• Title, Summary, Keyword: gas hydrate

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Study on Characteristic of CO2 Hydrate Formation Using Micro-sized Ice (미세직경 얼음을 이용한 CO2 하이드레이트 제조특성 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Hyub;Kang, Seong-Pil
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.690-695
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    • 2012
  • Gas hydrate is an inclusion compound consisting of water and low molecular weight gases, which are incorporated into the lattice structure of water. Owing to its promising aspect to application technologies, gas hydrate has been widely studied recently, especially $CO_2$ hydrate for the CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) issue. The key point of $CO_2$ hydrate technology for the CCS is how to produce gas hydrate in an efficient and economic way. In this study, we have tried to study the characteristic of gas hydrate formation using micro-sized ice through an ultrasonic nozzle which generate 2.4 MHz frequency wave. $CO_2$ as a carrier gas brings micro-sized mist into low-temperature reactor, where the mist and carrier gas forms $CO_2$ hydrate under $-55^{\circ}C$ and atmospheric pressure condition and some part of the mist also remains unreacted micro-sized ice. Formed gas hydrate was average 10.7 of diameter at average. The starting ice particle was set to constant pressure to form $CO_2$ hydrate and the consumed amount of $CO_2$ gas was simultaneously measured to calculate the conversion of ice into gas hydrate. Results showed that the gas hydrate formation was highly suitable because of its extremely high gas-solid contact area, and the formation rate was also very high. Self-preservation effect of $CO_2$ hydrate was confirmed by the measurement of $CO_2$ hydrate powder at normal and at pressed state, which resulted that this kind of gas storage and transport could be feasible using $CO_2$ hydrate formation.

A Preliminary Study on Submarine Slope Failure of Gas Hydrate-bering Sediments (가스 하이드레이트가 매장된 해저사면의 붕괴에 관한 기초적 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.399-404
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    • 2008
  • The influence of gas hydrate dissociation on submarine slope stability was studied in this paper. Gas hydrates are stable under high pressure and low temperature conditions. Once gas hydrate dissociates due to natural or human activities, it generates large amount of gas and water. During gas hydrate dissociation, a pore pressure between soil particles increases and results in the loss of an effective stress and degradation of soil stiffness. A pore pressures model was proposed to calculated excess pore pressures generated by gas hydrate dissociation at the Storegga Slide. A slope stability analysis for the Storegga Slide using a two dimensional finite difference method was carried out by considering excess pore pressures due to gas hydrate dissociation. Since the excess pore pressure calculated by the proposed method resulted in the considerable loss of stiffness and strength in slope, a submarine slope failure occurred at the Storegga slide was well simulated.

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Drilling Gas Hydrate at Hydrate Ridge, ODP Leg 204

  • Lee Young-Joo;Ryu Byong-Jae;Kim Ji-Hoon;Lee Sang-Il
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.663-666
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    • 2005
  • Gas hydrates are ice-like compounds that form at the low temperature and high pressure conditions common in shallow marine sediments at water depths greater than 300-500 m when concentrations of methane and other hydrocarbon gases exceed saturation. Estimates of the total mass of methane carbon that resides in this reservoir vary widely. While there is general agreement that gas hydrate is a significant component of the global near-surface carbon budget, there is considerable controversy about whether it has the potential to be a major source of fossil fuel in the future and whether periods of global climate change in the past can be attributed to destabilization of this reservoir. Also essentially unknown is the interaction between gas hydrate and the subsurface biosphere. ODP Leg 204 was designed to address these questions by determining the distribution, amount and rate of formation of gas hydrate within an accretionary ridge and adjacent basin and the sources of gas for forming hydrate. Additional objectives included identification of geologic proxies for past gas hydrate occurrence and calibration of remote sensing techniques to quantify the in situ amount of gas hydrate that can be used to improve estimates where no boreholes exist. Leg 204 also provided an opportunity to test several new techniques for sampling, preserving and measuring gas hydrates. During ODP Leg 204, nine sites were drilled and cored on southern Hydrate Ridge, a topographic high in the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, located approximately 80km west of Newport, Oregon. Previous studies of southern Hydrate Ridge had documented the presence of seafloor gas vents, outcrops of massive gas hydrate, and a pinnacle' of authigenic carbonate near the summit. Deep-towed sidescan data show an approximately $300\times500m$ area of relatively high acoustic backscatter that indicates the extent of seafloor venting. Elsewhere on southern Hydrate Ridge, the seafloor is covered with low reflectivity sediment, but the presence of a regional bottom-simulating seismic reflection (BSR) suggests that gas hydrate is widespread. The sites that were drilled and cored during ODP Leg 204 can be grouped into three end-member environments basedon the seismic data. Sites 1244 through 1247 characterize the flanks of southern Hydrate Ridge. Sites 1248-1250 characterize the summit in the region of active seafloor venting. Sites 1251 and 1252 characterize the slope basin east of Hydrate Ridge, which is a region of rapid sedimentation, in contrast to the erosional environment of Hydrate Ridge. Site 1252 was located on the flank of a secondary anticline and is the only site where no BSR is observed.

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Experimental Investigation on the Enhancement of Gas Hydrate Formation for the Solid Transportation of Natural Gas (천연가스 고체화 수송을 위한 가스 하이드레이트 생성촉진에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Nam-Jin
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.399-402
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    • 2006
  • [ $1m^3$ ] solid hydrate contains up to $200m^3$ of natural gas, depending on pressure and temperature. Such large volume of natural gas hydrate can be utilized to store and transport large quantity of natural gas in a stable condition. So, in the present investigation, experiments carried out for the formation of natural gas hydrate governed by pressure, temperature, and gas compositions, etc.. The results show that the equilibrium pressure of structure II natural gas hydrate (is approximately 65% lower and the solubility is approximately three times higher than structure I methane hydrate). Also, the subcooling conditions of the structure I and II must be above 9K and 11K in order to form hydrate rapidly regardless of gas components, but the pressure increase is more advantageous than the temperature decrease in order to increase the gas consumption. And utilizing nozzles for spraying water in the form of droplets into the natural gas dramatically reduces the hydrate formation time and increases its solubility at the same time.

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Experimental Investigation on the Enhancement of Gas Hydrate Formation for tile Solid Transportation of Natural Gas (천연가스 고체화 수송을 위한 가스 하이드레이트 생성촉진에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim Nam-Jin
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2006
  • [ $1m^3$ ] solid hydrate contains up to $200m^3$ of natural gas, depending on pressure and temperature. Such large volume of natural gas hydrate can be utilized to store and transport large quantity of natural gas in a stable condition. So, in the present investigation, experiments carried out for the formation of natural gas hydrate governed by pressure, temperature, and gas compositions, etc.. The results show that the equilibrium pressure of structure II natural gas hydrate) is approximately 65% lower and the solubility is approximately three times higher than structure I methane hydrate). Also, the subcooling conditions of the structure I and II must be above 9K and 11K in order to form hydrate rapidly regardless of gas components, but the pressure increase is more advantageous than the temperature decrease in order to increase the gas consumption. And utilizing nozzles for spraying water in the form of droplets into the natural gas dramatically reduces the hydrate formation time and increases its solubility at the same time.

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The Economic Aspect of Gas Hydrate Development (경제성 측면에서의 가스하이드레이트 개발 가치)

  • Sin(Kim), Hwa-Young;Lee, Dong-Jun;Heo, Eun-Nyeong
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.107-110
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    • 2008
  • The price of natural gas import continues to rise, as well as its domestic consumption rate. This research examined the economic feasibility of domestically developing and producing gas hydrate to substitute imported natural gas. Today, the technology to commercially produce gas hydrate is still lacking; however, if the gas hydrate is able to be commercially produced domestically and replace imported natural gas, the annual economic benefit for the Republic of Korea would be 211 - 833 USD/ton. From the industry's point of view, gas hydrate is a high value investment since one can expect an annual profit of over 150USD/ton. The commercial value of gas hydrate development will increase as long as the natural gas market continues to expand and as the increase of natural gas consumption remains steady. With further development of technology, one can anticipate an even higher expected return on the investment.

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Effect of Oxidation Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Methane Hydrate Formation (산화탄소나노튜브를 이용한 메탄 하이드레이트 형성)

  • Park, Sung-Seek;Kim, Nam-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2010
  • Methane hydrate is crystalline ice-like compounds which formed methane gas enters within water molecules composed cavity and each other from physically-bond at specially temperature and pressure condition. $1m^3$ of methane hydrate can be decomposed into the maximum of $216m^3$ of methane gas under standard condition. If these characteristics of hydrate are utilized in the opposite sense, natural gas can be fixed into water in the form of a hydrate solid. Therefore the use of hydrate is considered to be a great way to transport and store natural gas in large quantity. However, when methane hydrate is formed artificially, the amount of gas that is consumed is relatively low, due to the slow reaction rate between water and methane gas. Therefore for practical purposes in the application, the present investigation focuses on increasing the amount of gas consumed by adding chemically oxidized OMWCNTs to pure water. The results show that when 0.003 wt% of oxidation multi-walled carbon nanotubes was added to pure water, the amount of gas consumed was almost four times more than that of pure water indicating its effect in hydrate formation and the hydrate formation time decreased at alow subcooling temperature.

Experimental Study on Optimal Generation of Methane Hydrate (가스하이드레이트 생성조건 최적화에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Yoon, Seok-Ho;Lee, Jung-Ho;Lee, Kong-Hoon;Park, Sang-Jin
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.1317-1321
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    • 2009
  • Natural gas liquefaction plant and LNG carrier needs large capital investment. Therefore a lot of small or middle scale natural gas fields aren't developed due to poor profitability. If natural gas is made to gas hydrate instead of liquefaction, developing small-scale natural gas field can be profitable because building cost of gas hydrate plant and carrier are economical. Because the process of making gas hydrate consumes much energy, the gas hydrate formation process has to be optimized for energy consumption. In this study, gas hydrate formation process was investigated experimentally. Experimental apparatus consists of reactor, pressure regulator, chiller, and magnetic stirrer. 99.95% methane was used to make gas hydrate. Tests were conducted at variable pressure and temperature condition.

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An analysis of influence on chemical additives in gas hydrate formation (하이드레이트 제조시 다양한 화학물질 첨가에 의한 영향 분석)

  • Lee Young-Chul;Mo Yong-Gi;Cho Byoung-Hak;Baek Young-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2004
  • This work carried out experiment to change characteristics of hydrate formation using various chemicals which are acetone, dimethylbutane, polyvinylalcohol, methanol and ethlyene glycol as additives in gas hydrate formation. Gas storage ability of formed hydrate with acetone, firnethylbuthane and polyvinylalcohol in gas hydrate formation increased higher than that obtained with pure water. Among them polyvinylalcohol showed best gas storage ability, so it is a more useful promoter Methanol and Ethylene gl?col in using additives showed the characteristics of inhibitor and methanol is lower gas storage ability than ethylene gl)rcol as a inhibitor in hydrate formation, so it is a more useful inhibitor. But, low concentration of methanol and ethylene glycol showed considerably higher gas storage ability of hydrate than that obtained with Pure water and showed the characteristics of promoter in gas hydrate formation.

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A Study on the Methane Hydrate Formation Using Natural Zeolite (천연제올라이트를 이용한 메탄 하이드레이트 생성에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Seek;An, Eoung-Jin;Kim, Dae-Jin;Jeon, Yong-Han;Kim, Nam-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 2011
  • Gas hydrate is formed by physical binding between water molecule and gas such as methane, ethane, propane, or carbon dioxide, etc., which is captured in the cavities of water molecule under the specific temperature and pressure. $1\;m^3$ hydrate of pure methane can be decomposed to the methane gas of $172\;m^3$ and water of $0.8\;m^3$ at standard condition. If this characteristic of hydrate is reversely utilized, natural gas is fixed into water in the form of hydrate solid. Therefore, the hydrate is considered to be a great way to transport and store of natural gas in large quantity. Especially the transportation cost is known to be 18~25% less than the liquefied transportation. However, when methane gas hydrate is artificially formed, its reaction time may be too long and the gas consumption in water becomes relatively low, because the reaction rate between water and gas is low. Therefore, for the practical purpose in the application, the present investigation focuses on the rapid production of hydrates and the increment of the amount of captured gas by adding zeolite into pure water. The results show that when the zeolite of 0.01 wt% was added to distilled water, the amount of captured gas during the formation of methane hydrate was about 4.5 times higher than that in distilled water, and the methane hydrate formation time decreased at the same subcooling temperature.