• Title/Summary/Keyword: infant feeding.

Search Result 51, Processing Time 0.072 seconds

Safety of a New Synbiotic Starter Formula

  • Vandenplas, Yvan;Analitis, Antonis;Tziouvara, Chara;Kountzoglou, Athina;Drakou, Anastasia;Tsouvalas, Manos;Mavroudi, Antigoni;Xinias, Ioannis
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.167-177
    • /
    • 2017
  • Purpose: Breastfeeding is the best way to feed all infants, but not all infants can be (exclusively) breastfed. Cow's milk based infant formula is the second choice infant feeding. Methods: The safety of a new synbiotic infant formula, supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis and fructo-oligosaccharides, with lactose and a whey/casein 60/40 protein ratio was tested in 280 infants during 3 months. Results: The median age of the infants at inclusion was 0.89 months. Weight evolution was in accordance with the World Health Organization growth charts for exclusive breastfed infants. The evolution of all anthropometric parameters (weight-for-length z score and body mass index-for-age z score) was within the normal range. The incidence of functional constipation (3.2%), daily regurgitation (10.9%), infantile crying and colic (10.5%) were all significantly lower than the reported median prevalence for a similar age according to literature (median value of 7.8% for functional constipation, 26.7% for regurgitation, 17.7% for infantile colic). Conclusion: The new synbiotic infant starter formula was safe, resulted in normal growth and was well tolerated. Functional gastro-intestinal manifestations (functional constipation, regurgitation and colic) were significantly lower than reported in literature. Synbiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis and fructo-oligosaccharides) in cow's milk based infant formula bring the second choice infant feeding, formula, closer to the golden standard, exclusive breastfeeding.

Relationship between Complementary Feeding Introduction and Early Childhood Caries: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2015 (이유보충식 도입 시기에 따른 유아기 우식증 관련성 연구: 2008~2015년도 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Yon, Miyong;Shin, Hye-Sun;Lee, Haeng Shin
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.97-105
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study examined whether the infant feeding type and duration are related to the introduction of complementary feeding, and whether the appropriate introduction of complementary feeding in infancy is related to tooth decay in toddlers. Methods: The subjects were 1,521 toddlers among 2~3 year old children in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2015. The toddlers were divided into the appropriate group (4~6 months) and delayed group (>6 months) according to the timing of complementary feeding introduction. Results: The delayed group were 26.5% of subjects and the formula feeding period in the appropriate group and delayed group was 8.4 and 10.3 months, respectively (P=0.002). On the other hand, there was no difference in the breastfeeding period between the appropriate group and delayed group (P=0.6955). Early childhood caries was more common in the delayed group (P=0.0065). The delayed introduction of complementary feeding was associated with a risk of early childhood caries according to the logistic models (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.27-2.57). Conclusions: The introduction of complementary feeding is associated with early childhood caries. Therefore, the importance of the proper introduction of complementary feeding in infancy should be emphasized, and public relations and education for maternal care and breastfeeding should be provided through health care institutions.

A Survey on the infant feeding in Seoul area (서울 지역 여성의 영아 영양법에 관한 실태조사 연구)

  • Lee, Yeon-Sook;Hwang, Gye-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
    • /
    • v.7 no.2
    • /
    • pp.97-103
    • /
    • 1992
  • This research was conducted to survey the feeding methods of Korean women. The survey was executed for 355 mothers bringing up a child below 24 months in some part of Seoul in Korea from April to May, 1990. Incidence of breast feeding was 29.1% of the interviewed mothers in Seoul, which showed lower percentages than those of previous surveys. This research proved the major influencing factor generally depended on its mother rather than babies or labor condition. For example, the higher income and the higher educational degree of its mothers, they tended to prefer the bottle feeding to the others. Generally mothers knew the informations of infant nutrition very well, 84.5% of the interviewed mothers in Seoul had the opinion of 'breast feeding is better', but their knowledge actually didn't work. The source of mothers‘ informations on the infant nutrition showed the books and magazines, friend and relatives, grandmother were many by the order. But there were some discrepancies between the actual and needed source of information; i.e. mothers in Seoul mostly(44.8%) wanted to acquire their informations from mass communications. The reason of breast feeding showed 'for baby's health' was the greatest, and then 'immunity of breast milk' and 'baby's emotion' were great by the order, and the reason of bottle feeding showed 'not enough breast milk' was the greatest. There were no problems in feeding attitude and position of breast feeding, but there were problems in feeding volume, consistency of formula milk and feeding position of bottle feeding.

  • PDF

Effect of the Nutrition Education for Infant Feeding on Mother's Knowledge, Attitude, Practice of Weaning (영유아 섭식에 관한 영양교육이 어머니의 영양지식.태도 및 실천에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Mi-Yang;Ahn, Hong-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
    • /
    • v.18 no.4
    • /
    • pp.320-332
    • /
    • 2003
  • This study evaluated the effect of the nutrition education about infant feeding on the change of mother's knowledge, attitude and practice of weaning. The subjects consisted of treatment group (n=54) and control group (n=34). The treatment group participated in 6 times nutrition education and 5 times surveys. Nutrition education for weaning of the treatment group improved nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice in infant feeding. Before education, mean scores of control group and treatment group were 7.3 and 7.5 respectively but there was no significant difference. Both group got low score in a statement about weaning period, but they got good score in a statement about weaning method. After education, treatment group got better score(9.1) than control group(8.3) significantly (p<0.05). Treatment group was more desirable than control group specially in a use of Sun-sik, sugar, salt and weaning food mixed with formula after education (p<0.05). Practice of spoon feeding was more frequent in treatment group after education, however, control group used sugar and commercial weaning food more frequently than treatment group(p<0.05). Intake frequency of cow's milk and cookies of infants at age 9-12 month in control group was higher than treatment groups(p<0.01). Thus the nutrition education to mother seems to be effective in achieving desirable dietary behavior of infants.

Infant Feeding Practices in Kwangju Area (광주지역 영유아의 영양실태)

  • 노희경
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.48-54
    • /
    • 1994
  • The survey on feeding practice in 202 infants in Kwangju area was undertaken from April to May, 1993. The incidence of breast feeding was 35.6% of the interviewed mothers while 35.1% of infants were formula fed. Baby's sex, birth order, birth weight and mother's educational level did not affect the infant's feeding method of the respondents , but family's monthly income affect it significantly(p<0.05). Initiating time f weaning in infants was 4.83 month. Fruits and fruit juice, infant's most favorite food were the first food introduced to infants. Cereal's were offered frequently as infant foods while animal protein source and vegetables were lesser used 52.8% of mothers purchased commercially prepared infant food , while 33.2% of them did not use it at all. Depending on mother's educational level, mother got information on weaning with the aid of different education materials. The respondents were most interested in the way how to prepare weaning food. It might be suggested that development of effective nutrition education technique specific to the different groups of mothers should be focused.

  • PDF

An Exploration and Comparison of Infant Feeding Practices in Home and Center Contexts

  • Branscomb, Kathryn R.;Goble, Carla B.
    • Child Studies in Asia-Pacific Contexts
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.39-49
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study compared parents' and teachers' feeding practices with young children. Parents and teachers of children aged 0-3 years were recruited at 24 child care centers to complete surveys regarding their demographic characteristics, parenting styles, and feeding practices with young children. Respondents included 106 parents and 102 teachers. Participants' feeding beliefs and values were found to be related to their parenting style classifications (i.e., Authoritative, Authoritarian, or Permissive), ethnicity, income, and other demographic characteristics. Findings indicate the need for teachers and parents to begin communicating about their longterm goals for a child's development as soon as the child enters care. Understanding the goals and variation of feeding practices used at home and at school can help teachers and parents begin to construct a shared vision for care.

The Study of Infant Feeding in Weaning Period -Focused on Seoul and Kyunggi-Do Area- (서울 및 경기지역 유아의 수유 및 이유에 관한 실태조사)

  • Sohn, Kyung-Hee;Yoon, Sun;Lee, Young-Mee;Min, Sung-Hee;Jeon, Joo-Hye
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
    • /
    • v.7 no.4
    • /
    • pp.309-321
    • /
    • 1992
  • A study was designed to assess the current status of infant feeding and weaning practice through an retrospective survey on feeding method, a period of weaning and various kinds of weaning food. Analysing a few influential environmental factors while assessing the level of knowledge today's mothers have on infant nutrition. The results are as follows: 1. As random samples for this study, a total of 516 mothers having infants under the age of 3 were surveyed. Among them, 235 were from Seoul and 281 were from Kyongi province (Yongin, Suwon, Bupyong, Poil, Kihung, Ansan(Chungbuk)). 2. Among the infants who fell under the category of normality (Kaup index $15{\sim}18$), the infants from Seoul area amounted to 60.7%, surpassing the percentage of the infants from Kyongi province, 41.9%. The percentage of the infants belong to a group of under nutrition (Kaup index <13) was relatively higher than that of the infants in a group of overnutrition (Kaup index >20). 3. 16.1% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 54.6% were formula-fed and 29.3% were mixed-fed. The result indicated that the percentage of breast-fed infants of high-educated, working mothers were relatively lower than those of low-educated housewives. 4. Most of the respondents knew the significance or the necessity of supplementary food in terms of weaning. 5. 98.8% of those surveyed responded that the mother's adequate knowledge on weaning was necessary. 70.1% of them replied that they wanted to get various and in-depth information in printed materials such as books or other kinds of publications. They, also showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food. 6. The average period when those surveyed began weaning of their infants was $4.3{\pm}1.8$ months. The tendency of earlier weaning in 3 months was founded among 41.1% of them. About half of the respondents, 52.3%, started weaning of their infants in $4{\sim}6$ months. In overall, 93.4% of them set on weaning in less than 6 months after babies were born. The survey, in addition, revealed an interesting fact that earlier weaning of infants was shown in the group of high-educated mothers. 7. According to the study, finishing period of weaning was $13.3{\pm}5.4$ months on average. Only 38.9% of the respondents ended weaning of their infants in 12 months, the proper period recommended by renowned experts. In general, the infants on formula-feeding finished their weaning later than those on breast-feeding (p<0.05).

  • PDF

A Phenomenological Study on Mother-Infant Interacting Behavior Patterns Related to Newborn Infant Feeding in Korea (한국인 영아초기 수유시 모아상호작용 행동형태에 관한 현상학적 연구)

  • 한경자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.89-116
    • /
    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study was to describe mother -infant interacting behavior patterns related to newborn infant feeding and to explore the mother's cultural belief about their infant. The data collection was conducted by observation and interview. Twenty-five mothers and their newborn infants who were normally delivered and were also planned to breast feed were comprised as the subjects of this study. All subjects were interviewed and observed individuaily at 1 to 5 days after the delivery at the hospital, mid -wife's clinic, Maternal Child Health Center and their home throughout the country from remote area to big city, The observation data were recorded with symbolic letter on a recording sheet newly developed as a result of preliminary study. The interview data were taperecorded and then recorded in narrative form. Mother - infant interaction behaviors in early feeding period were analyzed based on 19 analytic sub-categories and their composing elements. Unit of analysis were mother, infant and mother -infant dyad. 8 analytic categories draw from the data. Each were preparation, instrument, interaction inducing, evaluation referred to mother's behavior, preparation, instrument, interaction inducing referred to infant's behavior and synchronic behaviors referred to mother - infant dyad. Frequencies of behavior items based on the categories were converted to percent. The result showed that in mother's preparation behavior, the breast condition of Korean mother can be an affecting factor for mother - infant interaction during feeding, and vocalization behavior was observed most frequently in interaction inducing behavior while the least frequent behavior observed was contacting. Subcultural characteristics of mother - infant interaction behaviors were analyzed for their relationships between groups of mothers who have lived in remote area vs urban area, and who were multipara vs primipara. Using a chi -square test, there were statistically significant relationships in the activity of psychological readiness in preparation behavior and the movement of extremities for the position of instrumental behavior in both groups. However, interaction inducing behaviors were not related with statistical significance in any set of groups. Accomplishment of marriage, bonding and emotional mediation of family members were the categories related to mother's cultural belief about the infant in aspect of functional values. Infant at birth is considered little more than a biological organism without social capabilities. Although the newborn infant is still be attached to his mother, he makes his mother extend her territoriality. The mother's interacting behavior toward her infant based on those beliefs appeared task oriented, separative behavioral series. On the other hand, it was seen that infant reacted independently to his mother's behavior by the in-nate perceptual abilities. Those independent behavioral series of mother and infant on the feeding situation were synchronized at any moment. Nurses are In a unique position to teach mothers about their infant's capabilities and help reducing some of uncertainty about infant's behaviors. Study results indicated that the informations infant's social capabilities and breast feeding should be given to the mothers. The results of this study have several implications for nursing. First, the study results will be used as fundamental resources for the development of the assessment tool about the early mother - infant interaction. Second, the results could be a relevant information in the fied. I of maternal child nursing education as real and useful data. Third, the behavioral patterns of early mother - infant interaction which were classified based on the qualitative analysis could be used for nursing theory development as very fundamental data.

  • PDF

Infant Feeding Practices and the Factors that Influence feeding Practices among Women in Seoul and the Chungbuk Area (여성들의 수유양상 및 수유방식의 선택에 영향 주는 요인들)

  • 김기남;현태선;강남미
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
    • /
    • v.8 no.3
    • /
    • pp.288-301
    • /
    • 2003
  • In order to obtain baseline data for the development of an educational program on breastfeeding, a survey was carried out to investigate infant feeding practices, the characteristics the subjects have in common, and the factors that influence the feeding methods among women in Seoul and the Chungbuk area. Subjects included 671 lactating mothers who visited public health centers or pediatric clinics between December 1999 and February 2000, and were interviewed using a questionnaire. The results were as follows : With respect to feeding methods, the incidence of breastfeeding, formula feeding, mixed feeding and formula feeding switched from breastfeeding was 20.6%, 29.8%, 11.6%, and 38.0%, respectively. With respect to the characteristics the subjects had in common, the incidence of women who planned their infants' feeding methods before pregnancy, during pregancy, and after delivery was 48.7%, 31.0%, and 20.3%, respectively. The incidence of women who started breastfeeding in the hospital after delivery was 38.8%. About seventy seven percet of the subjects had not previously attended an educational program on breastfeeding, and most of these wanted to participate in the future in an educational program to learn about breastfeeding. Some of the topics they were interested in were“Nutritional Management for Sufficient Breast Milk”(60.3%),“Breast Care”(25.0%), and“Correct Nursing Positions”(9.8%). Most (88.2%) of the women who breastfeed suffered from physical discomforts including discomfort of the waist, and legs and discomfort due to cracked or sore nipples. “Insufficient breast milk”was the main reason for breastfeeding cessation or for switching to formula feeding. With respect to formula feeding practices, the main reasons for selecting a specific brand of formula were“the same brand the hospital used after delivery”(34.3%) and“an advertised brand”(23.3%). The strongest factor for promoting breastfeeding was“the support of husband or parents”, next were “breastfeeding in the hospital after delivery”and“planning to breastfeed before pregnancy”in that order. The characteristics the subjects had in common relating to formula feeding were“mother's job”,“high economic level”,“Caesarian section”and “planning to breastfeed after delivery”. In conclusion, it is recommended that breastfeeding be pro-moted, and educational programs be developed and offered as soon as possible to each group which had unfavorable attitudes toward breastfeeding. In addition, the monitoring and supervision of formula advertisements is required to protect consumers from the adverse effects of exaggerated advertising.

Association of infant feeding practices in the general population with infant growth and stool characteristics

  • Han, Young-Shin;Chang, Eun-Young;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Ahn, Kang-Mo;Kim, Hye-Young;Hwang, Eun-Mi;Lowry, Dianne;Prosser, Colin;Lee, Sang-Il
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
    • /
    • v.5 no.4
    • /
    • pp.308-312
    • /
    • 2011
  • This was a prospective cohort study of 976 infants from birth to 12 months of age. Infants were fed breast milk, goat infant formula, cow infant formula, or a combination of formula and breast milk during the first 4 months of age. Data on type of milk feeding and infant growth (weight and height) were collected at birth and at 4, 8, and 12 months during routine clinical assessment. The number and consistency of bowel motions per day were recorded based on observational data supplied by the mothers. Infants fed breast milk or goat or cow infant formula during the first 4 months displayed similar growth outcomes. More of the infants fed cow infant formula had fewer and more well-formed bowel motions compared with breast-fed infants. The stool characteristics of infants fed goat formula resembled those of infants fed breast milk.