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Effects of Feed Protein Quality on the Protein Metabolism of Growing Pigs - Using a Simulation Model - (성장기 돼지의 단백질대사에 사료단백질의 질이 미치는 영향 -수치모델을 사용하여-)

  • 이옥희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.704-713
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to describe qualitatively the protein metabolism of pigs during growth depending on the feed protein quality and to describe quantitatively amino acids requirements, using a simulation model. The used model has a non-linear structure. In the used model, the protein utilization system of a pig, which is in the non-steady-state, is described with 15 flux equations and 11 differential equations and is composed with two compartments. Protein deposition(g/day) of pigs on the 30th, 60th, 90th, and 120th day of feeding duration with three-quality protein, beginning with body weight 20kg, were calculated according to the empirical model, PAF(the product of amino acid functions) of Menke, and was used as object function for the simulation. The mean of relative difference between the simulated protein deposition and PAF calculated values, lied in a range of 8.8%. The simulated protein deposition showed different behavior according to feed protein quality. In the high-quality protein, it showed paraboloidal form with extending growth simulation up to 150eh day. So the maximum of protein deposition was acquired on the 105th day of simulate growth time and then it decreased fast. In the low-quality protein, this form of protein deposition in the course of simulated growth did not appear until 150th day. The simulated protein mass also showed a difference in accordance with feed protein quality. The difference was small on the 30th day of simulated growth, but with duration of the simulated growth it was larger. On the 150th day the simulated protein deposition of high quality protein was 1.5 times higher as compared to the low-quality protein. The simulated protein synthesis and break-down rates(g/day) in the whole body showed a parallel behavior in the course of growth, according to feed protein quality. It was found that the improvement of feed protein quality increased protein deposition in the whole body through a increase of both protein synthesis and breakdown during growth. Also protein deposition efficiency, which was calculated from simulated protein deposition and protein synthesis, showed a difference in dependence on the protein qualify of feed protein. The protein deposition efficiency was higher in pigs fed with high quality protein, especially at the simulation time 30th day. But this phenomena disappeared with growth, so on the 150th day of growth, the protein deposition of the high feed protein quality was lowest among the three different quality of feed protein. The simulated total requirement of the 10 essential amino acids for the growth of pigs was 28.1(g/100g protein), similar to NRC. The requirement of lysine was 4.2(g/100g protein).

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Method Development of Ellagic Acid as Marker Compound for Standardization of Gochang Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) as Functional Ingredient (고창 복분자의 기능성원료 표준화를 위한 지표성분으로서 Ellagic Acid의 분석법 개발)

  • Kim, Yunjeong;Han, Song-Hee;Jeon, Ji-Yeong;Hwang, Minho;Im, Yong-Jin;Chae, Soo-Wan;Kim, Min-Gul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.11
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    • pp.1554-1558
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    • 2012
  • Method development and validation of ellagic acid for the standardization of Gochang Bokbunja as a functional ingredient and health food were accomplished. A Symmetry$^{(R)}$ (C18, $4.6{\times}250mm$, $5.0{\mu}m$) column was used with a gradient elution system of 1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. This method was validated according to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision test, and recovery test. Specificity was confirmed with identical retention time, and calibration curves of ellagic acid showed good linear regression ($R^2$ >0.9996). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of data from the intra- and inter-day experiments were less than 2.28% and 2.84%, except in the low limit of quality control (LLOQ, $1{\mu}g/mL$) sample. The results of the recovery test were from 89.17% to 97.92% with RSD values from 0.05 to 0.14%. Therefore, we performed analysis of ellagic acid as a marker compound in Gochang Bokbunja extracts. The amount of ellagic acid in Gochang Bukbunja was about $1.918{\mu}g/mg$ (0.192%) in the three times analysis, and RSD was less than 2.36% by the validated method. These results suggest that the developed HPLC method is simple, efficient, and could contribute to the quality control of Gochang Bokbunja extract as a functional ingredient.

The Study on New Radiating Structure with Multi-Layered Two-Dimensional Metallic Disk Array for Shaping flat-Topped Element Pattern (구형 빔 패턴 형성을 위한 다층 이차원 원형 도체 배열을 갖는 새로운 방사 구조에 대한 연구)

  • 엄순영;스코벨레프;전순익;최재익;박한규
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.667-678
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, a new radiating structure with a multi-layered two-dimensional metallic disk array was proposed for shaping the flat-topped element pattern. It is an infinite periodic planar array structure with metallic disks finitely stacked above the radiating circular waveguide apertures. The theoretical analysis was in detail performed using rigid full-wave analysis, and was based on modal representations for the fields in the partial regions of the array structure and for the currents on the metallic disks. The final system of linear algebraic equations was derived using the orthogonal property of vector wave functions, mode-matching method, boundary conditions and Galerkin's method, and also their unknown modal coefficients needed for calculation of the array characteristics were determined by Gauss elimination method. The application of the algorithm was demonstrated in an array design for shaping the flat-topped element patterns of $\pm$20$^{\circ}$ beam width in Ka-band. The optimal design parameters normalized by a wavelength for general applications are presented, which are obtained through optimization process on the basis of simulation and design experience. A Ka-band experimental breadboard with symmetric nineteen elements was fabricated to compare simulation results with experimental results. The metallic disks array structure stacked above the radiating circular waveguide apertures was realized using ion-beam deposition method on thin polymer films. It was shown that the calculated and measured element patterns of the breadboard were in very close agreement within the beam scanning range. The result analysis for side lobe and grating lobe was done, and also a blindness phenomenon was discussed, which may cause by multi-layered metallic disk structure at the broadside. Input VSWR of the breadboard was less than 1.14, and its gains measured at 29.0 GHz. 29.5 GHz and 30 GHz were 10.2 dB, 10.0 dB and 10.7 dB, respectively. The experimental and simulation results showed that the proposed multi-layered metallic disk array structure could shape the efficient flat-topped element pattern.

Performance of Drip Irrigation System in Banana Cultuivation - Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

  • Kumar, K. Nirmal Ravi;Kumar, M. Suresh
    • Agribusiness and Information Management
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2016
  • India is largest producer of banana in the world producing 29.72 million tonnes from an area of 0.803 million ha with a productivity of 35.7 MT ha-1 and accounted for 15.48 and 27.01 per cent of the world's area and production respectively (www.nhb.gov.in). In India, Tamil Nadu leads other states both in terms of area and production followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. In Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, Kurnool district had special reputation in the cultivation of banana in an area of 5765 hectares with an annual production of 2.01 lakh tonnes in the year 2012-13 and hence, it was purposively chosen for the study. On $23^{rd}$ November 2003, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has commenced a comprehensive project called 'Andhra Pradesh Micro Irrigation Project (APMIP)', first of its kind in the world so as to promote water use efficiency. APMIP is offering 100 per cent of subsidy in case of SC, ST and 90 per cent in case of other categories of farmers up to 5.0 acres of land. In case of acreage between 5-10 acres, 70 per cent subsidy and acreage above 10, 50 per cent of subsidy is given to the farmer beneficiaries. The sampling frame consists of Kurnool district, two mandals, four villages and 180 sample farmers comprising of 60 farmers each from Marginal (<1ha), Small (1-2ha) and Other (>2ha) categories. A well structured pre-tested schedule was employed to collect the requisite information pertaining to the performance of drip irrigation among the sample farmers and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model was employed to analyze the performance of drip irrigation in banana farms. The performance of drip irrigation was assessed based on the parameters like: Land Development Works (LDW), Fertigation costs (FC), Volume of water supplied (VWS), Annual maintenance costs of drip irrigation (AMC), Economic Status of the farmer (ES), Crop Productivity (CP) etc. The first four parameters are considered as inputs and last two as outputs for DEA modelling purposes. The findings revealed that, the number of farms operating at CRS are more in number in other farms (46.66%) followed by marginal (45%) and small farms (28.33%). Similarly, regarding the number of farmers operating at VRS, the other farms are again more in number with 61.66 per cent followed by marginal (53.33%) and small farms (35%). With reference to scale efficiency, marginal farms dominate the scenario with 57 per cent followed by others (55%) and small farms (50%). At pooled level, 26.11 per cent of the farms are being operated at CRS with an average technical efficiency score of 0.6138 i.e., 47 out of 180 farms. Nearly 40 per cent of the farmers at pooled level are being operated at VRS with an average technical efficiency score of 0.7241. As regards to scale efficiency, nearly 52 per cent of the farmers (94 out of 180 farmers) at pooled level, either performed at the optimum scale or were close to the optimum scale (farms having scale efficiency values equal to or more than 0.90). Majority of the farms (39.44%) are operating at IRS and only 29 per cent of the farmers are operating at DRS. This signifies that, more resources should be provided to these farms operating at IRS and the same should be decreased towards the farms operating at DRS. Nearly 32 per cent of the farms are operating at CRS indicating efficient utilization of resources. Log linear regression model was used to analyze the major determinants of input use efficiency in banana farms. The input variables considered under DEA model were again considered as influential factors for the CRS obtained for the three categories of farmers. Volume of water supplied ($X_1$) and fertigation cost ($X_2$) are the major determinants of banana farms across all the farmer categories and even at pooled level. In view of their positive influence on the CRS, it is essential to strengthen modern irrigation infrastructure like drip irrigation and offer more fertilizer subsidies to the farmer to enhance the crop production on cost-effective basis in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study further suggests that, the present era of Information Technology will help the irrigation management in the context of generating new techniques, extension, adoption and information. It will also guide the farmers in irrigation scheduling and quantifying the irrigation water requirements in accordance with the water availability in a particular season. So, it is high time for the Government of India to pay adequate attention towards the applications of 'Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its applications in irrigation water management' for facilitating the deployment of Decision Supports Systems (DSSs) at various levels of planning and management of water resources in the country.

CT Based 3-Dimensional Treatment Planning of Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cancer of the Cervix : Comparison between Dose-Volume Histograms and ICRU Point Doses to the Rectum and Bladder

  • Hashim, Natasha;Jamalludin, Zulaikha;Ung, Ngie Min;Ho, Gwo Fuang;Malik, Rozita Abdul;Ee Phua, Vincent Chee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5259-5264
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    • 2014
  • Background: CT based brachytherapy allows 3-dimensional (3D) assessment of organs at risk (OAR) doses with dose volume histograms (DVHs). The purpose of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT) based volumetric calculations and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) reference-point estimates of radiation doses to the bladder and rectum in patients with carcinoma of the cervix treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). Materials and Methods: Between March 2011 and May 2012, 20 patients were treated with 55 fractions of brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids and underwent post-implant CT scans. The external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose was 48.6Gy in 27 fractions. HDR brachytherapy was delivered to a dose of 21 Gy in three fractions. The ICRU bladder and rectum point doses along with 4 additional rectal points were recorded. The maximum dose ($D_{Max}$) to rectum was the highest recorded dose at one of these five points. Using the HDRplus 2.6 brachyhtherapy treatment planning system, the bladder and rectum were retrospectively contoured on the 55 CT datasets. The DVHs for rectum and bladder were calculated and the minimum doses to the highest irradiated 2cc area of rectum and bladder were recorded ($D_{2cc}$) for all individual fractions. The mean $D_{2cc}$ of rectum was compared to the means of ICRU rectal point and rectal $D_{Max}$ using the Student's t-test. The mean $D_{2cc}$ of bladder was compared with the mean ICRU bladder point using the same statistical test. The total dose, combining EBRT and HDR brachytherapy, were biologically normalized to the conventional 2 Gy/fraction using the linear-quadratic model. (${\alpha}/{\beta}$ value of 10 Gy for target, 3 Gy for organs at risk). Results: The total prescribed dose was $77.5Gy{\alpha}/{\beta}10$. The mean dose to the rectum was $4.58{\pm}1.22Gy$ for $D_{2cc}$, $3.76{\pm}0.65Gy$ at $D_{ICRU}$ and $4.75{\pm}1.01Gy$ at $D_{Max}$. The mean rectal $D_{2cc}$ dose differed significantly from the mean dose calculated at the ICRU reference point (p<0.005); the mean difference was 0.82 Gy (0.48-1.19Gy). The mean EQD2 was $68.52{\pm}7.24Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ for $D_{2cc}$, $61.71{\pm}2.77Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ at $D_{ICRU}$ and $69.24{\pm}6.02Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ at $D_{Max}$. The mean ratio of $D_{2cc}$ rectum to $D_{ICRU}$ rectum was 1.25 and the mean ratio of $D_{2cc}$ rectum to $D_{Max}$ rectum was 0.98 for all individual fractions. The mean dose to the bladder was $6.00{\pm}1.90Gy$ for $D_{2cc}$ and $5.10{\pm}2.03Gy$ at $D_{ICRU}$. However, the mean $D_{2cc}$ dose did not differ significantly from the mean dose calculated at the ICRU reference point (p=0.307); the mean difference was 0.90 Gy (0.49-1.25Gy). The mean EQD2 was $81.85{\pm}13.03Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ for $D_{2cc}$ and $74.11{\pm}19.39Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ at $D_{ICRU}$. The mean ratio of $D_{2cc}$ bladder to $D_{ICRU}$ bladder was 1.24. In the majority of applications, the maximum dose point was not the ICRU point. On average, the rectum received 77% and bladder received 92% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: OARs doses assessed by DVH criteria were higher than ICRU point doses. Our data suggest that the estimated dose to the ICRU bladder point may be a reasonable surrogate for the $D_{2cc}$ and rectal $D_{Max}$ for $D_{2cc}$. However, the dose to the ICRU rectal point does not appear to be a reasonable surrogate for the $D_{2cc}$.

Experimental Study for Phase-contrast X-ray Imaging Based on a Single Antiscatter Grid and a Polychromatic X-ray Source (단일 비산란 그리드 및 다색광 x-선원 기반 위상대조 x-선 영상화 실험 연구)

  • Park, Yeonok;Cho, Hyosung;Lim, Hyunwoo;Je, Uikyu;Park, Chulkyu;Cho, Heemoon;Kim, Kyuseok;Kim, Guna;Park, Soyoung
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2015
  • In this work, we performed a proof-of-concept experiment for phase-contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) based on a single antiscatter grid and a polychromatic x-ray source. We established a table-top setup which consists of a focused-linear grid having a strip density of 200 lines/inch, a microfocus x-ray tube having a focal-spot size of about $5{\mu}m$, and a CMOS-type flat-panel detector having a pixel size of $48{\mu}m$. By using our prototype PCXI system and the Fourier demodulation technique, we successfully obtained attenuation, scattering, and differential phase-contrast images of improved visibility from the raw images of several selected samples at x-ray tube conditions of $90kV_p$ and 0.1 mAs. Further, fusion image (e.g., the attenuation+the scattering) may have an advantage in displaying details of the sample's structures that are not clearly visible in the conventional attenuation image. Our experimental results indicate that single-grid-based approach seems a useful method for PCXI with great simplicity and minimal requirements on the setup alignment.

CO2 Exchange in Kwangneung Broadleaf Deciduous Forest in a Hilly Terrain in the Summer of 2002 (2002년 여름철 경사진 광릉 낙엽 활엽수림에서의 이산화탄소 교환)

  • Choi, Tae-jin;Kim, Joon;Lim, Jong-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.70-80
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    • 2003
  • We report the first direct measurement of $CO_2$ flux over Kwangneung broadleaf deciduous forest, one of the tower flux sites in KoFlux network. Eddy covariance system was installed on a 30 m tower along with other meteorological instruments from June to August in 2002. Although the study site was non-ideal (with valley-like terrain), turbulence characteristics from limited wind directions (i.e., 90$\pm$45$^{\circ}$) was not significantly different from those obtained at simple, homogeneous terrains with an ideal fetch. Despite very low rate of data retrieval, preliminary results from our analysis are encouraging and worthy of further investigation. Ignoring the role of advection terms, the averaged net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of $CO_2$ ranged from -1.2 to 0.7 mg m$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ from June to August in 2002. The effect of weak turbulence on nocturnal NEE was examined in terms of friction velocity (u*) along with the estimation of storage term. The effect of low uf u* NEE was obvious with a threshold value of about 0.2 m s$^{-1}$ . The contribution of storage term to nocturnal NEE was insignificant; suggesting that the $CO_2$ stored within the forest canopy at night was probably removed by the drainage flow along the hilly terrain. This could be also an artifact of uncertainty in calculations of storage term based on a single-level concentration. The hyperbolic light response curves explained >80% of variation in the observed NEE, indicating that $CO_2$ exchange at the site was notably light-dependent. Such a relationship can be used effectively in filling up the missing gaps in NEE data through the season. Finally, a simple scaling analysis based on a linear flow model suggested that advection might play a significant role in NEE evaluation at this site.

Development of Quality Assurance Software for $PRESAGE^{REU}$ Gel Dosimetry ($PRESAGE^{REU}$ 겔 선량계의 분석 및 정도 관리 도구 개발)

  • Cho, Woong;Lee, Jaegi;Kim, Hyun Suk;Wu, Hong-Gyun
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.233-241
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study is to develop a new software tool for 3D dose verification using $PRESAGE^{REU}$ Gel dosimeter. The tool included following functions: importing 3D doses from treatment planning systems (TPS), importing 3D optical density (OD), converting ODs to doses, 3D registration between two volumetric data by translational and rotational transformations, and evaluation with 3D gamma index. To acquire correlation between ODs and doses, CT images of a $PRESAGE^{REU}$ Gel with cylindrical shape was acquired, and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was designed to give radiation doses from 1 Gy to 6 Gy to six disk-shaped virtual targets along z-axis. After the VMAT plan was delivered to the targets, 3D OD data were reconstructed from 512 projection data from $Vista^{TM}$ optical CT scanner (Modus Medical Devices Inc, Canada) per every 2 hours after irradiation. A curve for converting ODs to doses was derived by comparing TPS dose profile to OD profile along z-axis, and the 3D OD data were converted to the absorbed doses using the curve. Supra-linearity was observed between doses and ODs, and the ODs were decayed about 60% per 24 hours depending on their magnitudes. Measured doses from the $PRESAGE^{REU}$ Gel were well agreed with the TPS doses at central region, but large under-doses were observed at peripheral region at the cylindrical geometry. Gamma passing rate for 3D doses was 70.36% under the gamma criteria of 3% of dose difference and 3 mm of distance to agreement. The low passing rate was resulted from the mismatching of the refractive index between the PRESAGE gel and oil bath in the optical CT scanner. In conclusion, the developed software was useful for 3D dose verification from PRESAGE gel dosimetry, but further improvement of the Gel dosimetry system were required.

Mammalian Cloning by Nuclear transfer, Stem Cell, and Enzyme Telomerase (핵치환에 의한 cloning, stem cell, 그리고 효소 telomerase)

  • 한창열
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.423-428
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    • 2000
  • In 1997 when cloned sheep Dolly and soon after Polly were born, it had become head-line news because in the former the nucleus that gave rise to the lamb came from cells of six-year-old adult sheep and in the latter case a foreign gene was inserted into the donor nucleus to make the cloned sheep produce human protein, factor IX, in e milk. In the last few years, once the realm of science fiction, cloned mammals especially in livestock have become almost commonplace. What the press accounts often fail to convey, however, is that behind every success lie hundreds of failures. Many of the nuclear-transferred egg cells fail to undergo normal cell divisions. Even when an embryo does successfully implant in the womb, pregnancy often ends in miscarriage. A significant fraction of the animals that are born die shortly after birth and some of those that survived have serious developmental abnormalities. Efficiency remains at less than one % out of some hundred attempts to clone an animal. These facts show that something is fundamentally wrong and enormous hurdles must be overcome before cloning becomes practical. Cloning researchers now tent to put aside their effort to create live animals in order to probe the fundamental questions on cell biology including stem cells, the questions of whether the hereditary material in the nucleus of each cell remains intact throughout development, and how transferred nucleus is reprogrammed exactly like the zygotic nucleus. Stem cells are defined as those cells which can divide to produce a daughter cell like themselves (self-renewal) as well as a daughter cell that will give rise to specific differentiated cells (cell-differentiation). Multicellular organisms are formed from a single totipotent stem cell commonly called fertilized egg or zygote. As this cell and its progeny undergo cell divisions the potency of the stem cells in each tissue and organ become gradually restricted in the order of totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent. The differentiation potential of multipotent stem cells in each tissue has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived. Recent studies, however, revealed that multipotent stem cells derived from adult tissues have much wider differentiation potential than was previously thought. These cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve stem cell into blood cells or muscle stem cell into brain cells. Neural stem cells isolated from the adult forebrain were recently shown to be capable of repopulating the hematopoietic system and produce blood cells in irradiated condition. In plants although the term$\boxDr$ stem cell$\boxUl$is not used, some cells in the second layer of tunica at the apical meristem of shoot, some nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac, and initial cells of adventive buds are considered to be equivalent to the totipotent stem cells of mammals. The telomere ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes cannot be replicated because the RNA primer at the end of a completed lagging strand cannot be replaced with DNA, causing 5' end gap. A chromosome would be shortened by the length of RNA primer with every cycle of DNA replication and cell division. Essential genes located near the ends of chromosomes would inevitably be deleted by end-shortening, thereby killing the descendants of the original cells. Telomeric DNA has an unusual sequence consisting of up to 1,000 or more tandem repeat of a simple sequence. For example, chromosome of mammal including human has the repeating telomeric sequence of TTAGGG and that of higher plant is TTTAGGG. This non-genic tandem repeat prevents the death of cell despite the continued shortening of chromosome length. In contrast with the somatic cells germ line cells have the mechanism to fill-up the 5' end gap of telomere, thus maintaining the original length of chromosome. Cem line cells exhibit active enzyme telomerase which functions to maintain the stable length of telomere. Some of the cloned animals are reported prematurely getting old. It has to be ascertained whether the multipotent stem cells in the tissues of adult mammals have the original telomeres or shortened telomeres.

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Extending the Shelf-life of Yukwa Using Secondary Packaging (이차포장을 통한 유과의 저장성 연장)

  • Jung, Jun-Jae;Lee, Keun-Taik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.452-458
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    • 2010
  • This study aimed at improving the packaging technology of Yukwa to improve the quality and extend the shelflife using secondary packaging. After packaging the Yukwa using an OPP film, P2, P3, and P4 packaging materials were applied secondarily. Various films including (1) P1: OPP (oriented polypropylene), (2) P2: P1+OPP/LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene), (3) P3: P1+PET (polyethylene terephthalate)/NY (nylon)/CPP (cast polypropylene) and (4) P4: P1+PET/AL (aluminum)/NY/CPP (P4) were used for packaging Yukwa. The experiment was conducted at $25^{\circ}C$ for 12 weeks. P1 showed the highest acid value score (1.26 mg KOH/g), and P3 had the highest peroxide value score (32.91 meq/kg) among all packaging groups. Nevertheless, these values did not exceed the guideline values of 2.0 g KOH/g and 40 meq/kg specified in the Korean food code. The overall color difference showed a tendency for decreasing Hunter 'L' values and increasing 'a' and 'b' values; however, no noticeable difference in the outer appearance was observed in any of the packaging treatments except in the P1 for greater than 10 weeks of storage. Some texture defects were observed in the Yukwa when the moisture contents dropped below 5%. The P4 packaging treatment had the lowest moisture permeability and showed the least rheological deterioration change, followed by P3 and P2. In conclusion, the use of a secondary packaging with less gas and moisture permeability was more effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of Yukwa than other types of packaging material.