• Title, Summary, Keyword: household health care expenditure

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The comparison of household health care expenditure and income elasticity by ability to pay levels. (지불능력에 따른 가계지출 보건의료비의 차이와 소득탄력도 비교)

  • Shin Seung Ho;Kim Chang Soon;Kim Han Joong
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.75-87
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this paper is to compare the amount of household health expenditures (HHE) and the proportion of health care expenditure to the household expenditure by ability to pay(ATP) levels. This study has focused on the influence of household ATP on HHE, estimating elasticity of health care expenditures for different ATP groups. For the empirical analysis, the Urban Households Survey Data of 2002 have been used. Our principal findings show that HHE are sensitive to changes in household ATP levels and that the group which is most responsive to changes in A TP level is the lower ATP group. These suggest that as households have less ATP, households with lower ATP reduce expenditures on health care in a proportional manner than those with higher ATP.

Changes in financial burden of health expenditures by income level (소득 계층별 의료비 부담의 추이와 정책과제)

  • Kim, Tae-Il;Huh, Soon-Im
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.23-48
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    • 2008
  • Although the universal health insurance, National Health Insurance (NHI), have improved access to health care and financial burden of health care costs for Koreans, limited coverage of the NHI leads to high out-of-pocket payment for health care. This study examines financial burden of household health expenditures by income level. Data from the Urban Household Expenditure Survey from 1985 through 2005 is analyzed and household expenditure is used as a proxy measure for income. Health expenditures include spending for inpatient care, ambulatory care and pharmaceuticals. If a household spends health expenditure above 40% of household consumption except for foods, that is defined as catastrophic health expenditure. Access to health care for the lowest income group had been improved for two decades relative to other income groups as well as in absolute term. However, both financial burden of health expenditures and the proportion of households that experienced catastrophic health expenditure had been increased in the lowest income group. Study findings have several policy implications. First, in terms of financial burden of health expenditures. the differences among income groups decreased until 2000 but it was worsen in 2005. This suggests that recent policies for extending NHI coverage are not enough to improve the disparity by income level. Second, a differential catastrophic coverage by income level would be an effective strategy that relieves financial burden for low income group. Third, since the catastrophic coverage is applied to only covered services by the NHI, additional strategy for uncovered services should be considered.

A Study on the Factors Influencing Health Care Expenditure of Elderly Households : Focused on the Elderly Single and Elderly Couple Households (노인가계의 보건의료비 지출에 영향을 미치는 요인의 분석 : 노인독신가게와 노인부부가게를 중심으로)

  • Oh, Ji-Yeon;Sung, Young-Ae
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.159-174
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the health care expenditure of elderly single and elderly couple households whose head is more than 60 years old. The data analyzed for the study were Korean Retirement and Income Study(KRelS) conducted in 2007 by National Pension Corporation. The major finding of this study were as follows: First, the amount of health care expenditure of elderly single households was lower than that of elderly couple households. However, ratio of health care expenditure to total consumption expenditure of elderly single households was larger than that of elderly couple households. Second, the ratio of health care expenditure in consumption expenditure in this study was larger than the ratios in past analyse showed in the previous studies. Third, common factor affecting on health care expenditure of elderly single and elderly couple households was the existence of the family member with chronic disease or handicap. The health care expenditure of elderly singer households was influenced by income, gender and the ownership of national health insurance. The influence of income for elderly singer households seemed to be greater than for elderly couple households. The variables which affected health care expenditure of elderly couple households were age and housing tenure status. The amount and ratio health care expenditure were increased as the age increases. These results show that the health care expenditures for each groups varied according to socio-demographic variables and health-related behavior variables. It is suggested that there should be a discriminative health care policy for each elderly single and elderly couple households. In addition, the health care policy for the elderly households of which member has a chronic disease is certainly necessary. Especially a health care plan for the elderly single households with lower income is in need. For the elderly couple households, the priority group of health care policy would be the high age group.

Family Income Inequality and Medical Care Expenditure In Korea (한국 의료보장제도 의료비 부담과 가족소득 불평등의 관계)

  • Lee, Yong-Jae
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.366-375
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    • 2016
  • This study evaluates the degree of the inequality of medical care expenditure and private health insurance benefits and the relation with household income inequality in korea health care system. This study used the 2014 korea Health Panel survey, and study method is Gini coefficient. The main results are as follow. First, average household income in 1st income quartile is 6,290,000won and 10st income quartile is 101,930,000won. And Gini coefficient of Korea household income is 0.3756. In other words, family income inequality is quite serious. Second, the Gini coefficient of the public institution supported medical care expenditure, such as health insurance and public assistance, is 0.0761, and the Gini coefficient of the expenditure of transportation fee and medical materials etc that don't supported is 0878. The inequality in medical care expenditure in public health care system and without public support aren't serious all. Third, Gini coefficient in excluding household medical care expenditure from household income slightly increased. That is, the medical care expenditure of our country household is the factor of aggravating the inequality of household income. Fourth, Gini coefficient of private health insurance benefits is 0.0927. Therefore, the ineqality in private insurance benefits is low. In addition, the Gini coefficient of the sum of private insurance benefits and household income is 0.3672. it decrease from Gini coefficient(0.3756) of household's. Private health insurance perform the functions somewhat weaken household income inequality. However, it is very little improvement.

The Effect of Health Care Expenditure on Income Inequality (의료비 지출이 소득불평등에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Eun-Cheol;Kim, Chang-Yup;Shin, Young-Jeon
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.36-57
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    • 2010
  • The degree of income inequality deepened by health care expenditure was useful in assessing the health security level. This exploratory study was conducted to provide a basic evidence to prove the necessity of reinforcement the benefit coverage of South Korea's health security systems. Data from the Household Income and Expenditure Survey of Korea and Luxembourg Income Study were used. Income inequality indices before and after deduction of health care expenditure were computed, and the degree of the increase in the indices was compared among 13 countries. The degree of decrease against the effect of income inequality reduction policies by health care expenditure was determined. The relationships between the national characteristics and the increase in income inequality were examined. In South Korea, all income inequality indices increased after deducting health care expenditure, but the difference was not high compared to the mean of 13 countries. However, the degree of decrease against the effect of income inequality reduction policies by health care expenditure was high, compared to the mean of 13 countries. The proportion of public sector spending on health care proved to be statistically significant with the increase of income inequality indices (p<0.05). In the context of the continuous increase in health care expenditure, if benefit coverage of health security systems is not reinforced, income inequality will all the more increase due to health care expenditure. In the establishment of the policies for reinforcement of the benefit coverage, income inequality after deduction of health care expenditure should be continuously monitored.

Fairness of Health care financing: Progressivity and Retstributive Effect (가구 소득과 보건의료비 지출의 형평성 : 누진성과 소득재분배 효과)

  • 신호성;김명기;김진숙
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.17-33
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    • 2004
  • The present study attempts to examine the progressivity of health care financial sources based on the income approach, for which it decomposes redistributive effects into vertical, horizontal, and re-ranking components. The study data include Korean Household Expenditure Survey (2000) conducted every 5 year by Korea National Statistical Office. The data were sampled from the national population by the multistage probabilistic sampling method, and amounts to 23,270 households. For the better application of the income approach, the study employs household total expenditure in Korea instead of total income, because the former data source is more reliable and less fluctuated over time. Progressivity of health care financing was measured by Kakwani index. Aronson's decomposition equation was used in case of the analysis where differential treatment of health care expenditure needs to be considered. Despite the progressivity of Korea's governmental contributions, total expenditure of health care showed regressive pattern, which may largely be attributable to the higher regressivity in out-of-pocket money. With the result of negative Kakwani index, differential treatment increased income redistribution biased for better-off. It is worth to note that social insurance displays not only negative Kakwani index, but also horizontal inequality, suggesting that the first step of health care financing reform should be the revision of social insurance premium rates toward effective and equable way.

Comparison of the Universal Health Coverage Index among Africa Countries (아프리카 국가 간 보편적 의료보장(UHC) 지표 비교)

  • Oh, Chang Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : To compare the degree of achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) among 39 developing countries in Africa and to investigate the correlation between health care financing and the UHC index. Methods : For data, 14 UHC indexes were used in 2015 supplied by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, this study used a 10% of threshold point corresponding to the catastrophic health expenditures and a 25% of threshold points as a health care financing index. Results : It was found that there were significant difference among Least Low Developed Countries (LLDCs), Other Low Income Countries (Other LICs), Lower Middle Income Countiies (LMICs), Upper Middle Income Countires (UMICs) to compare the average value by nation on the UHC index. This study showed that the UHC index of LLDCs was lowest, but the average value was higher as it moved towards LMICs and UMICs. In addition, it was found that there was an average value difference among the groups like LLDCs, Other LICs, LMICs and UMICs. As a result of comparison, it was found that the spending of household health expenditure increased as LLDCs moved towards UMICs when the burden of household health expenditure was 25%. Conclusions : This study aimed to compare the UHC indexes of African nations and to investigate the correlation between the degree of spending of total expenditure on health and burden of household health expenditure and UHC, and its effect.

Influence and Change of Healthcare Expenditure on Household Income Inequality (보건의료비 지출이 가구소득불평등에 미치는 영향과 변화)

  • Lee, Yong-Jae;Lee, Hyun-Ok
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.331-341
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this analysis is to examine the effects of health expenditure on income inequality on household income after the financial crisis by using the household income survey form 1996 to 2016. The main results are as follows. First, after the financial crisis, the gross income inequality of households has been changing steadily, though there has been a slight change in each year. Second, high-income earners spend more on health care expenditure by income level. Therefore, unequal levels are maintained. Third, the Gini coefficient of income excluding health care expenditure was calculated. The results of the analysis are larger than the Gini coefficient of total income. Income inequality is intensified by the expenditure of health care expenditure of households. The inequality of household income due to health care expenditure has been increasing steadily since the financial crisis. Efforts such as strengthening the protection of health insurance have been continuously carried out for the purpose of reducing the burden of the national medical expenses. However, it does not contribute to resolving income inequality. In the future, it will be necessary to provide a more selective medical support system to reduce the medical expenditure of the low income class.

Technical Improvements of the Projection of Household Health Care Expenditure (보건의료 가책소비지출 추계 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • Rho, Sang-Youn
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2010
  • This study aims to improve the more confident and efficient projection method that is to estimate the Number of Household per Family scales(NHF) in projecting the Household Heath care Expenditure(HHE). For this purpose, this paper suggested three results of the research. First, because projecting the NHF does not reflect the recent socio-demographic trends in the process of projecting the National Health Expenditure(NHE),the prior projection results have serious problem in the confidence and political availability. Second, the projection results about the HHE might be underestimated relative to the real one. Third, in order to estimate the more confident and efficient estimates of the HHE, the estimated NHF reflecting the socio-demographic trend must be used to project the one. There is an alternative method that the NHF and the increasing or decreasing rate of them which are regularly surveyed and suggested by the KOSIS should be used to project the process.

Catastrophic Health Expenditure Status and Trend of Korea in 2015 (2015 재난적 의료비 경험률과 추이)

  • Kim, Woorim;Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.84-87
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    • 2017
  • Catastrophic healthcare expenditure refers to out-of-pocket spending for healthcare exceeding a certain proportion of a household's income and can lead to subsequent impoverishment. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of South Korean households that experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure between 2006 and 2015 using available data from the Korea Health Panel, National Survey of Tax and Benefit, and Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Frequencies and trend tests were conducted to analyze the proportion of households with catastrophic healthcare expenditure. Subgroup analysis was performed based on income level. The results of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey revealed that around 2.88% of households experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure in 2015 and that this proportion was highest in the low income group. Results also showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the number of households with catastrophic healthcare expenditure (annual percentage change= 0.92%, p-value < 0.0001). Therefore, the findings infer a need to strengthen public health care financing and to particularly monitor catastrophic healthcare expenditure in the low income group.