• Title, Summary, Keyword: harmful algal bloom

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Phylogenetic Analysis of Dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polygramma SteinResponsible for Harmful Algal Blooms Based on the Partial LSU rDNASequence Data

  • Kim, Keun-Yong;Kim, Young-Soo;Hwang, Choul-Hee;Lee, Chang-Kyu;Lim, Wol-Ae;Kim, Chang-Hoon
    • ALGAE
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.283-286
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    • 2006
  • This study carried out phylogenetic analysis of dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polygramma which was responsible for a harmful algal bloom episode in Korea in 2004. Molecular phylogenetic tree inferred from the partial LSU rDNA data showed that G. polygramma came up among the monophyletic Gonyaulax clade, but did not have apparent genetic affiliation to other Gonyaulax species. This result appears to be consistent with characteristic morphological features of G. polygramma such as epitheca sharply tapering to the apex and thecal plates ornamented with numerous longitudinal striations.

OCEANOGRAPHIC EVENTS AT NORTHERN BORNEO AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS

  • Knee, Tan Chun;Ishizaka, Joji;Ransi, Varis;Son, Tong Phuoc Hoang;Tripathy, Sarat Chandra;Siswanto, Eko
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • v.1
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    • pp.491-494
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    • 2006
  • The west coast of Northern Borneo is strongly influenced by Asian monsoon. Present research using the satellite ocean color (OC) remote sensing has identified some interesting oceanographic phenomena in this area that could be related to the harmful algal blooms (HAB). Occurrence of seasonal upwelling event was noticed off the northern tip of Borneo Island that could be related to the northeast monsoon wind. Harmful algal blooms by Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum occurred since 1976. Subsequently, during December 2003, there was a report of new HAB by Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Northern Borneo. Analysis of OC images revealed that the Cochlodinium bloom had very high chlorophyll a signal and strong absorption characteristics. Results showed that the Baram River plume and upwelling at Northern Borneo were the source of nutrient for the Cochlodinium bloom in the offshore region. Ocean color images of 2004 showed that the bloom from Northern Borneo had crossed the Balabac Straits, reaching Palawan Island in Philippine. Due to the possibility of transboundary HAB problem, we propose a regional HAB monitoring network for an effective HAB management.

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Ichthyotoxicity of a harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides: Aspect of biochemical and hematological responses of fish exposed to Algal blooms

  • Kim, Chang-Sook;Bae, Heon-Meen;Cho, Yong-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.141-142
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    • 2000
  • To elucidate the ichthyotoxic mechanisms of a harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides, biochemical and hematological responses of fish exposed to blooms were investigated. Particularly, based on our finding that oxidative damages of gill were associated with fish mortality, dysfunction of ion-transporting enzymes and secretion of gill mucus of fish exposed to this bloom species were examined. (omitted)

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A study on the management and improvement of alert system according to algal bloom in the Daecheong Reservoir (대청호 조류발생에 따른 경보제 운영 및 개선 방안 고찰)

  • Jeong, Dong-Hwan;Lee, Jaejeong;Kim, Kyoyoung;Lee, Daehee;Hong, Sunhwa;Yoon, Johee;Hong, Sukyoung;Kim, Taeseung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.915-925
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    • 2011
  • Following the industrialization and urbanization in Korea, algal bloom causes aesthetic displeasure and many other problems such as taste and odor, coloration, scum, increase in pH, filter-bed blockage. There were some cases involving human death by microcystins during summertime in foreign countries. In Korea, Harmful cyanobacteria such as Microcystis and Anabaena develop in summer in the Daecheong reservoir, one of the main water resources, with the retention time of above 200 days. To better control algal bloom, the Ministry of Environment has been running algal bloom alert system from 1998 for the Daecheong reservoir, which needs to be improved to reflect the characteristics of river-type lakes. For this reason, we try to find new measures to improve an algal bloom alert system for each water zone considering the characteristics of harmful cyanobacteria in this study.

Timing for the First Appearance of Swimming Cells of Harmful Algae, Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Their Growth Characteristics in the South Sea of Korea

  • Lee, Chang-Kyu;Jung, Chang-Su;Lee, Sam-Geun;Kim, Suk-Yang;Lim, Wol-Ae;Kim, Hak-Gyoon;Kang, Young-Sil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.204-205
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    • 2001
  • Manful algae, Cochlodinium polykrikoides has damaged to fisheries organisms by making massive blooms mainly in the South Sea during the higher water temperature season since 1995 in Korea. Ecological and hydrodynamic studies of the species offer useful information in understanding its bloom mechanism giving promising data for the modeling and prediction of the blooms. (omitted)

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Characteristics of Photosynthetic Pigments during the Outbreak of Harmful Algal Bloom at the South Coastal Area in the Korean Sea Waters

  • Kim, Sook-Yang;Lim, Woel-Ae;Kang, Young-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2010
  • Cochlodinium polykrikoides has occurs regularly during the summer in the South Sea of Korea. To investigate photosynthetic pigments concerned with phytoplankton community structure as bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides, the experiment was sampled at 20 stations three times between July and September 2002 in the Southern Sea of Korea. The distribution of peridinin, the biomarker of dinoflagellate, was higher at the blooming time than it was before and it disappeared after bloom. The correlative coefficients between Chl. a and peridinin at the blooming time and out of bloom were 0.9253 and 0.1613, respectively. This result indicated that the bloom was caused by dinoflagellate. The correlative coefficients between Chl. a and fucoxanthin were 0.3282 and 0.9759, respectively, and the correlative coefficients showed the succession from dinoflagellate to diatom. This result means that the bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides can be detected by Chl. a information from satellite remote sensing. Therefore, if the algorithm to detect peridinin in addition to Chl. a were to be developed, dinoflagellate red tide could be monitored more effectively.

The Spatio-Temporal Progress of Cochlodinium polykrikoides Blooms in the Coastal Waters of Korea (한국연안의 Cochlodinium polykrikoides 적조 발생과 변천)

  • KIM Hak Gyoon;JUNG Chang-Su;LIM Wol-Ae;LEE Chang-Kyu;KIM Sook-Yang;YOUN Sung-Hwa;CHO Yong-Chul;LEE Sam-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.691-696
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    • 2001
  • The first bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides was observed in the estuary of Nak-dong river near Pusan in Korea in 1982. Since then, there have been irregular blooms, sometimes spread over the adjoining .to Jinhae Bay even though it was confined to the bay and its vicinites until 1988. It had been outbroken frequently in the adjacent to Tongyeong, Geoje, Namhae and Yeosu coast since 1989. It became widespread along the coast of the South Sea to the East Sea of Korea in 1995. And in October in 1998 and 1999, the bloom had been taken place in Kunsan coast of Yellow Sea. According to the observations in situ, the frequency of occurrence has been increased year by year. The prevailing bloom season was from July to October with peak in September. The duration of the bloom became longer with the year, and sometimes lasted more than one month. The density of the bloom did not exceed 5,000 cells $mL^{-1}$until 1991, but it increased year by year to the highest of 43,000 cells $mL^{-1}$ in 1999. With respect to the assembleges of species in dinoflagellate blooms, C. polykrikoides was one of the important species with diatoms and the other dinoflagellates in 1980s. But since then, C. polykrikoides made an almost monospecific bloom. Based on two decadal observations of C. polykrikoides blooms, it became widespread throughout whole coast of the Korea, persistent for about one or two month long in some year, and monospecisc high density blooms. It was reported that significant fish mortalities were caused by this harmful dinoflagellate blooms especially in the fishfarms accomodating intensive fish cages such as Tongyeong, Namhae-do, Geoje, Yeosu and Geomun-do fishfarming yards. This widespread and persistent harmful algal blooms impede the development of marine aquaculture industries.

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The Algicidal Activity of Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 and its Algicide against Alexandrium catenella and other Harmful Algal Bloom Species (Alexandrium catenella와 유해성 적조종에 대한 Arthrobacter sp. NH-3와 살조물질의 살조능)

  • Jeong, Seong-Yun;Jeoung, Nam Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify algicidal bacterium that tends to kill the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, and to determine the algicidal activity and algicidal range of algicide. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among of algicidal bacteria isolated in this study, NH-3 isolate was the strongest algicidal activity against A. catenella. NH-3 isolate was identified on the basis of biochemical characteristics and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The NH-3 isolate showed over 99% homology with Arthrobacter oxydans, and was designated as Arthrobacter sp. NH-3. The optimal culture conditions were $25^{\circ}C$, initial pH 7.0, and 2.0% (w/v) NaCl concentration. The algicidal activity of Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 was significantly increased to maximum value in the late of logarithmic phase. Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 showed algicidal activity through indirect attack, which excreted active substance into the culture filtrate. When 10% culture filtrate of NH-3 was applied to A. catenella, 100% of algal cells were destroyed within 30 h. In addition, the algicidal activities were increased in dose and time dependent manners. The pure algicide was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate of NH-3 by using silica gel column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We investigated the algicidal activity of this algicide on the growth of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, including A. catenella. As a result, it showed algicidal activity against several HAB species at a concentration of $100{\mu}g/mL$ and had a relatively wide host range. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest that Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 and its algicide could be a candidate for controlling of toxic and harmful algal blooms.

Phylogenetic Analysis of Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB)-Causing Dinoflagellates Along the Korean Coasts, Based on SSU rRNA Gene

  • Kim, Se-Hee;Kim, Keun-Yong;Kim, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Woo-Sung;Chang, Man;Lee, Jung-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.959-966
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    • 2004
  • Twenty-three cultures of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-(causing dinoflagellates were isolated from the coastal waters of Korea. For each of the 14 morphospecies, the nuclearencoded small subunit (SSU) rDNA was analyzed to determine the phylogenetic relatedness of the species. Despite temporal and spatial isolation, 3-4 clonal cultures of Alexandrium catenella, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, and Gymnodinium catenatum had 100% identical SSU rDNA sequences. In contrast, heterogeneities in the SSU rDNA sequences were observed in Akashiwo sanguinea and Lingulodinium polyedrum strains. Extreme sequence polymorphism was shown within the SSU rRNA genes of an Al. tamarense clonal culture. A homology search in GenBank revealed that 11 dinoflagellate species were located in clusters corresponding to their morphological classification. The SSU rDNA sequences of C. polykrikoides, Gyrodinium instriatum, and Pheopolykrikos hartmannii, which were determined for the first time in this study, showed the following phylogenetic relationships: C. polykrikoides formed an independent branch separated from other dinoflagellates; Gyr. instriatum was placed in a monophyletic group with Gyr. dorsum and Gyr. uncatenum; and Ph. hartmanii, which forms a distinct two-celled pseudocolony, belonged to Gymnodinium sensu Hansen and Moestrup.

Eco-friendly Control of Harmful Algal Bloom Species Using Biological Predators (포식성 천적생물을 이용한 친환경 유해조류 제어기술 개발)

  • Kim, Sok;Lee, Changsu;Vo, Thi-Thao;Han, Sang-Il;Choi, Yoon-E
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2016
  • This study presents the potentiality of harmful algal bloom (HAB) control through the zooplankton, Daphnia magna. In case of co-cultivated D. magna with cyanobacteriums (Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena variabilis, and Limnothrix planctonica), the D. magna showed the $80.2{\pm}4.2%$, $39.7{\pm}4.0%$, and $25.9{\pm}10.9%$ of control efficiency for M. aeruginosa, A. variabilis and L. planctonica, respectively. Furthermore, algal control was investigated by using supernatant including metabolite/secretion of D. magna. The algal control efficiencies of supernatant were recorded as $24.9{\pm}9.9%$ and $8.9{\pm}4.0%$ for M. aeruginosa and A. variabilis, respectively. From the results of present study, it may be possible to provide a feasible way for development of eco-friendly HAB control methods.