• Title, Summary, Keyword: hazard mitigation

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Prediction of Loss of Life in Downstream due to Dam Break Flood (댐 붕괴 홍수로 인한 하류부 인명피해 예측)

  • Lee, Jae Young;Lee, Jong Seok;Kim, Ki Young
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.47 no.10
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    • pp.879-889
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    • 2014
  • In this study, to estimate loss of life considered flood characteristics using the relationship derived from analysis of historical dam break cases and the factors determining loss of life, the loss of life module applying in LIFESim and loss of life estimation by means of a mortality function were suggested and applicability for domestic dam watershed was examined. The flood characteristics, such as water depth, flow velocity and arrival time were simulated by FLDWAV model and flood risk area were predicted by using inundation depth. Based on this, the effects of warning, evacuation and shelter were considered to estimate the number of people exposed to the flood. In order to estimate fatality rates based on the exposed population, flood hazard zone is assigned to three different zones. Then, total fatality numbers were predicted after determining lethality or mortality function for each zone. In the future, the prediction of loss of life due to dam break floods will quantitatively evaluate flood risk and employ to establish flood mitigation measures at downstream applying probabilistic flood scenarios.

A Study on Validation for Mapping of Gas Detectors at a BTX Plant (BTX 공정에서 Gas Detector Mapping 적정성 검토에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Ji Hye;Han, Man Hyoeng;Kim, Il Kwon;Chon, Young Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.168-178
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    • 2017
  • In order to prevent major and chemical accidents, some of the plants which would like to install and operate hazard chemicals handling facilities must submit Off-site Consequence Analysis due to recent arisen leak accidents since 2015. A lot of chemical industrials choose gas detectors as mitigation equipment to early detect gas vapor. The way of placement of gas detectors has two methods; Code-based Design(CBD) and Performance-based Design. The CBD has principles for gas detectors to be installed with consideration for the place that is expected to accumulate gas, and the leak locations according to legal standards and technical guidelines, and has a possibility to be unable to detect by these rules to locate gas detectors by vapor density information. The PBD has two methods; a Geographic Method and Scenario based Method. The Scenario-based Method has been suggested to make up for the Geographic Coverage Method. This Scenario-based Method draw the best optimum placement of gas detectors by considering leak locations, leak speed information, leak directions and etc. However, the domestic placement guidelines just refers to the CBD. Therefore, this study is to compare existing placement location of gas detectors by the domestic CBD with placement locations, coverages and the number of gas detectors in accordance with the Scenario-based Method. Also this study has measures for early detecting interest of Vapor Cloud and suitable placement of gas detectors to prevent chemical accidents. The Phast software was selected to simulate vapor cloud dispersion to predict the consequence. There are two cases; an accident hole size of leak(8 mm) from API which is the highst accident hole size less than 24.5 mm, and a normal leak hole size from KOSHA Guide (1.8 mm). Detect3D was also selected to locate gas detectors efficiently and compare CBD results and PBD results. Currently, domestic methods of gas detectors do not consider any risk, but just depend on domestic code methods which lead to placement of gas detectors not to make personnels recognize tolerable or intolerable risks. The results of the Scenario-based Method, however, analyze the leak estimated range by simulating leak dispersion, and then it is able to tell tolerable risks. Thus it is considered that individuals will be able to place gas detectors reasonably by making objectives and roles flexibly according to situations in a specific plant.

A Study on Regulation Improvement of Local Ventilation System (국소배기장치의 규제개선에 관한 연구)

  • kim, Nam Suk;Kim, Young Suk;Woo, In Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2018
  • Anyone who wants to install local ventilation system must obtain a permission from the Ministry of Employment and Labor even if he has permission from the Ministry of Environment. This is because not only the Atmospheric Environmental Protection Act, but also the manufacturing industry's hazardous risk prevention plan under Article 48 Clause 2 of the Industrial Safety and Health Act is to be submitted by 15 days before the construction. Under the current Environmental Protection Act, the Ministry of Environment regulates only the emission of pollutants from local exhaust ventilation systems into the atmosphere and the contents of workers' safety and health within industrial sites are managed by the Ministry of Employment and Labor. Even with the approval of the Ministry of Environment, the number of unsuccessful cases by the Ministry of Employment and Labor has increased, causing a growing discontent among the sites due to production delays and additional costs of improvement. In addition, local exhaust systems that are at greater risk of fire explosion have increased the risk of severe industrial accidents due to fire explosion. This is due to insufficient design of air volume, control speed, return speed, duct size, and risk of fire explosion. This is because the criteria and procedures for approval of local exhaust ventilation systems are similar, but the Industrial Safety and Health Act adds additional screening items for safety and safety of workers and fire and explosion. In this study, the Environment Ministry and the Employment and Labor Ministry seek to find a reasonable way to operate the system by comparing local exhaust ventilation system installation approval standards.

A Study on the Status of Low-rise Buildings (국내 저층 건축물의 현황에 관한 고찰)

  • Park, Hong-Shin
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.28-28
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    • 2011
  • 국내의 건축물에 관한 통계정보는 국토해양부에 의해서 공표된 통계연보로서 2002년부터 매년마다 제공되고 있다.(국토해양통계누리, https : //stat.mltm.go.kr/potal/stat/yearReport.do) 건축물의 통계연보는 과거부터 2002년까지 매 3년마다 공표된 것으로 알려지고 있다. 이 통계연보에는 건축물 현황과 건축허가착공 통계가 수록되어 있다. 건축물 현황에는 2009년 말을 기준으로 기존 건축물이 전체 6,618,131동으로서 용도별, 층수와 연면적별 그리고 소유구분별 등의 구분에 따라 건축물의 동수에 관한 통계자료가 포함돼 있다. 건축허가 및 착공통계에는 용도별과 구조재료별의 분류에 따라 건축물의 동수에 관한 자료가 신축, 증축 개축 이전 대수선, 용도변경 등으로 분류되어 수록돼 있다. 한편 국내에서 건축물에 대한 내진설계기준이 1988년에 제정됨에 따라 법제화되었다. 이때 내진설계의 의무 대상건축물은 6층 이상 또는 연면적 1만$m^2$이상인 건축물로 규정되었다. 그 이후 내진설계 대상 건축물이 1996년부터 아파트는 5층 이상으로, 판매시설은 연면적 5천$m^2$이상으로 확대되었고, 2000년부터 숙박시설 오피스텔 및 기숙사는 5층 이상으로 확대되었으며, 2005년부터 내진설계 의무화 대상이 3층 이상 또는 1천$m^2$이상으로 확대되었고, 2009년부터 3층 이상 건축물의 구조안전의 확인을 위한 세부절차를 규정하여 내진설계의 실효성을 확보하고 있다. 이와 같이 내진설계의 대상 건축물이 내진설계기준을 제정한 이후 현재까지 시대의 흐름에 따라 6층 이상에서 5층 이상으로 다시 3층 이상으로 계속 확대되어왔다. 이런 환경에서 현재 시점에서 사용 중인 기존 건축물 중에 내진설계가 적용되지 아니한 건축물은 1988년 3월 1일 이전에 건축허가 된 건축물과 그 이후에 건축허가 된 3층 내지 5층 이하인 저층 건축물의 두 가지로 구분할 수 있다. 이들의 내진설계가 미적용 된 건축물에 대해서는 원칙적으로 내진보강 대책 수립 및 추진이 필요한 실정이다. 국내에서는 현재 지진재해대책법에 따라 지진재해로부터 국민의 생명과 재산을 보호하기 위하여 기존 시설물에 대한 내진대책을 추진하는 정책이 시행되고 있다. 앞으로는 이 정책의 일환으로 기존 건축물의 내진성능 확보를 위한 내진보강 대책이 구체적으로 추진될 전망이다. 이와 같이 기존 건축물에 대한 내진보강 대책을 수립하는 데는 무엇보다 그 대상 건축물의 수와 구조형식에 관한 정보가 필요하다. 이는 내진보강의 방법과 소요비용이 건축물의 층수 및 구조형식별 동수에 따라 크게 달라지기 때문이다. 이런 관점에서 살펴볼 때 내진대책의 수립에 필수인 기존 저층 건축물의 층수 및 구조형식별 동수에 관한 통계자료를 현재 건축물의 현황통계에서 손쉽게 찾아 볼 수 있으면 좋겠는데 현실은 그렇지 못한 실정이다. 현재 건축물의 현황통계에는 저층 건축물에 해당하는 층수에 관한 구분이 연대에 따라 다르고 구체적인 층수를 구분하기 어렵게 불분명한 항목으로 구성된 것과 구조형식별 분류항목이 없는 형편이다. 반면에 건축허가 및 착공통계자료에는 구조재료별 건축물 동수와 연면적에 관한 자료가 수록되어있고, 건축물 층수에 따라 분류된 통계자료는 없다. 이 연구에서는, 기존 건축물에 대한 내진보강 대책을 수립하는데 필요한 저층 건축물의 층수 및 구조재료별 동수 등에 관한 구체적인 정보를 파악하기 위하여, 건축물 통계연보에 수록된 건축물 현황통계자료에서 불명확하거나 결여된 정보를 건축허가 및 착공 통계자료로부터 얻은 정보로 보완과 보충하여 제시하고 있다. 따라서 이 연구는 기존 건축물의 내진보강 대책 수립에 필요한 5층 이하의 저층 건축물에 관한 층수별 및 구조형식별 동수에 관한 연도별 통계자료를 추정하여 제안하는데 그 목적이 있다.

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A study on measures for the mitigation of fire damage in Korea super high-rise building through the improvement of domestic·foreign standards (국·내외 기준개선을 통한 국내 초고층 건축물의 화재피해경감 대책에 관한 연구)

  • Ko, Jaesun
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.233-248
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    • 2017
  • Uniform laws and regulations and reasonable design is necessary for the prevention of possible fire in super high-rise building. To this end, this study focused on super high-rise and massive building-related architectural review performance-based design (PBD) evaluation disaster impact assessment (DIA), and provided fire engineering measures for improving fire prevention on the basis of performance-based design by analyzing the buildings subject to these systems and problems in terms of contents. Above all, in the aspect of law and standard improvement, first, with regard to dual parts of two statutes though significant portion of them has the same contents in performance-based design (PBD) evaluation and disaster impact assessment (DIA), it is necessary to operate the systems after making them conform with each other and consolidating or abolishing them. Second, if it is impossible to consolidate or abolish performance-based design (PBD) evaluation and disaster impact assessment (DIA), the areas of contents of performance-based design (PBD) evaluation and disaster impact assessment (DIA) should be precisely classified and established. Next, engineering improvement measures against fire hazard in super high-rise building are as follows. First, it is necessary to revise the provisions of straight-run stairs in special escape stairs. And in case of installing a mechanical smoke exhaust system instead of smoke vent, sandwich pressurization used in the United Stated should be permitted. Second, with regard to smoke control system for special escape stairs, it was shown that there was necessity for revising the standards in order to enable air to be supplied according to section in case of fire, carrying out performance-based design, and the like from the early design stages to the completion stages. In the future, it is expected that an epoch-making contribution will be made to a decrease in casualties and property damage due to fire in case of super high-rise building where the results can be reflected after carrying out a study on maintenance and carrying out an additional study on other considerations of super high-rise building together with reflecting the improvement measures provided in the above-mentioned study.

Development of a deep-learning based tunnel incident detection system on CCTVs (딥러닝 기반 터널 영상유고감지 시스템 개발 연구)

  • Shin, Hyu-Soung;Lee, Kyu-Beom;Yim, Min-Jin;Kim, Dong-Gyou
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.915-936
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    • 2017
  • In this study, current status of Korean hazard mitigation guideline for tunnel operation is summarized. It shows that requirement for CCTV installation has been gradually stricted and needs for tunnel incident detection system in conjunction with the CCTV in tunnels have been highly increased. Despite of this, it is noticed that mathematical algorithm based incident detection system, which are commonly applied in current tunnel operation, show very low detectable rates by less than 50%. The putative major reasons seem to be (1) very weak intensity of illumination (2) dust in tunnel (3) low installation height of CCTV to about 3.5 m, etc. Therefore, an attempt in this study is made to develop an deep-learning based tunnel incident detection system, which is relatively insensitive to very poor visibility conditions. Its theoretical background is given and validating investigation are undertaken focused on the moving vehicles and person out of vehicle in tunnel, which are the official major objects to be detected. Two scenarios are set up: (1) training and prediction in the same tunnel (2) training in a tunnel and prediction in the other tunnel. From the both cases, targeted object detection in prediction mode are achieved to detectable rate to higher than 80% in case of similar time period between training and prediction but it shows a bit low detectable rate to 40% when the prediction times are far from the training time without further training taking place. However, it is believed that the AI based system would be enhanced in its predictability automatically as further training are followed with accumulated CCTV BigData without any revision or calibration of the incident detection system.

Study on Standardization of the Environmental Impact Evaluation Method of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields near High Voltage Overhead Transmission Lines (고압 가공송전선로의 극저주파자기장 환경영향평가 방법 표준화에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Ae;Jung, Joonsig;Choi, Taebong;Jeong, Minjoo;Kim, Bu-Kyung;Lee, Jongchun
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.658-673
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    • 2018
  • Social conflicts with extremely low frequency magnetic field(ELF-MF) exposures are expected to exacerbate due to continued increase in electric power demand and construction of high voltage transmission lines(HVTL). However, in current environmental impact assessment(EIA) act, specific guidelines have not been included concretely about EIA of ELF-MF. Therefore, this study conducted a standardization study on EIA method through case analysis, field measurement, and expert consultation of the EIA for the ELF-MF near HVTL which is the main cause of exposures. The status of the EIA of the ELF-MF and the problem to be improved are derived and the EIA method which can solve it is suggested. The main contents of the study is that the physical characteristics of the ELF-MF affected by distance and powerload should be considered at all stages of EIA(survey of the current situation - Prediction of the impacts - preparation of mitigation plan ? post EIA planning). Based on this study, we also suggested the 'Measurement method for extremely low frequency magnetic field on transmission line' and 'Table for extremely low frequency magnetic field measurement record on transmission line'. The results of this study can be applied to the EIA that minimizes the damage and conflict to the construction of transmission line and derives rational measures at the present time when the human hazard to long term exposure of the ELF-MF is unclear.