Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
This study attempted to investigate the plastic characteristics of cyber punk fashion with a focus on fashion in the cyber punk movies in order to inquire into how the influence of the cyber punk taking the lead in the spiritual culture and way of life of the humankind in the 21th century would be expressed in fashion. For this purpose, it sought to analyze the beauty of new fashion creating the cyber environment and identify its contemporary meaning. An attempt was made to investigate the image of cyber punk fashion with a focus on fashion expressed in the cyber punk movies. As a result, the following findings were obtained: First, the image of cyber punk fashion expressed in the cyber punk movies was simplicity, which was to express the modest silhouette and details exclusive of decoration. In addition to clean and smooth gloss, it contained the modest image of resistance', not 'revolt' by borrowing the partial motive and image from existing punk fashion. The change of cyber punk fashion into the characteristic of concise, smooth external appearance brought about the restraint of its image and symbolism as well as its plastic characteristic. Second, it was characterized by the Eroticism nature of emphasizing the body line while expressing the future and modest image or exposing the body. Cyber punk fashion expressed the avant-garde image by using materials that gave a mysterious and future feelings, as well as unsymmetrical silhouette, the slit of body-conscious line, coarse cutting, the method of do-constructing and reconstructing the silhouette, the method of applying diverse underwears such as corset, brassiere and the like. Third, cyber punk fashion was marked by the nature of mined sex. It had the masculine image by using the black color containing the image of masculinity and resistance in female clothing and expressing the suit, coat and military looks giving an masculine impression. And it expressed the image of mixed sexes with the masculine image in male clothing by borrowing feminine images such as body-conscious line, widely cut neckline, floral decoration, leggings and the like. Fourth, cyber punk fashion was marked by naturalness. It was expressed as clothing made from silhouette, knit, cotton and the like in the atmosphere expressing love, comfortableness and truth. This contained the image of naturalness, a return to the primitive, that human being wanted to return to their original figure in the future element. The cyber punk movie may contain a dismal, gloomy future image on the whole, which can be overcome, and shows the possibility that it may grow into the alternative culture, not the revolting culture. The movie of 'The Fifth Element' demonstrates the meaning and role that shows the bright future image. It is thought that designers should make efforts for cyber punk fashion to perform its role in changing the gloomy future image into the bright image of society
MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
The Goguryeo kingdom established a unique defense system centered on a series of mountain fortresses. However, modern-day studies on its defense system have tended to focus on how they were positioned and generally consist of little more than individual surveys or introductions to the relevant materials, leaving much to be desired. This study attempts to extend the scope of studies about fortresses dating back to the Goguryeo period, taking into account the limitations of the available materials. As such, this study reviews the defense system of Goguryeo during the Gungnaeseong Period (i.e., the period when Gungnaeseong was the capital of Goguryeo) using the GIS system, with the focus on fortresses that are thought to have been built in the area extending from the middle and upper reaches of the Amnok River to the mid-stream region of the Liohe River, based on the aforementioned studies. The results of the study are as follows. First, the major roads built during the Gungnaeseong Period were as stated in the foregoing studies to some extent. Researchers believed that during the middle period of the dynasty, a major road ran along the Suzihe, Fuer and Xinkai rivers before finally reaching Jian. The study found that fortified walls and fortress strongholds were built along this road. Second, there were seven fortresses between the middle and upper reaches of the Amnokgang River and the midstream region of the Liaohe River. A primary defense line was closely established between the strongholds and the nearby walls, with secondary and tertiary defense lines established more loosely and encompassing a much wider area. Third, regarding the defense system along the major roads, the Choejinbosanseong, Goisanseong and Cheolbaesanseong fortresses served as strongholds along the 60-kilometer-long primary defense line, with 80-kilometer-long secondary and tertiary defense lines set up behind it. The final 120-kilometer-long defense line of the capital was established along with the Onyeosanseong Fortress, while a stumbling block was set up close to the capital as a defense system, rather than building a fortified wall. To summarize, a primary defense system was established centered on a series of fortresses, with each stronghold maintaining a closely-knit defense system in connection with other nearby strongholds to repel invaders.
This study investigates the characteristics of European knitted works from a historical perspective. Specifically, this study deals with the following research topics: 1) the origin and development of knitting. 2) the characteristics of knitting industry according to the change of times, 3) the comparison of local knitting patterns and cultures. 4) 7he symbolic meaning of the designs in the knitted works and theire functions. This research is barred on the survey of the relevant literature and photographs. The results of the study are summarized as follows. 1) The introduction of knitted works was closely connected with the climatic and socio-economic conditions of the places of the origin. Knitted work developed mostly in Northern Europe, a cold area, and the barren, mountainous coastal areas where people frequently used woolen materials for clothes. 2) In ancient times, abstract and geometric patterns have developed in Europe under the influence of Arabian knitted work. Middle Ages saw the flourishing of Arabian knitted works representing the authority of the church. In early modern times, the knitted work assumed the wealth of the royal families and the nobles. But afterward it was gradually Popularized among the middle classes. Knitting was then regarded as one of the women's major cultural activities. However, recently in the interwar periods. the knitting industry did not flourish and the knitted works came to serve merely as comfort goods by political urge. Knitted works were introduced in Korea around 1870 (the 7th or 8th year of king Kojong era) by Catholic missionaries and they started to be made by machine in 1917. 3) As for the propagation of the knitted work into Europe, there are three routes estimated. The traditional knitting patterns of local areas and their characteristics are summed up as follows : (1) England Guernseys are thick dark blue wool, whereas Jerseys are thinner and of various colors. The knitted shawls of Shetland are world-famous for their fine, lace-like texture that they can be through a wedding-ring. The knitted work of Fair Isle shows several distinctive features, such as the use of no more than two colors, patterns with diagonal lines. symmetry within the patterns, the prominent OXO patterns, and horizontal bands of patterning. The representative knitted work of Aran is Aran sweater made for fishermen to developed from guernseys of Scotland. (2) Scandinavian countries are distinguished from other countries by their conservative but creative cultural tradition. Their knitting patterns are characterized by small geometric figures such as dots, triangles, squares, rhombuses, and crosses used often with stars and roses. Scandinavian knitting is also salient for its vertical stripes and simple motifs repeating at short intervals. (3) Baltic area : The Latvian and Lithuania stockings have very ornate patterns. Many of the Estonian knit stockings and mittens share designs. Komi was well-known for its symmetric diamond pattern. Komi patterns include colored stripes, borders of pattern and all-over designs of complex diagonals. (4) Balkan area : In Yugoslavia, the patterns of roses, leaves and flowers were used for stockings, gloves and leggings. Greek knitting resembled southern Russian knitting, which utilized light colored patterns with dark colors for a background. Turkish patterns are symmetric vertically or horizontally. 4) The traditional knitting patterns net only carried symbolic meanings but also served as means of communication. First of all, patterns had incantatory meanings. Patterns also represented Power or authenticity Patterns were symbolic of one's social standing, too. The colors, motifs and their arrangements were very important features symbolizing one's social position or family line. People often communicated by certain pieces of knitted work or patterns.
It is widely known that knowledge management plays a facilitating role that contributes to upgrading organizational performance. Knowledge management systems (KMS), especially, support the knowledge management process including the sharing, creating, and using of knowledge within a company, and maximize the value of knowledge resources within an organization. Despite this widely held belief, there are few studies that describe how companies actually develop, share, and practice their knowledge. Companies in the domestic small franchise sector, which are in the early stages in terms of knowledge management, need to improve their KMS to manage their franchisees effectively. From this perspective, this study uses a qualitative approach to explore the actual process of knowledge management implementation. This article presents a case study of PB (Paris Baguette) company, which is the first to build a KMS in the franchise industry. The study was able to confirm the following facts through the analysis of target companies. First, the chief executive's support is a critical success factor and this support can increase the participation of organization members. Second, it is important to build a process and culture that actively creates and leverages information in knowledge management activities. The organizational learning culture should be one where the creation, learning, and sharing of new knowledge is developed continuously. Third, a horizontal network organization is needed in order to make relationships within the organization more close-knit. Fourth, in order to connect the diverse processes such as knowledge acquisition, storage, and utilization of knowledge management activities, information technology (IT) capabilities are essential. Indeed, IT can be a powerful tool for improving the quality of work and maximizing the spread and use of knowledge. However, during the construction of an intranet based KMS, research is required to ensure that the most efficient system is implemented. Finally, proper evaluation and compensation are important success factors. In order to develop knowledge workers, an appropriate program of promotion and compensation should be established. Also, building members' confidence in the benefits of knowledge management should be an ongoing activity. The company developed its original KMS to achieve a flexible and proactive organization, and a new KMS to improve organizational and personal capabilities. The PB case shows that there are differences between participants perceptions and actual performance in managing knowledge; that knowledge management is not a matter of formality but a paradigm that assures the sharing of knowledge; and that IT boosts communication skills, thus creating a mutual relationship to enhance the flow of knowledge and information between people. Knowledge management for building organizational capabilities can be successful when considering its focus and ways to increase its acceptance. This study suggests guidelines for major factors that corporate executives of domestic franchises should consider to improve knowledge management and the higher operating activities that can be used.
One of the noticeable trends of female wear in 1990s is the Outwearization of Underwear as it is called 'Lingerie look' This trend meaned 'Exposure Fashion' raised splendidly its head to the whole stage of fashion destrying the tradional concept having divided the fashion between outwear and underwear by Madonna an Americal populer singer showed up in front of the audience wearing the corset-dress as a stage custome. This corset-dress which can not be recognised whether it is underwear or outwear has been diffused into the mass as a fashionable trend re-gardless of any reason; therefore discrimi-nation of wear by space by far that is underwear should have the sstandard telling between private and public sector has been gradually tumbled. By the way what has propelled desigers to introduce the style continuously having the underwear motive such as outwear almost as same as underwear or underwear worn on out-wear etc. and has made it a fashion trends? How do we accept this "Ligerie look'fashion" The rearch on vogue of outwearization of underwear started by the questions above can be summarized as the followings The division between the sprit and the ma-terial-economic shrinkage by the collapse of the bubble economy in the late of 20 century and expectation for the next century doubt by changes of international politics dynamics for the next century and increasement of psycho-logical tention by the environmental destruc-tion etc, has been extended to break the sense of value down These frustration of the tra-ditional values and dissatisfaction on the pres-ent have reflected on the fashion pursuing some more sensational style to increase the ex-posure of the body. The revolution of wearing bouncing the con-servatismhas outwardly expressed underwear of the private sector. Therefore the spatial concept of wear which for the public sec-tor has been fallen into pieces and has broken the wall of the concept fixed by outwear on underwear. in addition the stage costome for the popular people like Madonna has not been limited by the specularity any more and has been assimilated with the normal wear on the street to take the distinction for away. The circumstances of the late of 20 century pursuing sensation and making sex commer-cialized have accordance with the outweari-zation of underwear. there it is on the basis of Minimalist's dogmatism has been expressed the maximization of expoure in the pubric space to popularize bra pants(knickers) as outwear. The reaction on the attribute of hiding and shanding has brought 'See-Through fashion' with the transparent materials, The contemporary doubt recalling the mem-ory of the past has sublimated corset which was an instument of toture for women into Romanticism to introduce it to fashion with the development of a new material not to be a tool of any oppression and maltretment any longer. The popularization of outwear like underwear what's more has brought high quality of underwear. There it has called for the variety of materials such as knit demin and velvet etc, and has urged the famous designers to enlarge their working boundaries to underwear designs, Besides outwearization of underwear has been popular even in the Orient which has the con-servative opinions on exposure ; so changes of the thoughts can be seen among the establish-ment generation on exposure of the body. As the more high tech information publi-cized and the more technology and media digitalized the more expression being analog the pursue for the new in fashion with vision never been seen and even though it is imprac-tical the experimental designers have drived the freedom beyond the traditional roles of the previous century. Consequently outwearization of underwear may be viewd as a trial as an expression responded the contemporary background. This trend in my opinion will have been lasted for a while by being proliperlated among lasted for a while by being proliperlated among the pub-lic who has the century-end anxiety and doubt and expectation for the next century.
The culture reflects the ideology of a particular period in time and such values change according to the needs and requests of that time which eventually becomes an important factorin forming the exterior. The clothing is part of a way that composes and expresses the inherent substance of society and culture. Also, the clothing itself manifests the artistic values and behavior of mankind as an external structure maintaining its place as a big part in culture. The purpose of this study are to elucidat the concept of naturalism, which is discussed in many facets in the modern era; I studied the concept as well as the history of naturalism in order to manifest the meaning of clothing in the context of culture and I explained the concept in terms of the modern era. On such ground, I explained the naturalism expressed through clothing and characterized the exter-nal form of clothing. Also, in order to know the stream of naturalism in the modern context, I referred to the Vogue magazine of the 90s, using Delong's ABC method. Naturalism, in the context of modern fashion is a way to express the nostalgia of nature's vi-ability and purity of ecology apart from the artificial and structural appearance that resulted form scientific enhancement and hence, the ecological crisis. Naturalism pursues the soft- ness and comfort of the natural silhouette, color and material of the human body and it can be said that naturalism emphasizes the mix-ture of three substances : human, nature and clothing. The naturalism can be characterized by the factors expressed in clothing as follows. First, the naturalism shown in the form it-self draws the beauty of the bodyline without any reduction nor exaggeration. Without any distorttion of the human bodyline it shown the curve as one moves along, using the soft material. Second, the naturalism shown in color most-ly uses the natural tone with added white color and other color low in intensity and value like the receded colors of the earth that could be compared to the beauty of ecru. Third, the naturalism shown in the material is thin, light and soft in texture. In order to bring out the most natural curve of the human body, the natural fiber becomes the main material, sometimes, using crude materials. Due to the lindustrial improvement, softness and elasticity is added to the natural fibers giving them an important role as materials. Fourth, the naturalism shown in textile depicts the real natural objects in life. According to my study, the personality of naturalism in modern clothing was shown to be most strong in material and then in the order of form, texture and textile. The material com-posed of the natural silhouette and natural fibers were used to make soft color. In form, Paul Poiret made appearance expressing the natural beauty of the human body without the corset ; it continued with the inner lining making the clothing hard but in the 90s, lining-less, extremely exposed clothes and knit wear is used to emphasize the natural beauty of the body. In color and textile, the tendency spok-en above is not as strong but in color, instead of high intensity or value, the usage of neutral colors with added white color or ecru color, ear-th tone is increasing. In textile, the usage of flowers as natural material is seen frequently. As a whole, naturalistic trend in the 90s is increasing and the modern fashion is breaking out from the artificial and architectural form and conforming to a form that can realize the natural beauty of the human body. And the natural color and textile that conforms to such ideas are being used to pursue the human oriented trend that has appeared due to the increase in usage of soft natural fiber. Nowadays, the idea of returning to nature, defying the artificiality, desiring the leisure and psychological abundance that can be explained as naturalistic way of thinking is necessitated in this modern era as long as humans coexist with nature, this tendency will continue in clothing.
Currently, Social Media, it has widely a renown keyword and its related social trends and businesses have been fastly applied into various contexts. Social media has become an important research area for scholars interested in online technologies and cyber space and their social impacts. Social media is not only including web-based services but also mobile-based application services that allow people to share various style information and knowledge through online connection. Social media users have tendency to common identity- and bond-attachment through interactions such as 'thumbs up', 'reply note', 'forwarding', which may have driven from various factors and may result in delivering information, sharing knowledge, and specific experiences et al. Even further, almost of all social media sites provide and connect unknown strangers depending on shared interests, political views, or enjoyable activities, and other stuffs incorporating the creation of contents, which provides benefits to users. As fast developing digital devices including smartphone, tablet PC, internet based blogging, and photo and video clips, scholars desperately have began to study regarding diverse issues connecting human beings' motivations and the behavioral results which may be articulated by the format of antecedents as well as consequences related to contents that people create via social media. Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, or Cyworld users are more and more getting close each other and build up their relationships by a different style. In this sense, people use social media as tools for maintain pre-existing network, creating new people socially, and at the same time, explicitly find some business opportunities using personal and unlimited public networks. In terms of theory in explaining this phenomenon, social capital is a concept that describes the benefits one receives from one's relationship with others. Thereby, social media use is closely related to the form and connected of people, which is a bridge that can be able to achieve informational benefits of a heterogeneous network of people and common identity- and bonding-attachment which emphasizes emotional benefits from community members or friend group. Social capital would be resources accumulated through the relationships among people, which can be considered as an investment in social relations with expected returns and may achieve benefits from the greater access to and use of resources embedded in social networks. Social media using for their social capital has vastly been adopted in a cyber world, however, there has been little explaining the phenomenon theoretically how people may take advantages or opportunities through interaction among people, why people may interactively give willingness to help or their answers. The individual consciously express themselves in an online space, so called, common identity- or bonding-attachments. Common-identity attachment is the focus of the weak ties, which are loose connections between individuals who may provide useful information or new perspectives for one another but typically not emotional support, whereas common-bonding attachment is explained that between individuals in tightly-knit, emotionally close relationship such as family and close friends. The common identify- and bonding-attachment are mainly studying on-offline setting, which individual convey an impression to others that are expressed to own interest to others. Thus, individuals expect to meet other people and are trying to behave self-presentation engaging in opposite partners accordingly. As developing social media, individuals are motivated to disclose self-disclosures of open and honest using diverse cues such as verbal and nonverbal and pictorial and video files to their friends as well as passing strangers. Social media context, common identity- and bond-attachment for self-presentation seems different compared with face-to-face context. In the realm of social media, social users look for self-impression by posting text messages, pictures, video files. Under the digital environments, people interact to work, shop, learn, entertain, and be played. Social media provides increasingly the kinds of intention and behavior in online. Typically, identity and bond social capital through self-presentation is the intentional and tangible component of identity. At social media, people try to engage in others via a desired impression, which can maintain through performing coherent and complementary communications including displaying signs, symbols, brands made of digital stuffs(information, interest, pictures, etc,). In marketing area, consumers traditionally show common-identity as they select clothes, hairstyles, automobiles, logos, and so on, to impress others in any given context in a shopping mall or opera. To examine these social capital and attachment, we combined a social capital theory with an attachment theory into our research model. Our research model focuses on the common identity- and bond-attachment how they are formulated through social capitals: cognitive capital, structural capital, relational capital, and individual characteristics. Thus, we examined that individual online kindness, self-rated expertise, and social relation influence to build common identity- and bond-attachment, and the attachment effects make an impact on both the willingness to help, however, common bond seems not to show directly impact on information sharing. As a result, we discover that the social capital and attachment theories are mainly applicable to the context of social media and usage in the individual networks. We collected sample data of 256 who are using social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Cyworld and analyzed the suggested hypotheses through the Structural Equation Model by AMOS. This study analyzes the direct and indirect relationship between the social network service usage and outcomes. Antecedents of kindness, confidence of knowledge, social relations are significantly affected to the mediators common identity-and bond attachments, however, interestingly, network externality does not impact, which we assumed that a size of network was a negative because group members would not significantly contribute if the members do not intend to actively interact with each other. The mediating variables had a positive effect on toward willingness to help. Further, common identity attachment has stronger significant on shared information.
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