• Title, Summary, Keyword: fructose

Search Result 1,717, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

Recent insights into the role of ChREBP in intestinal fructose absorption and metabolism

  • Lee, Ho-Jae;Cha, Ji-Young
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.51 no.9
    • /
    • pp.429-436
    • /
    • 2018
  • Fructose in the form of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup is absorbed by the intestinal transporter and mainly metabolized in the small intestine. However, excess intake of fructose overwhelms the absorptive capacity of the small intestine, leading to fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression in response to carbohydrate consumption. While ChREBP was initially identified as a glucose-responsive factor in the liver, recent evidence suggests that ChREBP is essential for fructose-induced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the small intestine as well as in the liver. We recently identified that the loss of ChREBP leads to fructose intolerance via insufficient induction of genes involved in fructose transport and metabolism in the intestine. As fructose consumption is increasing and closely associated with metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases, a comprehensive understanding of cellular fructose sensing and metabolism via ChREBP may uncover new therapeutic opportunities. In this mini review, we briefly summarize recent progress in intestinal fructose metabolism, regulation and function of ChREBP by fructose, and delineate the potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption may lead to irritable bowel syndrome.

Synthesis of Fructose Ester Compound by Lipase in Organic Solvent (유기용매계에서 Lipase에 의한 Fructose Ester의 합성)

  • 신영민;이상옥;이재동;이태호
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.33 no.3
    • /
    • pp.181-186
    • /
    • 1997
  • Sugar ester compounds were synthesized in organic solvent using lipase. Anhydrous pyridinc was selected as ;I solvent because of reasonable solubility of sugar. The synthesis of sugar ester compound was catalyzed by Pseudomonas sp. lipase in the reaction system containing anhydrous pyridine as .i solvent and vinyl butylate as an acyl donor. The analysis of the reaction product by TLC and GC showed thilt monobutyryl and dibutyryl fructose esters were synthesized by transesterification reaction between fructose and vinyl butyrate. Optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were as follows: the ratio of fructoselvinyl butylate, I : lO(M : M): reaction temperature, 40^{\circ}C.$, velocity of shaking, 150 rprn: concentration of enzyme, 10 mglml. The longer the reaction period, the higher the conversion rate, and the conversion rate reached up to 90% after about 10 days of reaction. Monobutyryl fructose was mainly synthesized in the early stage of reaction, but the amount of dibutyryl fructose increased gradually as the rcdction progressed. When a small amount of water was added to the reaction mixture (micro-water system), the reaction rate decreased, while that of rnonobutyr~l fructosc increased. Only monobutyryl fructose was obtained when 1% water was added to the reaction mixture.

  • PDF

Analysis of the Low Affinity System of the Uptake of Fructose in Suspension Culture Cells (조직 배양에서의 과당의 능동 수송에 대한 Low Affinity System의 분석)

  • 조봉희
    • Journal of Plant Biology
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.277-285
    • /
    • 1987
  • Undifferentiated suspension cells had the ability to transfer glucose and fructose actively, but the suspension culture cells were unable to transfer saccharide without previously splitting to monosccarides. The uptake of fructose showed the low- and high-affinity system compared to of glucose, which possessed only one saturable uptake system. In this paper, the low affinity system of the uptake of fructose has been studied intensively. Glucose did not inhibit the low affinity system of fructose competitively. The Km value was 47 mM for fructose, 7.4 mM for glucose and Vmax was 69 $\mu$mol/h.g fresh weight for fuctose, 9.8 $\mu$ mol/h.g fresh weight for glucose. Metabolizer inhibitors, both 50 $\mu$M of CCCP and DNP, inhibited 70% of the uptake of the low affinity system of fructose. The proton ions were accompanied by the uptake of fructose. The stoichiometry showed ratio of proton to fructose was 0.17. The mechanism ofthe uptake was fructose-proton-symport. The molecules of fructose accmululated inside 25 times more than outside. Therefore, the low affinity system of fructose was not mere diffusion, but depended on metabolic energy and thus transported actively. The importance of this system was discussed.

  • PDF

Activation of the renin-angiotensin system in high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome

  • Kim, Mina;Do, Ga Young;Kim, Inkyeom
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.319-328
    • /
    • 2020
  • High fructose intake induces hyperglycemia and hypertension. However, the mechanism by which fructose induces metabolic syndrome is largely unknown. We hypothesized that high fructose intake induces activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), resulting in hypertension and metabolic syndrome. We provided 11-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats with drinking water, with or without 20% fructose, for two weeks. We measured serum renin, angiotensin II (Ang II), and aldosterone (Aldo) using ELISA kits. The expression of RAS genes was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. High fructose intake increased body weight and water retention, regardless of food intake or urine volume. After two weeks, fructose intake induced glucose intolerance and hypertension. High fructose intake increased serum renin, Ang II, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels, but not Aldo levels. High fructose intake increased the expression of angiotensinogen in the liver; angiotensin-converting enzyme in the lungs; and renin, angiotensin II type 1a receptor (AT1aR), and angiotensin II type 1b receptor (AT1bR) in the kidneys. However, expression of AT1aR and AT1bR in the adrenal glands did not increase in rats given fructose. Taken together, these results indicate that high fructose intake induces activation of RAS, resulting in hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

Effect of fructose or sucrose feeding with different levels on oral glucose tolerance test in normal and type 2 diabetic rats

  • Kwon, Sang-Hee;Kim, You-Jin;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
    • /
    • v.2 no.4
    • /
    • pp.252-258
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study was designed to determine whether acute fructose or sucrose administration at different levels (0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg body weight) might affect oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. In OGTT, there were no significant differences in glucose responses between acute fructose- and sucrose-administered groups. However, in normal rats, the AUCs of the blood glucose response for the fructose-administered groups tended to be lower than those of the control and sucrose-administered groups. The AUCs of the lower levels fructose- or sucrose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those of higher levels fructose- or sucrose-administered groups. In type 2 diabetic rats, only the AUC of the lowest level of fructose-administered (0.05 g/kg body weight) group was slightly smaller than that of the control group. The AUCs of fructose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those of the sucrose-administered groups, and the AUCs of lower levels fructose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those fed higher levels of fructose. We concluded from this experiment that fructose has tendency to be more effective in blood glucose regulation than sucrose, and moreover, that smaller amount of fructose is preferred to larger amount. Specifically, our experiments indicated that the fructose level of 0.05 g/kg body weight as dietary supplement was the most effective amount for blood glucose regulation from the pool of 0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg body weights. Therefore, our results suggest the use of fructose as the substitute sweetener for sucrose, which may be beneficial for blood glucose regulation.

Antibacterial Effect of Fructose Laurate Synthesized by Candida antarctica B Lipase-Mediated Transesterification

  • Lee, Ki Ppeum;Kim, Hyung Kwoun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.26 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1579-1585
    • /
    • 2016
  • Sugar esters are valuable compounds composed of various sugars and fatty acids that can be used as antibacterial agents and emulsifiers in toothpaste and canned foods. For example, fructose fatty acid esters suppress growth of Streptococcus mutans, a typical pathogenic bacterium causing dental caries. In this study, fructose laurate ester was chosen as a target material and was synthesized by a transesterification reaction using Candida antarctica lipase B. We performed a solvent screening experiment and found that a t-butanol/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture was the best solvent to dissolve fructose and methyl laurate. Fructose laurate was synthesized by transesterification of fructose (100 mM) with methyl laurate (30 mM) in t-butanol containing 20% dimethyl sulfoxide. The conversion yield was about 90%, which was calculated based on the quantity of methyl laurate using high-performance liquid chromatography. Fructose monolaurate (Mr 361) was detected in the reaction mixture by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect of fructose laurate on growth of oral or food spoilage microorganisms, including S. mutans, Bacillus coagulans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus, was evaluated.

The Effects of Fructose on Contractility of Isolated Rat Atria Depressed with Lidocaine (Lidocaine에 의해 억제된 심근수축력에 대한 Fructose의 영향)

  • Ko Kye-Chang;Sohn Chi-Dong;Jung Jee-Chang
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.22 no.1
    • /
    • pp.51-59
    • /
    • 1986
  • The effect of metabolic substrate fructose on the force of contraction of isolated rat atria depressed with lidocaine was determined. Fructose produced dose-dependent increase in the force of contraction of isolated atria depressed by substrate-free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate medium. The maximally effective concentration of fructose was 30 mM. The isolated atria, suspended in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate glucose medium aerated with 95% $O_2-5%CO_2$at $30^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.4, were depressed 50% by approximately 2.34 mg/100 ml of lidocaine. Addition of 30 mM fructose to these depressed atria resulted in a marked increase in the contractile force similar to that with pyruvate and acetate. Fructose had no significant effect, however, on atria exposed to low-calcium medium. The results are consistent with a previous report suggesting blockade by lidocaine of the uptake or utilization of glucose in the glycolytic pathway, and further pinpoint the blockade as an early step in the glycolytic sequence prior to the phospho-fructokinase step.

  • PDF

Expression of Vascular Endothelin-1 and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Fructose-fed Hypertensive Rats (과당식이 고혈압 흰쥐에서 혈관 Endothelin-1과 산화질소합성효소의 발현)

  • Paek, Yun-Woong;Kim, Myung-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
    • /
    • v.9 no.4
    • /
    • pp.45-52
    • /
    • 2002
  • Rats that are fed a fructose-rich diet develop hypertension, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. To elucidate whether altered expression levels of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide synthase are related to the development of insulin-resistant hypertension, we examined the present study. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fructose-rich diet for 5 weeks. Systolic blood pressure significantly increased in fructose-fed rats. While serum free fatty acid and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels did not significantly differ between the fructose-fed and control groups, plasma insulin and serum triglyceride concentrations significantly increased in the former. Endothelin-1 mRNA expression in the aorta increased in fructose-fed rats. Neither the protein expression of constitutive nitric oxide synthase nor that of inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly affected by fructose feeding. However, nitrite/nitrate levels in the aorta were significantly increased. These results suggest that an increase in vascular endothelin-1 is an important contributing factor to the development of hypertension in fructose-fed rats. However, the vascular nitric oxide pathway may not be causally related to the development of fructose-induced hypertension.

  • PDF

Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1149를 이용한 Mannitol 생산

  • Kim, Chang-Yong;Jo, Gap-Su;Ryu, Hwa-Ja;Lee, Gwang-Ok;Lee, Jin-Ha;Kim, Do-Won;Kim, Do-Man
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.177-179
    • /
    • 2002
  • The process for the production of mannitol with fructose (5% to 25%) using Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1149 was investigated. Optimization study for mannitol production was carried out in 8 liter batch or fed-batch cultures at $28^{\circ}C$, pH 5.0, without aeration. When 5% fructose was used in a batch culture fermentation, the yield of mannitol was 78% of theoretical. As the concentration of fructose was increased to 10% in a batch culture, the yield was reduced to 59.6% of theoretical. Using a fed-batch fermentation with 10% fructose, the yield was increased to 81.9%. When 15% fructose was used for a fed batch fermentation 5% fructose was initially added and the last 10% fructose was supplied continuously. The final yield of mannitol was 83.71% of theoretical. When 20% fructose was used, the yield was more higher, 89.48%.

  • PDF

Determination of Free Sugars in Some Fruits by Liquid Chromatography (고속액체크로마토그래피에 의한 시판(市販) 수종과실류(數種果實類)의 유리당정량(遊離糖定量))

  • Lee, Eung-Ho;Koo, Jae-Geun;Lee, Jong-Soo;Ha, Jin-Hwan
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.27 no.3
    • /
    • pp.158-162
    • /
    • 1984
  • In order to estimate the basic data for the processing suitability of fruits, the contents of free sugars in citrus fruits(14 varieties) cultured in Jeju island, and peaches(4), grapes(4), pears(3) and apples(6) obtained from a local market were investigated by HPLC. The sucrose was the most abundant sugar in citrus fruits and peaches, and followed by fructose and glucose in order. The sugar contents in citru fruits was a wide difference according to the variety. In citrus fruit, the sucrose content was about 53 to 65% to total free sugars and the ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.0/0.8-1.1. The sugars present in grapes and pears were fructose of most abundance, glucose and sucrose in order. Jangshiprang pear showed 2 times higher fructose content than other variety. The free sugar in Taeyang and Hongok(Jonathan) apples were fructose, glucose and sucrose in order of abundance which fructose, sucrose and glucose in Golden Fuji and Mutsu.

  • PDF