined nursery pig building during extreme summer season.