• Title, Summary, Keyword: history of medicine

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호스피스와 종교적 죽음이해

  • Sin, Min-Seon;Kim, Mun-Su
    • Korean Journal of Hospice Care
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2006
  • There are various understandings how to define death. In the context of medicine, death is defined as the irreversible change of the tissue according to the cessation of circulation and respiration. According to the psychologists, a person need to accept the finiteness as a human being and remain conscious that the death is not avoidable. And they say if a person doesn't regard death as unavoidable reality of life he or she will not confront the humanistic death and after all will die like animals. In philosophy, death is viewed as an unwelcome reality in the end of the journey of life. Sociologists usually understand that the society is the organization composed with living persons and human beings which construct and transmit the culture from generation to generation between the both ends of life and death. In society, the generation is changed, maintained, and developed through the phenomenon of death. Although death of human being is natural event in society, the death of a specific person brings a sense of loss, crisis, and anxiety to the communities like family, regional society, nation, and the world. In this context, death is not confined to personal dimension and it can be regarded as a social problem. It is valuable to summarize the religious perspectives on the meaning of death for the better hospice care. In shamanism, there are basic idea that although the flesh of human being disappears, soul never die. If human dies, the flesh of human being disappears but soul never disappear and come back to the origin of soul as it is called chaos. So in shamanism, it is said that shaman can solve the mortified feeling, restore the broken harmony, send the soul to comfortable space- the origin, and guarantee the blessing of descendents. Buddhists regard the death as an essential component through the cycles of life. Through this cycle, human being exits as an endlessly transmigrating being and the death is just a restoration to the original status. In Confucianism, the view on the death based on the philosophy of the "Yin and Yang" and "Five elements". In Buddhist tradition, many believers said the philosophy of "Death is the same as life". Unlike usual thoughts that a god governs "life and death" and "fortune and misfortune", Confucianists deny the governance of a god and emphasize the natural orders in which every phenomenon in the world moves according to the principle. Confucianists understand the death as a natural order with this principle. In Confucianists' belief, the essence of human being remains in their own descendent's lives after the death of ancestor, so in Confucianism there is no concept of immortality of the soul. In the history of Christianity, death has been defined generally as the separation of the immortal soul from the mortal body. In the earlier days of Old Testament, the death is regarded as a disappearance of just a flesh and human never disappear and always live in the relationship with God. Later days in Old Testament, we can find the growing concern for the life after the death because of the entrance of the theodicy. In the New Testament, the death is not regarded as the normal process of the human life and regarded as the abnormal status in which death come to human because of sin as a decisive factor and it should be conquered. In fact, the most of us afraid death because not of the fear of death itself but of the sense of the emptiness and regrets. so many people often make the monument hoping to live forever. But Christian usually regard this behavior as a sinful act because human being usually think themselves as a master of their life and attempt to become immortal in this kind of trial mortal. But if we live with God, we cannot confront such a condition because we aware limits as a mortal human being and entrust everything on Him and want to live according to His guidance. Therefore, in the Christian tradition, the death is regarded as accomplishment of life, fruits of life, invitation to the eternal life, and the last stage of human growth. For human being, the death is the great step of maturation as a human in the final stage of life.

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Mathematics and Society in Koryo and Chosun (고려.조선시대의 수학과 사회)

  • Joung Ji-Ho
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.48-73
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    • 1986
  • Though the tradition of Korean mathematics since the ancient time up to the 'Enlightenment Period' in the late 19th century had been under the influence of the Chinese mathematics, it strove to develop its own independent of Chinese. However, the fact that it couldn't succeed to form the independent Korean mathematics in spite of many chances under the reign of Kings Sejong, Youngjo, and Joungjo was mainly due to the use of Chinese characters by Koreans. Han-gul (Korean characters) invented by King Sejong had not been used widely as it was called and despised Un-mun and Koreans still used Chinese characters as the only 'true letters' (Jin-suh). The correlation between characters and culture was such that, if Koreans used Han-gul as their official letters, we may have different picture of Korean mathematics. It is quite interesting to note that the mathematics in the 'Enlightenment Period' changed rather smoothly into the Western mathematics at the time when Han-gul was used officially with Chinese characters. In Koryo, the mathematics existed only as a part of the Confucian refinement, not as the object of sincere study. The mathematics in Koryo inherited that of the Unified Shilla without any remarkable development of its own, and the mathematicians were the Inner Officials isolated from the outside world who maintained their positions as specialists amid the turbulence of political changes. They formed a kind of Guild, their posts becoming patrimony. The mathematics in Koryo significant in that they paved the way for that of Chosun through a few books of mathematics such as 'Sanhak-Kyemong', 'Yanghwi-Sanpup' and 'Sangmyung-Sanpup'. King Sejong was quite phenomenal in his policy of promotion of mathematics. King himself was deeply interested in the study, createing an atmosphere in which all the high ranking officials and scholars highly valued mathematics. The sudden development of mathematic culture was mainly due to the personality and capacity of king who took anyone with the mathematic talent into government service regardless of his birth and against the strong opposition of the conservative officials. However, King's view of mathematics never resulted in the true development of mathematics perse and he used it only as an official technique in the tradition way. Korean mathematics in King Sejong's reign was based upon both the natural philosophy in China and the unique geo-political reality of Korean peninsula. The reason why the mathematic culture failed to develop continually against those social background was that the mathematicians were not allowed to play the vital role in that culture, they being only the instrument for the personality or politics of the king. While the learned scholar class sometimes played the important role for the development of the mathematic culture, they often as not became an adamant barrier to it. As the society in Chosun needed the function of mathematics acutely, the mathematicians formed the settled class called Jung-in (Middle-Man). Jung-in was a unique class in Chosun and we can't find its equivalent in China or Japan. These Jung-in mathematician officials lacked tendency to publish their study, since their society was strictly exclusive and their knowledge was very limited. Though they were relatively low class, these mathematicians played very important role in Chosun society. In 'Sil-Hak (the Practical Learning) period' which began in the late 16th century, especially in the reigns of Kings Youngjo and Jungjo, which was called the Renaissance of Chosun, the ambitious policy for the development of science and technology called for. the rapid increase of he number of such technocrats as mathematics, astronomy and medicine. Amid these social changes, the Jung-in mathematicians inevitably became quite ambitious and proud. They tried to explore deeply into mathematics perse beyond the narrow limit of knowledge required for their office. Thus, in this period the mathematics developed rapidly, undergoing very important changes. The characteristic features of the mathematics in this period were: Jung-in mathematicians' active study an publication, the mathematic studies by the renowned scholars of Sil-Hak, joint works by these two classes, their approach to the Western mathematics and their effort to develop Korean mathematics. Toward the 'Enlightenment Period' in the late 19th century, the Western mathematics experienced great difficulty to take its roots in the Peninsula which had been under the strong influence of Confucian ideology and traditional Korean mathematic system. However, with King Kojong's ordinance in 1895, the traditional Korean mathematics influenced by Chinese disappeared from the history of Korean mathematics, as the school system was hanged into the Western style and the Western mathematics was adopted as the only mathematics to be taught at the Schools of various levels. Thus the 'Enlightenment Period' is the period in which Korean mathematics shifted from Chinese into European.

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A Study on the Planning of Nationwide Indexing Services for Korea (전국색인지간행협동체제 편성방안에 관한 연구)

  • Choi Sung Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.12
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    • pp.39-86
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    • 1985
  • The main purpose of the present study is to survey the major iudexing bulletins of national nature in Korea, to define such problem areas as lacunae, duplicates and limitation in coverage in the indexing services currently available in Korea, and to make some suggestions for action for improving the existing indexing services in the light of general principles and the tradition and constraints unique to Korea. The major findings and conclusions reached at this study are summarised as follows: (A) A new indexing bulletin of general nature covering the entire field needs to be created in each of the following fields without an established indexing service available for the outcome of research and development activities in Korea. (1) Philosophy (2) Religion (3) Pure sciences (4) Art (5) Language (6) Literature (7) History (B) A new specialised indexing bulletin needs to be created in each of the following fields where indexing services are heavily utilised but no, or only partial, indexing service is available. (1) Social sciences (a) Statistics (b) Sociology (c) Folklore (d) Military science (2) Pure sciences (a) Mathematics (b) Physics (c) Chemistry (d) Astronomy (e) Geology (f) Mineralogy (g) Life sciences (h) Botany (i) Zoology (3) Applied sciences (a) Medicine (b) Agriculture (c) Civil engineering (d) Architectural engineering (e) Mechanical engineering (f) Electrical engineering (g) Chemical engineering (h) Domestic science (C) Publication of the indexing bulletins suggested in A and B above may be ideally carried on by a qualified and dependable learned society established in the respective fields and designated by the Minister of Education, and should be financially supported from the public fund under the provisions of Art. 27 of the Scientific Research Promotion Act of 1979. (D) The coverage and contents of the four indexing bulletins in the field of banking and financing published by the Library of the Bank of Korea are similar and considerably duplicated. It is, therefore, suggested that the four indexing bulletins are combined in one to form a more comprehensive and efficient bibliographical tool in the field and it is further developed into a general guide to the literature produced in the entire field of economics in Korea by gradually expanding its subject coverage. (E) For the similar reasons stated in D, the Index to the Articles on North Korea and the Catalogue of Theses on North Korea, both publisheds by the Ministry of Unification Library, are suggested to make into one. The Index to the Articles of the Selected North Korean Journals and the Index to the Articles of the North Korean Journals in Microfilm Housed in the Ministry of Unification Library, both published by the same Library, are also suggested to be combined in one. (F) The contents of the Catalogue of the Reports Submitted by Government Officials Who Have Travelled Abroad, published by the National Archives are included in the Index to the Information Materials Related to Government Administration, published by the National Archives. The publication of the former is hardly justified. (G) The contents of the Index to Legal Literature published by the Seoul National University Libraries and those of the Law Section of the Index to Scholastic Works published by the National Central Library are nearly identical. One of the two indexes should cease to be published. (H) Though five indexes are being published in the field of political science and four in the field of public administration, their subject coverage is limited. Naturally, these indexes are little usable to many other researchers in the two fields. A comprehensive index covering all the specialised areas in each field needs to be developed on one or all the existing indexes. (I) It is suggested that the Catalogue of the Scholastic Works on Curricula published by the National Central Library expands its subject coverage to become a more usable and effective index to all the researchers in the field of education. (J) The bimonthly Index to Periodical Articles and the specialised index by subject series published by the National Assembly Library, and the Index to Scholastic Works published by the National Central Library are expected to increase their coverage and frequency of publication to be used more effectively and more efficiently by all users in all fields till the indexing bulletins suggested in this study will fully be available in Korea.

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A study on Perfume case (향(香) 집에 관한연구)

  • 이선재
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.33
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    • pp.117-142
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    • 1997
  • This study is on perfume case that is one of a great number of ornaments which was designed by out ancestors. We had developed the tradition and the history of perfume case bag fan-weight etc. These have the same function as the present perfume. case. There were basket-shaped perfume cases which were the smellest one among the personal girdle ornaments in the silla era. The various patterned perfume case were made of gold metal coral platinum or green jadeite etc. In the single-crop trinkets a embroidered perfume bag with the gold and silver thread whose forms perfectly match their functions appeared during the Yi Dynasty. There was also a perfume bag which was one of the daily necessities. A precious "jul perfume" was carried by noble women. A fan-weight perfume bag was attached to the fan to emphasize the intrinsic beauty of utility and function. It is necessary to know the function of prefume case. As perfume case is weared on the clothes it was given more decorative effects as well as the function of medicinal amulet with a sweet smell. Therefore it is very important for us to study perfume case that has various function as an ornament. So The purpose of this study is to investigate the practical and decorative side of perfume case with the general examines of perfume finding how to practice use through our life. The results were as follows; 1. The first use of perfume is perfume through smoke which is for ceremony of religion It removes human body odor by degrees and spreads a sweet odor. Also the materials for making perfume of early age is aromatic plants which will be used flour-made flowers stems. As the materials for making perfume use is increasing today we can invent alcohol perfume today 2. Our country the custom of perfume-used is wide. Among them men's perfume-used was very special phenomenon. For example men were wearing perfume bag in the Silla era. Because perfume represented wealth and noble in those days. They shew off social position personality through perfume-used. 3. One of early religion ceremony article there was the perfume. And perfume case was means for containing perfume. Gradually the perfume case was used widly as increasing needs of perfume in human life. 4. In the middle period of 'Koryo' Dynasty perfume cases had a close relationship with clothes but after Mongolian has been attacked 'Koryo' there were changes in wearing clothes therefore the position of perfume cases were transfered to coat string that was the origin of decoration style that they began. That is to say the perfume case has been influenced the position of perfume case shapes with changing of fashion. 5. The perfume case has been made manifest various function as an ornament. In the practical side First medical-perfume in perfume case has been played an important role in first-aid medicine in critical condition. Second it was amulet for self protection. That is the shape pattern color materials perfume of the perfume case was represented the amuletive nature. Third it was used as substitute article of perfume. Modern women use liquid-perfume as our ancestors used perfume case bag or jul perfume As started above. Also In the decorative side the perfume case has a beautiful formative arts by itself as well as a close relationship with clothes. That well as a close relationship with clothes. That is when the perfume case is worn on the clothes costume is showed aesthetices. That is the materials shapes color pattern of the perfume case we can see the visual beauty also the materials colors embroidered pattern knots tassel that are used the perfume case are increased the decorative beauty of costume. Sixth the symbol in pattern of the pattern case is shown ancetor's wealth and rank health longevity immortality many-born-boy in those days. Today the perfume case is not used with changing of costume by degrees, Accordingly I hope that the result of this study is an influened in devlopment of the perfume case design with matching the modern fashion.

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Questions and Answers about the Humidifier Disinfectant Disaster as of February 2017 (가습기살균제 참사의 진행과 교훈(Q&A))

  • Choi, Yeyong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2017
  • 'The worstest environment disaster', 'World's first biocide massacre', 'Home-based Sewol ferry disaster' are all phrases attached to the recent humidifier disinfectant disaster. In the spring of 2011, four of 8 pregnant women including 1 adult man passed away at a university hospital in Seoul due to breathing failure. Epidemiologic investigation conducted by the Korean CDC soon revealed the inhalation of humidifier disinfectant, which had been widely used in Korea during the winter, to be responsible for the disease. As well as lung fibrosis hardening of the lungs, other diseases including asthma, rhinitis, skin disease, liver disease, fetal disease or cancers have been researched for their relation with exposure to the products. By February 9, 2017, 5,342 cases had registered for health problems and 1,131 of them were already dead (20.8% mortality rate). Based on studies by government agencies and a telephone survey of the general population by Seoul National University and civic groups, around 20% of the general public of Korea has used these products. Since the market release of the first product by SK Chemical in 1994, over 7.1 million items from around 20 brands were sold up to 2011. Most of the products were manufactured by well-known large conglomerates such as SK, Lotte, Samsung, Shinsegye, LG, and GS, as well as some European companies including UK-based Reckitt Benckiser and TESCO, the German firm Henkel, the Danish firm KeTox, and an Irish company. Even though this disaster was unveiled in 2011 by the Korean government, the issue of the victims was neglected for over five years. In 2016, an unexpected but intensive investigation by prosecutors found that Reckitt Benckiser manipulated and concealed animal tests for its own brand and brought several university experts and company employees to court. The matter was an intense social issue in Korea from May to June with a surge in media coverage. The prosecutor's investigation and a nationwide boycott campaign organized by victims and environmental groups against Reckitt Benckiser, whose product had been used by more than 70% of victims, led to the producer's official apology and a compensation scheme. A legislative investigation organized after the April 2016 national election revealed the producers' faults and the government's responsibility, but failed to meet expectations. A special law for the victims passed the National Assembly in January 2017 and a punitive system together with a massive environmental epidemiology investigation are expected to be the only solutions for this tragedy. Sciences of medicine, toxicology and environmental health have provided decisive evidence so far, but for the remaining problems the perspectives of social sciences such as sociology and jurisprudence are highly necessary, similar to with the Minamata disease and Wonjin Rayon events. It may not be easy to follow this issue using unfamiliar terminology from medical and chemical science and the long, complicated history of the event. For these reasons the author has attempted to write this article in a question and answer format to render it easier to follow. The 17 questions are: Q1 What is humidifier disinfectant? Q2 What kind of health problems are caused by humidifier disinfectant? Q3 How many victims are there? Q4 What is the analysis of the 1,112 cases of death? Q5 What is the problem with the government's diagnostic criteria and the solution? Q6 Who made what brands? Q7 Has there been a recall? What is still on sale? Q8 Was safety not checked by any producers? Q9 What are the government's responsibilities? Q10 Is it true that these products were sold only in Korea? Q11 Why and how was it unveiled only in 2011 after 17 years of sales? Q12 What delayed the resolution of the victim issue? Q13 What is the background of the prosecutor's investigation in early 2016? Q14 Is it possible to report new victim cases without evidence of product purchase? Q15 What is happening with the victim issue? Q16 How does it compare with the cases of Minamata disease and Wonjin Rayon? Q17 Are there prevention measures and lessons?

Anti-Inflammatory and Moisturizing Effect of Centella Extracts Fermented in Jeju Lava Water (제주용암해수로 숙성된 병풀 추출물의 항염 및 보습 효과)

  • Lee, Jeesun;Myung, Cheol Hwan;Lee, Ji Eun;Jo, Mi-Rae;Kim, Hong-Suk;Lee, Na-Young;Woo, Heedong;You, Jaeeun;Jo, Hae;Hwang, Jae Sung
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 2019
  • The leaves and stems of Centella asiatica have a long history of their usage as a medicine for the treatment of skin diseases such as ulcers and psoriasis, especially in Asia. Triterpenoids, the active components of Centella asiatica including asiaticoside, madecasosside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid, have shown to inhibit skin inflammation as well as improve skin photoaging. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether the Centella asiatica ripened with lava seawater which is rich in minerals known to be beneficial to human body can provide anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects to skin. HPLC analysis showed that the concentration of triterpenoids increased further after ripening Centella asiatica with lava seawater. In order to confirm the inflammatory efficacy of the extract of the extract of the ripened Centella asiatica, the production of NO in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in PM10 or UVB-induced HaCaT cells were observed. We found that the extract of the ripened Centella asiatica inhibited the expression of NO, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a and had higher inhibitory effect compared to the extract of the non-ripened Centella asiatica. In order to confirm the skin moisturizing effect, we investigated the synthesis of HA in HaCaT cells. The result showed HA production was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner from the ripened group, while there was no efficacy from the non-ripened group. Taken together, it is concluded that the extract of the Centella asiatica ripened with lava seawater was effective in anti-inflammation and moisturization.

Characteristics and Significance of the Huirang Daesa Sculpture at Haeinsa Temple in Hapcheon (합천(陜川) 해인사(海印寺) 희랑대사상(希朗大師像)의 특징과 제작 의미)

  • Jeong, Eunwoo
    • MISULJARYO - National Museum of Korea Art Journal
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    • v.98
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    • pp.54-77
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    • 2020
  • Produced during the Goryeo period (718-1392), the statue of the monk Huirang Daesa at Haeinsa Temple in Hapcheon is almost life-size, with a height of 82.4 cm, a width of 66.6 cm at the knees, and a maximum width of 44 cm at the torso (front and back). Notably, it is the only known example of an East Asian Buddhist sculpture made from wood and dry lacquer that was formed by joining the front and back halves. However, a similar technique was used on a dry lacquer statue of the Medicine Buddha at Cheongnyangsa Temple in Bonghwa, which is estimated to date from the late Goryeo or early Joseon period. As such, this technique is thought to represent this particular time period. In an eighteenth-century travelogue about a trip to Mt. Gayasan, the author describes a sculpture that is believed to be the statue of Huirang Daesa at Haeinsa Temple, based on various unique features that closely correspond to the sculpture's current appearance. For example, the sculpture is said to have a hole in the chest and rough, knobby tendons and bones, two features that can still be seen today. Another sculpture of a Buddhist monk who was active in the western regions during the third and fourth century also has a hole in the chest, which is said to be a symbol of spiritual strength. The travelogue also states that the statue was lacquered black at the time, which means that it must have been painted with its present colors some time in the nineteenth century. Over time, the sculpture has been enshrined in various halls of Haeinsa Temple, including Haehaengdang, Jinsangjeon, and later Josajeon (Hall of the Patriarchs), and Bojangjeon. Records show that images of Buddhist monks, or "seungsang," were produced in Korea as early as the Three Kingdoms period (18 BCE-660 CE), but few of these works have survived. At present, only four such sculptures are extant, including the images of Huirang Daesa from the Goryeo period, and those of Monk Naong and Uisang Daesa from the Joseon period. Of these, the sculpture of Huirang Daesa has special significance for its early production date (i.e., CE. tenth century), outstanding production techniques, and superb artistic quality, realistically capturing both the external appearance and internal character of the subject. The tradition of producing, sanctifying, and worshipping statues of monks was prevalent not only in Korea, but also in China and Japan. However, each country developed its own preferred materials and techniques for producing these unique images. For example, while China has a large number of mummified Buddhist images (yuksinbul), Japan produced diverse images with various materials (e.g., dry lacquer, wood, clay) according to period. But despite the differences in materials and techniques, the three nations shared the same fundamental purpose of expressing and honoring the inherent spirituality of the monks.

Wearable Computers

  • Cho, Gil-Soo;Barfield, Woodrow;Baird, Kevin
    • Fiber Technology and Industry
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.490-508
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    • 1998
  • One of the latest fields of research in the area of output devices is tactual display devices [13,31]. These tactual or haptic devices allow the user to receive haptic feedback output from a variety of sources. This allows the user to actually feel virtual objects and manipulate them by touch. This is an emerging technology and will be instrumental in enhancing the realism of wearable augmented environments for certain applications. Tactual displays have previously been used for scientific visualization in virtual environments by chemists and engineers to improve perception and understanding of force fields and of world models populated with the impenetrable. In addition to tactual displays, the use of wearable audio displays that allow sound to be spatialized are being developed. With wearable computers, designers will soon be able to pair spatialized sound to virtual representations of objects when appropriate to make the wearable computer experience even more realistic to the user. Furthermore, as the number and complexity of wearable computing applications continues to grow, there will be increasing needs for systems that are faster, lighter, and have higher resolution displays. Better networking technology will also need to be developed to allow all users of wearable computers to have high bandwidth connections for real time information gathering and collaboration. In addition to the technology advances that make users need to wear computers in everyday life, there is also the desire to have users want to wear their computers. In order to do this, wearable computing needs to be unobtrusive and socially acceptable. By making wearables smaller and lighter, or actually embedding them in clothing, users can conceal them easily and wear them comfortably. The military is currently working on the development of the Personal Information Carrier (PIC) or digital dog tag. The PIC is a small electronic storage device containing medical information about the wearer. While old military dog tags contained only 5 lines of information, the digital tags may contain volumes of multi-media information including medical history, X-rays, and cardiograms. Using hand held devices in the field, medics would be able to call this information up in real time for better treatment. A fully functional transmittable device is still years off, but this technology once developed in the military, could be adapted tp civilian users and provide ant information, medical or otherwise, in a portable, not obstructive, and fashionable way. Another future device that could increase safety and well being of its users is the nose on-a-chip developed by the Oak Ridge National Lab in Tennessee. This tiny digital silicon chip about the size of a dime, is capable of 'smelling' natural gas leaks in stoves, heaters, and other appliances. It can also detect dangerous levels of carbon monoxide. This device can also be configured to notify the fire department when a leak is detected. This nose chip should be commercially available within 2 years, and is inexpensive, requires low power, and is very sensitive. Along with gas detection capabilities, this device may someday also be configured to detect smoke and other harmful gases. By embedding this chip into workers uniforms, name tags, etc., this could be a lifesaving computational accessory. In addition to the future safety technology soon to be available as accessories are devices that are for entertainment and security. The LCI computer group is developing a Smartpen, that electronically verifies a user's signature. With the increase in credit card use and the rise in forgeries, is the need for commercial industries to constantly verify signatures. This Smartpen writes like a normal pen but uses sensors to detect the motion of the pen as the user signs their name to authenticate the signature. This computational accessory should be available in 1999, and would bring increased peace of mind to consumers and vendors alike. In the entertainment domain, Panasonic is creating the first portable hand-held DVD player. This device weight less than 3 pounds and has a screen about 6' across. The color LCD has the same 16:9 aspect ratio of a cinema screen and supports a high resolution of 280,000 pixels and stereo sound. The player can play standard DVD movies and has a hour battery life for mobile use. To summarize, in this paper we presented concepts related to the design and use of wearable computers with extensions to smart spaces. For some time, researchers in telerobotics have used computer graphics to enhance remote scenes. Recent advances in augmented reality displays make it possible to enhance the user's local environment with 'information'. As shown in this paper, there are many application areas for this technology such as medicine, manufacturing, training, and recreation. Wearable computers allow a much closer association of information with the user. By embedding sensors in the wearable to allow it to see what the user sees, hear what the user hears, sense the user's physical state, and analyze what the user is typing, an intelligent agent may be able to analyze what the user is doing and try to predict the resources he will need next or in the near future. Using this information, the agent may download files, reserve communications bandwidth, post reminders, or automatically send updates to colleagues to help facilitate the user's daily interactions. This intelligent wearable computer would be able to act as a personal assistant, who is always around, knows the user's personal preferences and tastes, and tries to streamline interactions with the rest of the world.

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The Outcome of Conventional External Beam Radiotherapy for Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus (식도의 편평상피세포암 환자에서 외부방사선치료의 결과)

  • Jang, Ji-Young
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The best treatment for advanced esophageal cancer is chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. In spite of the advance of multimodality therapy, most patients with esophageal cancer are treated with radiation therapy alone. This study reports the outcome of the use of conventional external beam radiotherapy alone for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2005, 30 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were treated with external beam radiotherapy using a total dose exceeding 40 Gy. Radiotherapy was delivered with a total dose of 44-60 Gy(median dose, 57.2 Gy) over $36{\sim}115$ days(median time, 45 days). Thirteen patients(43.3%) had a history of disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, tuberculosis, lye stricture, asthma, cerebral infarct, and cancers. Four patients metachronously had double primary cancers. The most common location of a tumor was the mid-thoracic portion of the esophagus(56.7%). Tumor lengths ranged from 2 cm to 11 cm, with a median length of 6 cm. For AJCC staging, stage III was the most common (63.3%). Five patients had metastases at diagnosis. Results: The median overall survival was 8.3 months. The survival rates at 1-year and 2-years were 33.3% and 18.7%, respectively. The complete response rate $1{\sim}3$ months after radiotherapy was 20%(6/30) and the partial response rate was 70%(21/30). Sixteen patients(53.3%) had an improved symptom of dysphagia. Significant prognostic factors were age, tumor length, stage, degree of dysphagia at the time of diagnosis and tumor response. Cox regression analysis revealed the aim of treatment, clinical tumor response and tumor length as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Twenty-eight patients had local failure and another four patients had metastases. Three patients were detected with double primary cancers in this analysis. A complication of esophageal stricture was observed in three patients(10%), and radiation pneumonitis occurred in two patients(6.7%). Conclusion: The prognosis of esophageal cancer remains poor, in spite of advances in radiotherapy techniques. Radiotherapy is one of the main treatment modalities for the relief of dysphagia and treatment related complications are minimal. It is expected that the addition of chemotherapy or another systemic modality to radiotherapy will improve tumor control and increase the survival rate in advanced esophageal cancer.

PSYCHIATRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD PATIENTS WITH INVERSION OF CHROMOSOME 9 - A PRELIMINARY STUDY - (9번 염색체 전위를 지닌 환아들의 정신과적 특성 - 예비적 연구 -)

  • Lee, Jun-Young;Hwang, Jun-Won;Hong, Kang-E;Kim, Jae-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2001
  • Objectives:Few studies have examined the psychiatric properties or child developmental problems associated with inversion of chromosome 9. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychiatric properties of child patients who have inversion of chromosome 9, focused on behavioral problems and child developmental problems like motor or language developmental delay, intellectual impairment, and growth retardation. Methods:1) The authors examined the cases referred for cytogenetic examination from 1984 to 2000 at Seoul National University Hospital in Korea. The cases with the examination result of inversion of chromosome 9 were collected and informations about the departments which referred and the main reasons for referral were also checked. 2) 12 child subjects with inversion of chromosome 9 and their parents underwent psychiatric interview and parent questionnaire(child and adolescent past history questionnare, CBCL). 45 normal students whose sex and age were matched to patients were selected as a control group. Results:1) There were 165 cases of inversion of chromosome 9. The major departments which referred were Obstetrics and Gynecology(47.3%), Pediatrics(23.6%) and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry(17.0%). The major reasons for referral from the Pediatrics and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry department (67 cases total) were intellectual impairment(35.8%), language or motor developmental delay(31.3%), suspected Fragile X syndrome(23.9%), and growth retardation(20.9%). 2) Compared to normal control group, the rate to be included in the clinical range with regard to the social problems profile was higher in patient group according to the CBCL results. The patient group had language and motor developmental delay. Conclusion:There is a possibility of inversion of chromosome 9 to be associated with child developmental problems or behavioral problems. This study is the first approach to evaluate the developmental aspects associated with inversion of chromosome 9.

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