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Further Study on Pemetrexed based chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer (AGC)

  • Liu, Jin;Huang, Xin-En;Feng, Ji-Feng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6587-6590
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To further observe the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed, combined with Irinotecan or oxaliplatin or cisplatin in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer as second-line or third-line chemotherapy. Methods: From September 2013 to February 2014 we recruited 50 patients with advanced gastric cancer, with stage IV disease or postoperative recurrence, or unresectable. Then treated with pemetrexed based chemotherapy. After two cycles of treatment, efficacy and toxicity were evaluated. Results: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy was used as second-line in 33 patients, RR(CR+PR) is 41.2%. And achieved 36.4% when used as third-line. Overall response rate of 50 patients treated with Pemetrexed based treatment was 38% (CR+PR). Treatment related side effects were bone marrow suppression, vomiting, hepatic dysfunction and malaise.No treatment related death occurred. Conclusions: Treatment with pemetrexed based chemotherapy is active and is well tolerated in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

Investigation into the Efficacy of Val-SN-38, a Valine-Ester Prodrug of the Anti-Cancer Agent SN-38

  • Kwak, Eun-Young;Choi, Min-Koo;Yang, Su-Geun;Shim, Chang-Koo;Shim, Won-Sik
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.326-331
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    • 2012
  • We recently reported that Val-SN-38, a novel valine ester prodrug of SN-38, had greatly improved the intracellular accumulation of SN-38 in MCF-7 cell line, probably through enhanced uptake via amino acid transporters. In the present study, the efficacy of Val-SN-38 was further investigated both in vitro and in vivo. It was found that the in vitro cytotoxic effect of Val-SN-38 was similar to that of SN-38. Moreover, Val-SN-38 exhibited an equal potency to that of SN-38 in survival experiments in vivo. Because these results seemed to be contrary to the previous finding, further investigation was performed to find out the underlying cause of the contradiction. As only the lactone form is known to have cytotoxic activity, the proportion of lactone in Val-SN-38 and SN-38 was determined, but no differences were found. However, it turned out that Val-SN-38 had poor stability compared with SN-38, which resulted in a decrease in beneficial efficacy for Val-SN-38. Overall, the present study showed that a valine-added prodrug approach could be advantageous provided that the stability of the compound can be ensured. We believe this is a noteworthy study that unravels the discrepancy between intracellular accumulation and efficacy of valine-added prodrug.

Role of salvage radiotherapy for regional lymph node recurrence after radical surgery in advanced gastric cancer

  • Kim, Byoung Hyuck;Eom, Keun-Yong;Kim, Jae-Sung;Kim, Hyung-Ho;Park, Do Joong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To evaluate the role of salvage radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of regional lymph node recurrence (RLNR) after radical surgery in advanced gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 26 patients who underwent salvage treatment after diagnosis of RLNR between 2006 and 2011. Patients with peritoneal seeding or distant metastasis were excluded. Eighteen patients received RT with or without chemotherapy and the other 8 did chemotherapy only without RT. A three-dimensional conformal RT was performed with median dose of 56 Gy (range, 44 to 60 Gy). Sixteen patients had fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, 5 did taxane-based chemotherapy, and irinotecan was applied in 4. Results: With a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 5 to 57 months), median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after diagnosis of RLNR were 29 months and 12 months in the entire patients, respectively. Radiotherapy (p = 0.007) and disease-free interval (p = 0.033) were statistically significant factors for OS in multivariate analysis. Median OS was 36 months in patients who received RT and 16 months in those who did not. Furthermore, delivery of RT (p < 0.001), complete remission after salvage treatment (p = 0.040) and performance status (p = 0.023) were associated with a significantly better PFS. Gastrointestinal toxicities from RT were mild in most patients. Conclusion: Salvage RT combined with systemic chemotherapy may be an effective treatment managing RLNR from advanced gastric cancer.

Real-World Treatment Patterns among Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer in South Korea

  • Carter, Gebra Cuyun;Kaltenboeck, Anna;Ivanova, Jasmina;Liepa, Astra M.;Roman, Alexandra San;Koh, Maria;Rajan, Narayan;Cheng, Rebecca;Birnbaum, Howard G.;Kim, Jong Seok;Bang, Yung-Jue
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.578-587
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    • 2017
  • Purpose The purpose of this study was to understand patient treatment patterns, outcomes, and healthcare resource use in cases of metastatic and/or locally recurrent, unresectable gastric cancer (MGC) in South Korea. Materials and Methods Thirty physicians reviewed charts of eligible patients to collect de-identified data. Patients must have received platinum/fluoropyrimidine first-line therapy followed by second-line therapy or best supportive care, had no other primary cancer, and not participated in a clinical trial following MGC diagnosis. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to describe survival. Results Of 198 patients, 73.7% were male, 78.3% were diagnosed with MGC after age 55 (mean, 61.3 years), and 47.0% were current or former smokers. The majority of tumors were located in the antrum/pylorus (51.5%). Metastatic sites most often occurred in the peritoneum (53.5%), lymph nodes (47.5%), and liver (38.9%). At diagnosis, the mean Charlson comorbidity index was 0.4 (standard deviation, 0.6). The most common comorbidities were chronic gastritis (22.7%) and cardiovascular disease (18.7%). Most patients (80.3%) received second-line treatment. Single-agent fluoropyrimidine was reported for 22.0% of patients, while 19.5% were treated with irinotecan and a fluoropyrimidine or platinum agent. The most common physician-reported symptoms during second-line treatment were nausea/vomiting (44.7%) and pain (11.3%), with antiemetics (44.7%), analgesics (36.5%), and nutritional support (11.3%) most often used as supportive care. Two-thirds of inpatient hospitalizations were for chemotherapy infusion. Outpatient hospitalization (31.6%) and visits to the oncologist (58.8%) were common among second-line patients. Conclusion Most patients received second-line treatment, although regimens varied. Understanding MGC patient characteristics and treatment patterns in South Korea will help address unmet needs.

Prognostic Factors for Overall Survival in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma Treated With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Targeting Agents

  • Cetin, Bulent;Kaplan, Mehmet Ali;Berk, Veli;Ozturk, Selcuk Cemil;Benekli, Mustafa;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman;Ozkan, Metin;Coskun, Ugur;Buyukberber, Suleyman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.1059-1063
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Angiogenesis represents a key element in the pathogenesis of malignancy. There are no robust data on prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy. The present study was conducted to establish a prognostic model for patients using an oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods: Baseline characteristics and outcomes on 170 patients treated with FOLFIRI or XELOX plus anti-VEGF therapy-naive metastatic colorectal cancer were collected from three Turkey cancer centers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors for OS. Results: The median OS for the whole cohort was 19 months (95% CI, 14.3 to 23.6 months). Three of the seven adverse prognostic factors according to the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO) were independent predictors of short survival: serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN; p<0.001); neutrophils greater than the ULN (p<0.0014); and progression free survival (PFS) less than 6 months (p =0.001). Conclusion: Serum LDH and neutrophil levels were the main prognostic factors in predicting survival, followed by PFS. This model validates incorporation of components of the ASMO model into patient care and clinical trials that use VEGF-targeting agents.

Phase II Study of Pemetrexed as Second or Third Line Combined Chemotherapy in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

  • Wu, Xue-Yan;Huang, Xin-En;You, Shan-Xi;Lu, Yan-Yan;Cao, Jie;Liu, Jin;Xiang, Jin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.2019-2022
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of pemetrexed combined with chemotherapy as second or third line in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and Methods: This trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pemetrexed given to patients with recurrent or metastatic colorectal carcinoma who previously received 5-FU-based chemotherapy. All patients were required to have a histological diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma with measurable metastatic disease and prior chemotherapy. Patients received pemetrexed at a dose of 500 $mg/m^2$ by 10 minute infusion on day 1, repeated every 21 days. Doses were modified depending on nadir counts. Combined chemotherapy included Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan and cis-platinum. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled and twenty-nine were evaluable for response. One patient did not have repeat radiological testing to determine response because he went off study after only one cycle of treatment for economic reasons. For 29 evaluable patients, 1 partial response, 6 stable disease and 22 progressive disease were recorded. Response rate was 3.45% (1/29). All responses occurred in patients receiving a starting dose of pemetrexed 500 $mg/m^2$. Median time to progression for all eligible patients was 2.5 months. The most common toxicities experienced were mild to moderate fever, hepatic damage, myelosuppression, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rash. Conclusion: Pemetrexed at 500 $mg/m^2$ given every three weeks combined with chemotherapy is associated with moderate response and good tolerability in patients with stage IV CRC.

Phase II Study on Pemetrexed-based Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Metastatic Gastric Cancer not Responding to Prior Palliative Chemotherapy

  • Wei, Guo-Li;Huang, Xin-En;Huo, Jie-Ge;Wang, Xiao-Ning;Tang, Jin-Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2703-2706
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was to determine the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer who failed to respond to first and (or) second line chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Metastatic gastric cancer patients who failed first and (or) second line chemotherapy, were enrolled. All patients were recruited from Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Research Institute, and were treated with pemetrexed $500mg/m2$ (intravenous; on day 1), and a platinum (or irinotecan) every 3 weeks until disease progression, or intolerable toxicity. Evaluation on efficacy was conducted after two cycles of chemotherapy using the Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors. Toxicity was recorded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: From Jun 2011 to May 2013, 23 patients were enrolled. All eligible 23 patients completed at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy with pemetrexed based chemotherapy, and were evaluable. Their median age was 55 years (range 40 to 78 years). Seventeen patients were male and 6 female. Three patients (13%) achieved partial response, five patients (22%) stable, 15 patients (65%) with disease progression, and none with complete response. Grade 2 neutrophil suppression occurred in 4.3%, grade 3 in 13% of patients, and no grade 4 was reported. Thrombocytopenia was encountered as follows: 4.3% grade 2, 4.3% grade 3 and 4.3% grade 4. Incidence of anemia was 34.8% in grade 2, 8.7% grade 3 and 0% grade 4. Only 4.3% of patients required packed red blood cell infusion. Elevated transaminase were 4.3% in grade 2 and 0% in grade 3 or 4. Other toxicity included oral mucositis. Conclusions: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy is mildly effective in treating patients with metastatic gastric cancer with tolerable toxicity.

Association between Chemotherapy-Response Assays and Subsets of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Gastric Cancer: A Pilot Study

  • Lee, Jee Youn;Son, Taeil;Cheong, Jae-Ho;Hyung, Woo Jin;Noh, Sung Hoon;Kim, Choong-Bai;Park, Chung-Gyu;Kim, Hyoung-Il
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assays (ATP-CRAs) and subsets of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: In total, 15 gastric cancer tissue samples were obtained from gastrectomies performed between February 2007 and January 2011. Chemotherapy response assays were performed on tumor cells from these samples using 11 chemotherapeutic agents, including etoposide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, mitomycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, methotrexate, and cisplatin. TILs in the tissue samples were evaluated using antibodies specific for CD3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3, and Granzyme B. Results: The highest cancer cell death rates were induced by etoposide (44.8%), 5-FU (43.1%), and mitomycin (39.9%). Samples from 10 patients who were treated with 5-FU were divided into 5-FU-sensitive and -insensitive groups according to median cell death rate. No difference was observed in survival between the two groups (P=0.216). Only two patients were treated with a chemotherapeutic agent determined by an ATP-CRA and there was no significant difference in overall survival compared with that of patients treated with their physician's choice of chemotherapeutic agent (P=0.105). However, a high number of CD3 TILs was a favorable prognostic factor (P=0.008). Pearson's correlation analyses showed no association between cancer cell death rates in response to chemotherapeutic agents and subsets of TILs. Conclusions: Cancer cell death rates in response to specific chemotherapeutic agents were not significantly associated with the distribution of TIL subsets.

In Vitro Adenosine Triphosphate Based Chemotherapy Response Assay in Gastric Cancer

  • Park, Seul-Kee;Woo, Yang-Hee;Kim, Ho-Geun;Lee, Yong-Chan;Choi, Sung-Ho;Hyung, Woo-Jin;Noh, Sung-Hoon
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and the clinical applicability of the adenosine-triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) as a method of determining in vitro chemosensitivity in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 243 gastric cancer tissue samples were obtained from gastrectomies performed between February 2007 and January 2010. We evaluated the effectiveness of the ATP-CRA assay in determining the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer specimens using eleven chemotherapeutic agents - etoposide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, mytomicin, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, methotraxate, and cisplatin - for chemosensitivity studies using ATP-CRA. We assessed the failure rate, the cell death rate, and the chemosensitivity index. Results: The failure rate of ATP-CRA was 1.6% (4/243). The mean coefficient of variation for triplicate ATP measurements was 6.5%. Etoposide showed the highest cell death rate (35.9%) while methotrexate showed the lowest (16.6%). The most active chemotherapeutic agent was etoposide, which most frequently ranked highest in the chemosensitivity test: 31.9% (51/160). Oxaliplatin was more active against early gastric cancers than advanced gastric cancers, whereas docetaxel was more active against advanced cancers. The lymph node negative group showed a significantly higher cell death rate than the lymph node positive group when treated with doxorubicin, epirubicin, and mitomycin. Conclusions: ATP-CRA is a stable and clinically applicable in vitro chemosensitivity test with a low failure rate. The clinical usefulness of ATP-CRA should be evaluated by prospective studies comparing the regimen guided by ATP-CRA with an empirical regimen.

The Influence of Bcl-3 Expression on Cell Migration and Chemosensitivity of Gastric Cancer Cells via Regulating Hypoxia-Induced Protective Autophagy

  • Hu, Lin;Bai, Zhigang;Ma, Xuemei;Bai, Nan;Zhang, Zhongtao
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.95-105
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: Gastric cancer is a highly metastatic malignant tumor, often characterized by chemoresistance and high mortality. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of B-cell lymphoma 3 (Bcl-3) protein on cell migration and chemosensitivity of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: The gastric cancer cell lines, AGS and NCI-N87, were used for the in vitro studies and the in vivo studies were performed using BALB/c nude mice. Western blotting, wound healing assay, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, immunohistochemistry, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay were used to evaluate the role of Bcl-3 in gastric cancer. Results: We found that the protein expression of hypoxia (HYP)-inducible factor-1α and Bcl-3 were markedly upregulated under hypoxic conditions in both AGS and NCI-N87 cells in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Bcl-3 expression affected the migration and chemosensitivity of the gastric cancer cells. AGS and NCI-N87 cells transfected with si-RNA-Bcl-3 (si-Bcl-3) showed significantly reduced migratory ability and increased chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and irinotecan. In addition, si-Bcl-3 restored the autophagy induced by HYP. Further, the protective role of si-Bcl-3 on the gastric cancer cells could be reversed by the autophagy inducer, rapamycin. Importantly, the in vivo xenograft tumor experiments showed similar results. Conclusions: Our present study reveals that Bcl-3 knockdown inhibits cell migration and chemoresistance of gastric cancer cells through restoring HYP-induced autophagy.