• Title/Summary/Keyword: lateral drift

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ROAD CROWN, TIRE, AND SUSPENSION EFFECTS ON VEHICLE STRAIGHT-AHEAD MOTION

  • LEE J-H.;LEE J. W.;SUNG I. C.
    • International Journal of Automotive Technology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.183-190
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    • 2005
  • During normal operating conditions, a motor vehicle is constantly subjected to a variety of forces, which can adversely affect its straight-ahead motion performance. These forces can originate both from external sources such as wind and road and from on-board sources such as tires, suspension, and chassis configuration. One of the effects of these disturbances is the phenomenon of vehicle lateral-drift during straight-ahead motion. This paper examines the effects of road crown, tires, and suspension on vehicle straight-ahead motion. The results of experimental studies into the effects of these on-board and external disturbances are extremely sensitive to small changes in test conditions and are therefore difficult to guarantee repeatability. This study was therefore conducted by means of computer simulation using a full vehicle model. The purpose of this paper is to gain further understanding of the straight-ahead maneuver from simulation results, some aspects of which may not be obtainable from experimental study. This paper also aims to clarify some of the disputable arguments on the theories of vehicle straight-ahead motion found in the literature. Tire residual aligning torque, road crown angle, scrub radius and caster angle in suspension geometry, were selected as the study variables. The effects of these variables on straight-ahead motion were evaluated from the straight-ahead motion simulation results during a 100m run in free control mode. Examination of vehicle behavior during straight-ahead motion under a fixed control mode was also carried out in order to evaluate the validity of several disputable arguments on vehicle pull theory, found in the literature. Finally, qualitative comparisons between the simulation results and the test results were made to support the validity of the simulation results.

The influence of different factors on buildings' height in the absence of shear walls in low seismic regions

  • Keihani, Reza;Bahadori-Jahromi, Ali;Goodchild, Charles;Cashell, Katherine A.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.76 no.1
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    • pp.83-99
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    • 2020
  • Shear walls are structural members in buildings that are used extensively in reinforced concrete frame buildings, and almost exclusively in the UK, regardless of whether or not they are actually required. In recent years, the UK construction industry, led by the Concrete Centre, has questioned the need for such structural elements in low to mid-rise reinforced concrete frame buildings. In this context, a typical modern, 5-storey residential building is studied, and its existing shear walls are replaced with columns as used elsewhere in the building. The aim is to investigate the impact of several design variables, including concrete grade, column size, column shape and slab thickness, on the building's structural performance, considering two punching shear limits (VEd/VRd,c), lateral drift and accelerations, to evaluate its maximum possible height under wind actions without the inclusion of shear walls. To facilitate this study, a numerical model has been developed using the ETABS software. The results demonstrate that the building examined does not require shear walls in the design and has no lateral displacement or acceleration issues. In fact, with further analysis, it is shown that a similar building could be constructed up to 13 and 16 storeys high for 2 and 2.5 punching shear ratios (VEd/VRd,c), respectively, with adequate serviceability and strength, without the need for shear walls, albeit with thicker columns.

Moment-Rotation Relationship and Effective Stiffness of Flat Plates under Lateral Load (횡하중을 받는 플랫플레이트의 모멘트-변형각 곡선과 유효강성)

  • Choi, Kyoung-Kyu;Park, Hong-Gun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.856-865
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    • 2003
  • Current design provisions and guide for performance-based design do not accurately evaluate seismic performance of flat plate system. In the previous companion studies, parametric studies using nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to investigate behavior of the flat plate, and based on the numerical results, design methods that can predict the bending moment-carrying capacity and the corresponding deformability of the flat plate was developed. In the present study, a generalized moment-rotation relation of the flat plate was developed based on the previous studies and the numerical analyses. The proposed method was verified by the comparisons with existing experiments. In addition, the effective stiffness of the flat plate corresponding to 0.2 percent of lateral drift that is generally regarded as the serviceability limit was proposed, so as to evaluate conveniently deflection of the structure subject to wind load.

Strengthening of the panel zone in steel moment-resisting frames

  • Abedini, Masoud;Raman, Sudharshan N.;Mutalib, Azrul A.;Akhlaghi, Ebrahim
    • Advances in Computational Design
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.327-342
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    • 2019
  • Rehabilitation and retrofitting of structures designed in accordance to standard design codes is an essential practice in structural engineering and design. For steel structures, one of the challenges is to strengthen the panel zone as well as its analysis in moment-resisting frames. In this research, investigations were undertaken to analyze the influence of the panel zone in the response of structural frames through a computational approach using ETABS software. Moment-resisting frames of six stories were studied in supposition of real panel zone, different values of rigid zone factor, different thickness of double plates, and both double plates and rigid zone factor together. The frames were analyzed, designed and validated in accordance to Iranian steel building code. The results of drift values for six stories building models were plotted. After verifying and comparing the results, the findings showed that the rigidity lead to reduction in drifts of frames and also as a result, lower rigidity will be used for high rise building and higher rigidity will be used for low rise building. In frames with story drifts more than the permitted rate, where the frames are considered as the weaker panel zone area, the story drifts can be limited by strengthening the panel zone with double plates. It should be noted that higher thickness of double plates and higher rigidity of panel zone will result in enhancement of the non-linear deformation rates in beam elements. The resulting deformations of the panel zone due to this modification can have significant influence on the elastic and inelastic behavior of the frames.

Design of Flat Plate Systems Using the Modified Equivalent Frame Method (수정된 등가골조법을 이용한 플랫플레이트 시스템의 설계)

  • Park, Young-Mi;Oh, Seung-Yong;Han, Sang-Whan
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2008
  • In general, flat plate systems have been used as a gravity load resisting system (GLRS) in building. Thus, this system should be constructed with lateral force resisting system (LFRS) such as shear walls and brace frames. GLRS should retain the ability to undergo the lateral drift associated with the LFRS without loss of gravity load carrying capacity. And flat plate system can be designed LFRS as ordinary moment frame with the special details. Thus, flat plate system designed as GLRS or LFRS should be considered internal forces (e.g., unbalanced moments) and lateral deformation generated in vicinity of slab joints render the system more susceptible to punching shear. ACI 318 (2005) allows the direct design method, equivalent frame method under gravity loads and allows the finite-element models, effective beam width models, and equivalent frame models under lateral loads. These analysis methods can produce widely different result, and each has advantage and disadvantages. Thus, it is sometimes difficult for a designer to select an appropriate analysis method and interpret the results for design purposes. This study is to help designer selecting analysis method for flat plate system and to verify practicality of the modified equivalent frame method under lateral loads. This study compared internal force and drift obtained from frame methods with those obtained from finite element method under gravity and lateral loads. For this purposes, 7 story building is considered. Also, the accuracy of these models is verified by comparing analysis results using frame methods with published experimental results of NRC slab.

Seismic Behaviour of Exterior Joints in Post-Tensioned Flat Plate Systems (포스트 텐션 플랫 플레이트 외부 접합부의 내진 거동)

  • Han, Sang-Whan;Kee, Seong-Hoon;Kang, Tomas H.K.;Cho, Jong;Lee, Li-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.18 no.5 s.95
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    • pp.595-602
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    • 2006
  • An experimental study was conducted to investigate seismic behaviour of post-tensioned(PT) exterior slab-column connections used for the purpose to resist gravity loads only. For these, 2/3-scale, two PT post-tensioned exterior connections with two different tendon arrangement patterns and one conventional reinforced concrete(RC) exterior connection was tested under quasi-static, uni-directional reversed cyclic loading. During the lateral testing, gravity forces transferred to the column were kept constant to closely simulate a moment to shear ratio of a real building. One of the objectives of this study was to assess the necessity and/or the quantity of bottom bonded reinforcement needed to resist moment reversal which would occur under significant inelastic deformations of the adjacent lateral force resisting systems. The ACI 318 and 352 provisions for structural integrity were applied to provide the bottom reinforcement passing through the column for the specimens. Prior test results were also collected to conduct comparative studies for some design parameters such as the tendon arrangement pattern, the effect of post-tensioning forces and the use of bottom bonded reinforcement. Consequently, the impact of tendon arrangement on the seismic performance of the PT connection, that is lateral drift capacity and ductility, dissipated energy and failure mechanism, was considerable. Moreover, test results showed that the amount of bottom reinforcement specified by ACI 352. 1R-89 was sufficient for resisting positive moments arising from moment reversal under reversed cyclic loads. Shear strength of the tested specimens was more accurately predicted by the shear strength equation(ACI 318) considering the average compressive stress over the concrete($f_{pc}$) due to post-tensioning forces than that without considering $f_{pc}$.

Reversed Cyclic Load Tests on Deep Beam-and-Exterior Column Joints (깊은보-외부기둥 접합부의 반복 횡하중 실험)

  • Ko, Dong-Woo;Lee, Han-Seon
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.265-273
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    • 2007
  • The most common structural system for apartment buildings in Korea is adopted to combine structural systems: for example, a moment-resisting frame will be used for lower stories and bearing wall system for the upper stories. This type of buildings have soft and/or weak stories in lower stories, and it may lead to collapse of those buildings during the large earthquake. Reversed cyclic load tests were conducted to estimate the performance and behavioral characteristics of deep beam and exterior column Joints. Experimental parameter is the amount of transverse reinforcement (designed by ACI code and Sheikh's procedure). The results of this study are as follows: (1) The required transverse reinforcement of column designed by Sheikh's procedure requires 2.9 times larger than that designed by ACI procedure. Large amount of transverse reinforcement increase the ductility of the column. (2) Most of the lateral drift in the column is due to the flexural deformation in the joint and plastic hinge region and up-lift rotation. (3) Transverse reinforcement in the exterior column shall be required not only in the hinge region but also in the joint.

Analysis of Shear Force in Perimeter Column due to Outrigger Wall in a Tall Building (고층 건물의 아웃리거 벽체에 의한 외부 기둥의 전단력 해석)

  • Huang, Yi-Tao;Kim, Han-Soo
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2018
  • Steel truss outriggers can be replaced by reinforced concrete walls to control the lateral drift of tall buildings. When reinforced concrete outrigger walls are connected to perimeter columns, not only axial forces but also shear forces and moments can be induced on the perimeter columns. In this study, the shear force of the perimeter column due to the rotation of the outer edge of the outrigger wall is derived as analytic equations and the result is compared with the finite element analysis result. In the finite element analysis, the effects of connecting beams at each floor and the effect of modeling shear walls and outriggers with beam element and plane stress element was analyzed. The effect of the connecting beam was almost negligible and the plane stress element was determined to have greater stiffness than the beam element. The inter-story rotation and the shear force of the perimeter column due to the rotation of the outer edge of the outrigger wall was considerably smaller than the allowable value. Therefore, even if the outrigger wall made of reinforced concrete is applied to a tall building, it is considered that there is no need to study the shear force and moment induced in the perimeter columns.