• Title, Summary, Keyword: lectin

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The Effect of Geupoongjibo-dan Extracts on Reversible Forebrain Ischemia in Mongolian Gerbil (거풍지보단(祛風至寶丹)이 Mongolian Gerbil의 가역성 전뇌허혈 모델에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Wan-Woo;Park, In-Sick;Shin, Gil-Cho;Lee, Won-Chul;Jeong, Sung-Hyun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.145-160
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of Geupoongjibo-dan Extracts on Reversible Forebrain Ischemia in Mongolian Gerbils. Methods : The change rate of water content in cerebral tissues, the numercal change of the CA1 pyramidal neuron in the hippocampus, the change of delayed neuronal death(necrosis apoptosis) through light microscopy, the reactivity change of glycoprotein in neuronal membrane and the ultrastructural change of pyramidal neuron through electron microscopy caused by dalayed neuronal death were investigated. Results : 1. The change rate of water content in the normal group showed 78.90% on the third day, and 79.12% on the seventh day after an attack of ischemia. The rate in the control group showed 82.25% and 85.13%, respectively. The rate in the sample group showed a significant decrease: 81.72% and 83.66%. 2. Light microscopy revealed that the cells, continuous and systematic forms in the pyramidal cells of hippocampus, changed into discontinuous and unsystematic forms in the normal group when compared with the control group. The cells were less damaged in the sample group. 3. The mean of the numerical change of the CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus was 104 in the normal group. The mean of the control group was decreased to 27. The mean of the sample group was 44. 4. TUNEL staining examination reveals that the whole part of the hippocampus of the normal group had negative reactivity. As far as CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus, the control group had positive reactivity. The sample group was more positive than the control group. 5. Electron microscopy reveals that the ischemic injury of the control group had both necrotic and apoptotic morphology. The sample group was less necrotic, and more apoptotic morphology than the control group. 6. Lectin histochemisrical examination reveals that the normal group had positive reactivity to PNA and SBA in interneuron, and weak positive reactivity to WGA Con A LCA in intercelluar space. The reactivity to PNA and WGA decreased in the control group. The reactivity to PNA and WGA tended to increase in the sample group. Conclusions : The data shows that the effect of Geupoongjibo-dan Extracts on Reversible Forebrain Ischemia in MG is a significant result.

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Microscopic Study of the Pig Peri-implantation Embryos (전자현미경에 의한 착상 전후 돼지수정란의 형태학적 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 김진회;백청순;이훈택;정길생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.141-150
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    • 1994
  • Morphological features of the interaction between the hatching blastocyst and implantation in pig were studied by electron microscopy. The observations extended from late blastocyst stage to the completion of trophoblastic erosion of the epithelium and early decidual transformation of the epithelium and early decidual transformation of the stromal cells. Between day 7 and 17 of pregnancy, blastocysts from 0.3 to 12 mm in diameter were flushed from the uterine horns of Dutch Landrace pigs. On the 7th of development in the pig blastocyst, the blastocyst shedded of the zona pellucida established the tips of microvilli and with bleb-like cytoplasmic protrusions of the epithelial cells. From day 11 on in pig embryo, the bilayered trophoblast undergoes a dramatic phase of elongation so that the initially spherical expanded blastocyst becomes tubular. In pig, close apposition to the uterine wall beg-ins at about 12 $^1$/$_2$ days and then attachment occurred during the afternoon of the 16th or 18th day post coitum. At this stage, embryonic loss compared with corpus luteum number is up to 40% of ovulated oocytes. Therefore, the implantation failture of these embryos may be mainly caused by morphological abnormality and failture of zona shedding.

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Antioxidative Effects of Water-Soluble Chitinous Compounds on Oxidation of Low Density Lipoprotein in Macrophages (대식세포에서 지단백 산화에 대한 수용성 Chitinous Compounds의 항산화 효과에 대한 연구)

  • 이세희;박성희;이용진;윤정한;최연정;최정숙;강영희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.908-917
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    • 2003
  • It has been proposed that oxidative modification of LDL (oxLDL) plays a significant role in the pathogenicity of atherogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chitin and chitosan may function as antioxidants with respect to 0.1 mg cholesterol/ml LDL incubated with 5 $\mu$ M Cu$^2$$^{+}$alone or in the P338Dl mouse macrophage system using L-ascorbic acid as a standard classical antioxidant. The degree of oxLDL formation was ascertained by the relative electrophoretic mobility (rEM) in the combination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, and the cytotoxicity of oxLDL was detected by macrophage viability. The oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation of macrophages were measured by Oil Red O staining. Incubation with Cu$^2$$^{+}$and macrophages increased rEM of LDL and stimulated TBARS formation. Culture of macrophages with LDL in the presence 5 $\mu$ M Cu$^2$$^{+}$induced macrophage death. In cell-free system 200 $\mu$g/ml water-soluble chitosan and chitosan-oligosaccharide blocked oxLDL formation. Water-soluble chitosan and chitosan-oligosaccharide blocked oxLDL formation near-completely relative to L-ascorbic acid, whereas water-soluble chitin and chitin-oligosaccharide had no measurable antioxidant effect. In macrophage system water-soluble chitosan and chitosan-oligosaccharide blocked oxidation of LDL with a significant increase in cell viability, and decreased TBARS in medium. As for the inhibitory effect on macrophage foam cell formation, chitosan and its oligosaccharide, but not watersoluble chitin, revealed the effectiveness. The endothelial expression of lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) was tested by Western blot analysis, and chitosan, chitosan-oligosaccharide and chitin-oligosaccharide blocked LOX-1 expression. These results indicate that water-soluble chitosan and its oligosaccharide showed the inhibitory effect on Cu$^2$$^{+}$-induced LDL oxidation of macrophages, and chitosan, chitosan-oligosaccharide and chitin-oligosaccharide had blocking effect on oxLDL receptor expression in the human umbilical vein endothelial system. Thus, water-soluble chitosan and its oligosaccharides possess anti-atherogenic potentials possibly through the inhibition of macrophage LDL oxidation or endothelial oxLDL receptor expression depending on chemical types.l types.

Viability and Acrosomal Status Changes Following Post-thawing Canine Spermatozoa (개 정자의 동결융해 후 생존성 및 첨체의 변화)

  • 이영락;이성림;강태영;최상용
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different freezing and thawing rates on the viability, motility and acrosomal changes of frozen canine spermatozoa. The ejaculated semen was extended with Tris-egg yolk buffer containing 8% glycerol and equilibrated for 60 min after cooled to 4$^{\circ}C$ for 58 min. The straws were cryopreserved gradually by slow-cooling at different distance(6, 10 and 17 cm, respectively) from the liquid nitrogen (L$N_2$) to achieve temperature rate of 3, 8.9 and 19$^{\circ}C$ /min. Thawing of the straws was performed in a water bath fur 2 min at 37$^{\circ}C$ and 55$^{\circ}C$ , respectively. The motility of frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed by phase-contrast microscopy. To assess their viability and acrosome content, spermatozoa were stained with a vital stain and Fluorescence conjugated lectin Pisum Savitum Agglutinin (FITC/PAS), respectively. Concentration of the ejaculated fresh semen was normal range of 3.44 $\times$ 10$^{8}$ /ml. Freezing temperature were reduced to -110, -70 and -35$^{\circ}C$, as higher distance from liquid nitrogen, 6, 10 and 17 cm, respectively. Freezing at 3$^{\circ}C$/min in distance of 17 cm from liquid nitrogen yielded better motility, viability and rate of intact acrosome than 8.9 or 19$^{\circ}C$/min and the optimal thawing was 37$^{\circ}C$ for 2 min.

Macrophage and Anticancer Activities of Feed Additives on β-Glucan from Schizophyllum commune in Breast Cancer Cells (치마버섯균 유래의 베타글루칸에 대한 사료첨가제로서의 대식세포 기능 활성 및 유방암 세포주에서의 항암효능 효과)

  • Lee, Jin-Seok;Lee, Seung-Ho;Jang, Yong-Man;Lee, Jong-Dae;Lee, Byoung-Hee;Jung, Ji-Youn
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.949-955
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    • 2011
  • [ ${\beta}$ ]Glucan is a polysaccharide expressed on the cell walls of fungi. It is known that ${\beta}$-glucan is recognized by a family of C-type lectin receptors, dectin-1, which is expressed mainly on myeloid immune cells, including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells. Raw 264.7 cells were treated with ${\beta}$-glucan from Schizophyllum commune. ${\beta}$-Glucan was not cytotoxic up to 400 ${\mu}g$/mL as measured by MTT assay. To measure the activity of macrophages, NO and TNF-${\alpha}$ assays were performed in Raw 264.7 cells. Treatment with ${\beta}$-glucan for 24 hr significantly increased production of NO and TNF-${\alpha}$ compared with control groups (p<0.05), indicating activation of macrophages. To measure inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation, MTT assay was performed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell viability was significantly decreased in the group treated with 400 ${\mu}g$/mL of ${\beta}$-glucan for 48 hr (p<0.05) compared to the control group. However, tumor volume was decreased in the groups administered 200 ${\mu}g$ of ${\beta}$-glucan/mouse compared to the control group. These results indicate that ${\beta}$-glucan inhibits breast cancer cell growth through the induction of apoptosis.

Study of Rat Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells In Vivo and In Vitro (생체 및 시험관에서 유선 상피 모세포의 분리와 동정)

  • Nam Deuk Kim;Kee-Joo Paik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.470-486
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    • 1995
  • Mammary epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of cells with a large proliferativ potential which are responsible for the maintenance of glandular cellularity and are the progenitor cells of mammary cancer. These clonogens give rise to multicellular clonal alveolar or ductal units(AU or DU) on transplantation and hormonal stimulation. To isolate putative mammary clonogens, enzymatically monodispersed rat mammary epithelial cells from organoid cultures and from intact glands are sorted by flow cytometry according to their affinity for FITC labeled peanut lectin(PNA) and PE labeled anti-Thy-1.1 antibody(Thy-1.1) into four subpopulations : cells negative to both PNA and Thy-1.1(B-), PNA+cells, Thy-1.1+cells, and cells positive to both reagents(B+). The in vivo transplantation assays indicate that the clonogenic fractions of PNA+cells from out-growths of organoids in primary cultures for three days in complete hormone medium(CHM) are significantly higher than those of cells from other subpopulations derived from cultrues or from intact glands. Extracellular matrix(ECM) is a complex of several proteins that regulated cell function ; its role in cell growth and differentiation and tissue-specific gene expression. It can act as a positive as well as a negative regulator of cellular differentiation depending on the cell type and the genes studied. Regulation by ECM is closely interrelated with the action of other regulators of cellular function, such as growth factors and hormones. Matrigel supports the growth and development of several different multicellular colonies from mammary organoids and from monodispersed epithelial cells in culture. Several types of colonies are observed including stellate colonies, duct-like structures, two- and three-dimensional web structures, squamous organoids, and lobulo-duct colonies. Organoids have the greatest proliferative potential and formation of multi-cellular structures. Phase contrast micrographs demonstrate extensive intracellular lipid accumulation within the web structures and some of duct-like colonies. At the immunocytochemical and electron micrograph level, casein proteins are predominantly localized near the apical surface of the cells or in the lumen of duct-like or lobulo-duct colonies. Squamous colonies are comprised of several layers of squamous epithelium surrounding keratin pearls as is typical fo squamous metaplasia(SM). All-trans retinoic acid(RA) inhibits the growth of SM. The frequency of lobulo-ductal colony formation increased with the augmentation of RA concentration in these culture conditions. The current study models could provide powerful tools not only for understanding cell growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, but also for the isolation and characterization of mammary clonogenic stem cells.

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Effect of Clonorchis sinensis Excretory-secretory Product on the Cultured SD Rat Bile Duct Fibroblast (배양된 흰쥐 담관 섬유모세포에 대한 간흡충 분비배설 물질의 영향)

  • Kwon, Jung-Nam;Min, Byoung-Hoon;Lee, Haeng-Sook;Kim, Soo-Jin;Joo, Kyoung-Hwan
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 2009
  • Clonorchis sinensis is the most important widely distributed parasite of the human bile duct in East Asia and the most prevalent parasitic helminth in Korea. The prevalence rate of human clonorchiasis has remained at about 2.9% in Korea. C. sinensis induces dilatation of the duct, hyperplasia of the mucosa, metaplasia or neoplasia of the mucosal epithelium, periductal inflammation and fibrosis, and thickening of the ductal wall. Fibroblast are the most common cells in connective tissue and are responsible for the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. The fibrosis associated with chronic inflammation and injury may also contribute to cholangiocarcinoma pathogenesis, particularly through an increase in extracellular matrix components, which participate in the regulation of bile duct differentiation during development. In this study, ultrastructural changes, the distribution of lectin receptors and actin protein in cultured SD rat bile duct fibroblast after infection of C. sinensis were observed. Experimental group had been divided into four groups: normal bile duct fibroblast cultured in basal media (G1); C. sinensis infected bile duct fibroblast cultured in basal media (G2); normal bile duct fibroblast cultured in basal media containing excretory-secretory product (ESP) (G1-1); C. sinensis infected bile duct fibroblast cultured in basal media containing ESP (G2-1). Overall, once a host is infected by C. sinensis, it affects the host to the extent that sialic acid of ductal fibroblast is increased. Number of cytoplasmic process of SD rat bile duct fibroblast was increased. Actin protein and sialic acid were located in cell surface. Fibroblast induced by C. sinensis was not recovered to normal fibroblast. The cytoplasm bulk and cytoplasmic process were increased whereas the growth rate of the fibroblast of infected SD rat was reduced rather than that of normal fibroblast. In result, it inhibits fibroblast proliferation and increases actin protein on fibroblast cytoplasm, and so causes fibroblast metamorphosis and cellular mutation.