• Title/Summary/Keyword: ginsenoside Rh2

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Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells via $G_0/G_1$ phase arrest and induction of differentiation

  • Cho, Seoung-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 2006
  • 1 The present work was performed to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on proliferation, cell cycle-regulation and differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms for these effects. 2 Ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in both a dose- and time-dependent manner with an $IC_{50}$, $20{\mu}M$. 3 DNA flow-cytometry indicated that ginsenoside Rh2 markedly induced a $G_1$ phase arrest of HL-60 cells. 4 Among the $G_1$ phase cell cycle-related proteins, the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK)4, 6 and cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 were reduced by ginsenoside Rh2, whereas the steadystate levels of CDK2 and cyclin E were unaffected. 5 The protein levels of a CDK inhibitor p16, $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ were markedly increased by ginsenoside Rh2. 6 Ginsenoside Rh2 markedly enhanced the binding of $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ with CDK2 and CDK6, resulting in the reduced activity of both kinases and the hypophosphorylation of Rb protein. 7 We furthermore suggest that ginsenoside Rh2 is a potent inducer of the differentiation of HL-60 cells, based on observations such as a reduction of the nitroblue tetrazolium level, an increase in the esterase activities and phagocytic activity, morphology changes, and the expression of CD11b, CD14, CD64 and CD66b surface antigens. 8 In conclusion, the onset of ginsenoside Rh2-induced the $G_0/G_1$ arrest of HL-60 cells prior to the differentiation is linked to a sharp up-regulation of the $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ level and a decrease in the CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 activities. This is the first report demonstrating that ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibits the proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells via the $G_1$ phase cell cycle arrest and differentiation induction.

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AMP-activated protein kinase determines apoptotic sensitivity of cancer cells to ginsenoside-Rh2

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Yun, Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kang, Insug;Choe, Wonchae;Kim, Sung-Soo;Ha, Joohun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2014
  • Ginseng saponins exert various important pharmacological effects with regard to the control of many diseases, including cancer. In this study, the anticancer effect of ginsenosides on human cancer cells was investigated and compared. Among the tested compounds, ginsenoside-Rh2 displays the highest inhibitory effect on cell viability in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside-Rh2, a ginseng saponin isolated from the root of Panax ginseng, has been suggested to have potential as an anticancer agent, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we have shown that cancer cells have differential sensitivity to ginsenoside-Rh2-induced apoptosis, raising questions regarding the specific mechanisms responsible for the discrepant sensitivity to ginsenoside-Rh2. In this study, we demonstrate that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a survival factor under ginsenoside-Rh2 treatment in cancer cells. Cancer cells with acute responsiveness of AMPK display a relative resistance to ginsenoside-Rh2, but cotreatment with AMPK inhibitor resulted in a marked increase of ginsenoside-Rh2-induced apoptosis. We also observed that p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) acts as another survival factor under ginsenoside-Rh2 treatment, but there was no signaling crosstalk between AMPK and p38 MAPK, suggesting that combination with inhibitor of AMPK or p38 MAPK can augment the anticancer potential of ginsenoside Rh2.

Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Apoptosis via Activation of Caspase-1 and -3 and Up-Regulation of Bax in Human Neuroblastoma

  • Kim, Young-Soak;Jin, Sung-Ha
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.834-839
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    • 2004
  • In human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2) cells undergoing apoptotic death induced by ginsenos-ide Rh2, a dammarane glycoside that was isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, caspase-1 and caspase-3 were activated. The expression of Bax was increased in the cells treated with ginsenoside Rh2, whereas Bcl-2 expression was not altered. Treatment with caspase-1 inhibi-tor, Ac-YVAD-CMK, or caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK, partially inhibited ginsenoside Rh2-induced cell death but almost suppressed the cleavage of the 116 kDa PARP into a 85 kDa fragment. When the levels of p53 were examined in this process, p53 accumulated rapidly in the cells treated early with ginsenoside Rh2. These results suggest that activation of caspase-1 and -3 and the up-regulation of Bax are required in order for apoptotic death of SK-N-BE(2) cells to be induced by ginsenoside Rh2, and p53 plays an important role in the pathways to promote apoptosis.

Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Apoptosis Independently of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, or Bax in C6Bu-1 Cells

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Jin, Sung-Ha;Lee, You-Hui;Kim, Shin-Il;Park, Jong-Dae
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.448-453
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    • 1999
  • In ginsenoside Rh2-treated rat glioma C6Bu-1 cells, apoptotic morphological changes, such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and pyknosis were confirmed by means of electron microscopy. To evaluate whether induction of apoptosis by ginsenoside Rh2 is mediated by the members of Bcl-2 family, we first established C6Bu-1 cells overexpressing Bcl-2. It was demonstrated that the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bax was not altered in ginsenoside Rh2-treated C6Bu-1 overexpressing C6Bu-1 cells failed to prevent from ginsenoside Rh2-induced cell death. These results suggest the existence of other apoptotic pathway that requires induction of apoptosis by ginsenoside Rh2 rather than the pathway through Bcl-2, $Bcl-x_{L}$ or Bax in C6Bu-1 cells.

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Preparation of $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$ from Dammarane Saponins of Panax ginseng Leaves (인삼잎의 Dammarane계 사포닌으로부터 $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$의 제조)

  • Cha, Bae-Cheon;Lee, Sang-Guk
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.425-429
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    • 1994
  • The genuine aglycone, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, obtained from the leaves of Panax ginseng as a result of direct alkaline treatment was isolated and characterized by spectroscopic evidences. The study on the yield of genuine aglycone which is produced from the treatment of some kinds of alkali was carried out. $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$ was synthesized by conjugation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-${\alpha}$-D-glucopyranosyl bromide to 20(S)-protopanaxadiol in the presence of silver carbonate and cadmium cabonate. The preparation of $ginsenoside-Rh_2$ by this method is a new one which the yield of this saponin can be improved in the mild condition.

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Production of the Rare Ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3) by Enzymatic Conversion Combined with Acid Treatment and Evaluation of Its Anti-Cancer Activity

  • Song, Bong-Kyu;Kim, Kyeng Min;Choi, Kang-Duk;Im, Wan-Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1233-1241
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    • 2017
  • The ginsenoside Rh2 has strong anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the application of ginsenoside Rh2 is restricted because of the small amounts found in Korean white and red ginsengs. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (comprising 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3 as a 10-g unit) with high specificity, yield, and purity, a new combination of enzymatic conversion using the commercial enzyme Viscozyme L followed by acid treatment was developed. Viscozyme L treatment at pH 5.0 and $50^{\circ}C$ was used initially to transform the major ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd into ginsenoside F2, followed by acid-heat treatment using citric acid 2% (w/v) at pH 2.0 and $121^{\circ}C$ for 15 min. Scale-up production in a 10-L jar fermenter, using 60 g of the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside mixture from ginseng roots, produced 24 g of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX. Using 2 g of Rh2-MIX, 131 mg of 20(S)-Rh2, 58 mg of 20(R)-Rh2, 47 mg of Rk2, and 26 mg of Rh3 were obtained at over 98% chromatographic purity. Then, the anti-cancer effect of the four purified ginsenosides was investigated on B16F10, MDA-MB-231, and HuH-7 cell lines. As a result, these four rare ginsenosides markedly inhibited the growth of the cancer cell lines. These results suggested that rare ginsenoside Rh2-MIX could be exploited to prepare an anti-cancer supplement in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

Glycosyltransformation of ginsenoside Rh2 into two novel ginsenosides using recombinant glycosyltransferase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its in vitro applications

  • Wang, Dan-Dan;Kim, Yeon-Ju;Baek, Nam In;Mathiyalagan, Ramya;Wang, Chao;Jin, Yan;Xu, Xing Yue;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.48-57
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    • 2021
  • Background: Ginsenoside Rh2 is well known for many pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, antidiabetes, antiinflammatory, and antiobesity properties. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are ubiquitous enzymes present in nature and are widely used for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycoconjugates, and novel derivatives. We aimed to synthesize new ginsenosides from Rh2 using the recombinant GT enzyme and investigate its cytotoxicity with diverse cell lines. Methods: We have used a GT gene with 1,224-bp gene sequence cloned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LRGT) and then expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant GT protein was purified and demonstrated to transform Rh2 into two novel ginsenosides, and they were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: Two novel ginsenosides with an additional glucopyranosyl (6→1) and two additional glucopyranosyl (6→1) linked with the C-3 position of the substrate Rh2 were synthesized, respectively. Cell viability assay in the lung cancer (A549) cell line showed that glucosyl ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited cell viability more potently than ginsenoside Rg3 and Rh2 at a concentration of 10 μM. Furthermore, glucosyl ginsenoside Rh2 did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect in murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7), mouse embryo fibroblasts cells (3T3-L1), and skin cells (B16BL6) at a concentration of 10 μM compared with ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg3. Conclusion: This is the first report on the synthesis of two novel ginsenosides, namely, glucosyl ginsenoside Rh2 and diglucosyl ginsenoside Rh2 from Rh2 by using recombinant GT isolated from L. rhamnosus. Moreover, diglucosyl ginsenoside Rh2 might be a new candidate for treatment of inflammation, obesity, and skin whiting, and especially for anticancer.

Antiviral activity of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 against murine gammaherpesvirus

  • Kang, Soowon;Im, Kyungtaek;Kim, Geon;Min, Hyeyoung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.496-502
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    • 2017
  • Background: Ginsenosides are the major components of Panax ginseng Meyer, an herbal medicine used for the treatment of various diseases. Different ginsenosides contribute to the biological properties of ginseng, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effects of 15 ginsenosides and compound K on gammaherpesvirus. Methods: The antiviral activity of ginsenosides was examined using the plaque-forming assay and by analyzing the expression of the lytic gene. Results: 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited the replication and proliferation of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), and its half-maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50} $) against MHV-68 was estimated to be $2.77{\mu}M$. In addition, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced lytic replication of human gammaherpesvirus in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-positive cell line BC3. Conclusion: Our results indicate that 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 can inhibit the replication of mouse and human gammaherpesviruses, and thus, has the potential to treat gammaherpesvirus infection.

Antimetastatic and Antitumor Effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 and ${\beta}-glucan$ in Mice (Ginseniside Rh2와 베타 글루칸의 암세포 전이억제효과)

  • Lee, Chang-Hwan;Won, Eun-Kyung;Sung, Hyun-Jea;Choung, Se-Young
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.856-859
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    • 2007
  • We have investigated the antimetastatic and antitumor effects of Ginsenoside Rh2 and ${\beta}-glucan$ unsing an experimental metastatic mouse model intravenously injected with B 16 melanoma F 10 cells. Animal groups are divided into six groups according to the dosage of drug administration and the kind of drugs. The groups are control, ${\beta}-glucan$ with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, Geinsenoside Rh2 50 mg/kg, and ${\beta}-glucan$ 50 mg/kg + Ginsenoside Rh2 50 mg/kg. Oral administration of various concentration of ${\beta}-glucan$( 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were reduced the lung- metastatics induced by metastatic B16 melanoma F 10 cells injection with a dose dependent manner in the syngenic mice. At same dosage group, Ginsenoside Rh2 (50 mg/kg) has more antimetastatic effect than the ${\beta}-glucan$(50 mg/kg). The highest antimetastatic effects was observed in the ${\beta}-glucan$ 50 mg/kg + Ginsenoside Rh2 50 mg/kg group and has a similar tendency in the anti-tumor effects, including decrease of the average tumor weight and increase of the average survival rate. There are no differences of the average tumor weights were apparent in the ${\beta}-glucan$ groups, however there were little decrease of the average tumor weight in Ginsenoside 50 mg/kg group and ${\beta}-glucan$ 50 mg/kg + Ginsenoside Rh2 50 mg/kg group than that of the control group. The rate of average survival rate in the ${\beta}-glucan$ 50 mg/kg + Ginsenoside Rh2 50 mg/kg group, ${\beta}-glucan$ 200 mg/kg, ${\beta}-glucan$ 100 mg/kg and ${\beta}-glucan$ 50 mg/kg, and Ginsenoside 50 mg/kg groups were highly in order. These data suggest that antimetastatic and antitumor effect of combination of Ginsenodide Rh2 and ${\beta}-glucan$ be the highest in this study.

Antitumor effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 and $\beta$-glucan in mice

  • Lee, Chang-Hwan;Shim, Kyoo-Jung;Kim, Yun-Young;Choung, Se-Young
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.108.3-108
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    • 2003
  • In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effects of Ginsenoside Rh2 and $\beta$-glucan using an experimental metastatic mouse model intravenously injected with B 16 melanoma F10 cells. Oral administration to various concentration of $\beta$-glucan (50mg/kg, l00mg/kg and 200mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the lung-metastatic potential of metastatic BI6 melanoma F10 cells in syngenic mice. At same dose, Ginsenoside Rh2(50mg/kg) has more antitumor effect than $\beta$-glucan(50mg/kg). (omitted)

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