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Semi-active storey isolation system employing MRE isolator with parameter identification based on NSGA-II with DCD

  • Gu, Xiaoyu;Yu, Yang;Li, Jianchun;Li, Yancheng;Alamdari, Mehrisadat Makki
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.1101-1121
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    • 2016
  • Base isolation, one of the popular seismic protection approaches proven to be effective in practical applications, has been widely applied worldwide during the past few decades. As the techniques mature, it has been recognised that, the biggest issue faced in base isolation technique is the challenge of great base displacement demand, which leads to the potential of overturning of the structure, instability and permanent damage of the isolators. Meanwhile, drain, ventilation and regular maintenance at the base isolation level are quite difficult and rather time- and fund- consuming, especially in the highly populated areas. To address these challenges, a number of efforts have been dedicated to propose new isolation systems, including segmental building, additional storey isolation (ASI) and mid-storey isolation system, etc. However, such techniques have their own flaws, among which whipping effect is the most obvious one. Moreover, due to their inherent passive nature, all these techniques, including traditional base isolation system, show incapability to cope with the unpredictable and diverse nature of earthquakes. The solution for the aforementioned challenge is to develop an innovative vibration isolation system to realise variable structural stiffness to maximise the adaptability and controllability of the system. Recently, advances on the development of an adaptive magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) vibration isolator has enlightened the development of adaptive base isolation systems due to its ability to alter stiffness by changing applied electrical current. In this study, an innovative semi-active storey isolation system inserting such novel MRE isolators between each floor is proposed. The stiffness of each level in the proposed isolation system can thus be changed according to characteristics of the MRE isolators. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm type II (NSGA-II) with dynamic crowding distance (DCD) is utilised for the optimisation of the parameters at isolation level in the system. Extensive comparative simulation studies have been conducted using 5-storey benchmark model to evaluate the performance of the proposed isolation system under different earthquake excitations. Simulation results compare the seismic responses of bare building, building with passive controlled MRE base isolation system, building with passive-controlled MRE storey isolation system and building with optimised storey isolation system.

Slope topography effect on the seismic response of mid-rise buildings considering topography-soil-structure interaction

  • Shabani, Mohammad J.;Shamsi, Mohammad;Ghanbari, Ali
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.187-200
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    • 2021
  • The main factor for the amplification of ground motions near the crest or the toe of a slope is the reflection of the incident waves. The effects of the slope topography on the surrounding lands over the crest or at the toe can amplify the seismic responses of buildings. This study investigates the seismic performance of the slope topography and three mid-rise buildings (five, ten, and fifteen-storey) located near the crest and toe of the slope by 3D numerical analysis. The nonlinear model was used to represent the real behavior of building and ground elements. The average results of seven records were used in the investigations. Based on the analysis, the amplification factor of acceleration near the crest and toe of the slope was the most effective at distances of 2.5 and 1.3 times the slope height, respectively. Accordingly, the seismic performance of buildings was studied at a distance equal to the height of the slope from the crest and toe. The seismic response results of buildings showed that the slope topography to have little impact on up to five-storey buildings located near the crest. Taking into account a topography-soil-structure interaction system increases the storey displacement and base shear in the building. Accordingly, in topography-soil-structure interaction analyses, the maximum lateral displacement was increased by 71% and 29% in ten and fifteen-storey buildings, respectively, compare to the soil-structure interaction system. Further, the base shear force was increased by 109% and 78% in these buildings relative to soil-structure interaction analyses.

Non-linear dynamic assessment of low-rise RC building model under sequential ground motions

  • Haider, Syed Muhammad Bilal;Nizamani, Zafarullah;Yip, Chun Chieh
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.74 no.6
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    • pp.789-807
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    • 2020
  • Multiple earthquakes that occur during short seismic intervals affect the inelastic behavior of the structures. Sequential ground motions against the single earthquake event cause the building structure to face loss in stiffness and its strength. Although, numerous research studies had been conducted in this research area but still significant limitations exist such as: 1) use of traditional design procedure which usually considers single seismic excitation; 2) selecting a seismic excitation data based on earthquake events occurred at another place and time. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of successive ground motions on the framed structures. The objective of this study is to overcome the aforementioned limitations through testing a two storey RC building structural model scaled down to 1/10 ratio through a similitude relation. The scaled model is examined using a shaking table. Thereafter, the experimental model results are validated with simulated results using ETABS software. The test framed specimen is subjected to sequential five artificial and four real-time earthquake motions. Dynamic response history analysis has been conducted to investigate the i) observed response and crack pattern; ii) maximum displacement; iii) residual displacement; iv) Interstorey drift ratio and damage limitation. The results of the study conclude that the low-rise building model has ability to resist successive artificial ground motion from its strength. Sequential artificial ground motions cause the framed structure to displace each storey twice in correlation with vary first artificial seismic vibration. The displacement parameters showed that real-time successive ground motions have a limited impact on the low-rise reinforced concrete model. The finding shows that traditional seismic design EC8 requires to reconsider the traditional design procedure.

Anchored blind bolted composite connection to a concrete filled steel tubular column

  • Agheshlui, Hossein;Goldsworthy, Helen;Gad, Emad;Mirza, Olivia
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.115-130
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    • 2017
  • A new type of moment-resisting bolted connection was developed for use in composite steel- concrete construction to connect composite open section steel beams to concrete filled steel square tubular columns. The connection was made possible using anchored blind bolts along with two through bolts. It was designed to act compositely with the in-situ reinforced concrete slab to achieve an enhanced stiffness and strength. The developed connection was incorporated in the design of a medium rise (five storey) commercial building which was located in low to medium seismicity regions. The lateral load resisting system for the design building consisted of moment resisting frames in two directions. A major full scale test on a sub-assembly of a perimeter moment-resisting frame of the model building was conducted to study the system behaviour incorporating the proposed connection. The behaviour of the proposed connection and its interaction with the floor slab under cyclic loading representing the earthquake events with return periods of 500 years and 2500 years was investigated. The proposed connection was categorized as semi rigid for unbraced frames based on the classification method presented in Eurocode 3. Furthermore, the proposed connection, composite with the floor slab, successfully provided adequate lateral load resistance for the model building.

Vibration based damage detection in a scaled reinforced concrete building by FE model updating

  • Turker, Temel;Bayraktar, Alemdar
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.73-90
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    • 2014
  • The traditional destructive tests in damage detection require high cost, long consuming time, repairing of damaged members, etc. In addition to these, powerful equipments with advanced technology have motivated development of global vibration based damage detection methods. These methods base on observation of the changes in the structural dynamic properties and updating finite element models. The existence, location, severity and effect on the structural behavior of the damages can be identified by using these methods. The main idea in these methods is to minimize the differences between analytical and experimental natural frequencies. In this study, an application of damage detection using model updating method was presented on a one storey reinforced concrete (RC) building model. The model was designed to be 1/2 scale of a real building. The measurements on the model were performed by using ten uni-axial seismic accelerometers which were placed to the floor level. The presented damage identification procedure mainly consists of five steps: initial finite element modeling, testing of the undamaged model, finite element model calibration, testing of the damaged model, and damage detection with model updating. The elasticity modulus was selected as variable parameter for model calibration, while the inertia moment of section was selected for model updating. The first three modes were taken into consideration. The possible damaged members were estimated by considering the change ratio in the inertia moment. It was concluded that the finite element model calibration was required for structures to later evaluations such as damage, fatigue, etc. The presented model updating based procedure was very effective and useful for RC structures in the damage identification.

Earthquake performance assessment of low and mid-rise buildings: Emphasis on URM buildings in Albania

  • Bilgin, Huseyin;Huta, Ergys
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.599-614
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    • 2018
  • This study focuses on the earthquake performance of two URM buildings having typical architectural configurations common for residential use constructed per pre-modern code in Albania. Both buildings are unreinforced clay brick masonry structures constructed in 1960 and 1984, respectively. The first building is a three-storey unreinforced one with masonry walls. The second one is confined masonry rising on five floors. Mechanical characteristics of masonry walls were determined based on experimental tests conducted according to ASTM C67-09 regulations. A global numerical model of the buildings was built, and masonry material was simulated as nonlinear. Pushover analyses are carried out to obtain capacity curves. Displacement demands were calculated according to Eurocode 8 and FEMA440 guidelines. Causes of building failures in recent earthquakes were examined using the results of this study. The results of the study showed that the URM building displays higher displacement and shear force demands that can be directly related to damage or collapse. On the other hand, the confined one exhibits relatively higher seismic resistance by indicating moderate damage. Moreover, effects of demand estimation approaches on performance assessment of URM buildings were compared. Deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of such buildings were discussed.

An investigation on plan geometries of RC buildings: with or without projections in plan

  • Inan, Tugba;Korkmaz, Koray;Cagatay, Ismail H.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.439-455
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    • 2012
  • The interaction of plan geometry and structural configuration, a determinative factor in the earthquake behavior of buildings, has become a serious issue in the building industry in Turkey due to the poor seismic performance of R/C buildings during the latest earthquake. Consequently, designing new buildings without structural irregularities against earthquake loads is proving to be more significant. This study focuses on the effects of plan geometries on earthquake performances of buildings. In that respect, structural irregularities in the plan are investigated in detail based on the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC 2007). The study is based on five main parametric models and a total of 40 sub-models that are grouped according to their plan geometries with excessive projections such as L-shaped, H-shaped, T-shaped and U-shaped models. In addition to these, a square model without any projections is also generated. All models are designed to have the same storey gross area but with different number of storeys. Changes in the earthquake behavior of buildings were evaluated according to the number of storeys, the projection ratios and the symmetry conditions of each model. The analysis of each structural irregularity resulted in many findings, which were then assessed. The study demonstrates that the square model delivers the best earthquake performance owing to its regular plan geometry.

Numerical simulation of the experimental results of a RC frame retrofitted with RC Infill walls

  • Kyriakides, Nicholas;Chrysostomou, Christis Z.;Kotronis, Panagiotis;Georgiou, Elpida;Roussis, Panayiotis
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.735-752
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    • 2015
  • The effectiveness of seismic retrofitting of RC-frame buildings by converting selected bays into new walls through infilling with RC walls was studied experimentally using a full-scale four-storey model tested with the pseudo-dynamic (PsD) method. The frames were designed and detailed for gravity loads only using different connection details between the walls and the bounding frame. In order to simulate the experimental response, two numerical models were formulated differing at the level of modelling. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the capabilities of these models to simulate the experimental nonlinear behaviour of the tested RC building strengthened with RC infill walls and comment on their effectiveness. The comparison between the capacity, in terms of peak ground acceleration, of the strengthened frame and the one of the bare frame, which was obtained numerically, has shown a five-fold increase.

Seismic vulnerability assessment of RC buildings according to the 2007 and 2018 Turkish seismic codes

  • Yon, Burak
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.709-718
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    • 2020
  • Fragility curves are useful tools to estimate the damage probability of buildings owing to seismic actions. The purpose of this study is to investigate seismic vulnerability of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings, according to the 2007 and 2018 Turkish Seismic Codes, using fragility curves. For the numerical analyses, typical five- and seven-storey RC buildings were selected and incremental dynamic analyses (IDA) were performed. To complete the IDAs, eleven earthquake acceleration records multiplied by various scaling factors from 0.2g to 0.8g were used. To predict nonlinearity, a distributed hinge model that involves material and geometric nonlinearity of the structural members was used. Damages to confined concrete and reinforcement bar of structural members were obtained by considering the unit deformation demands of the 2007 Turkish Seismic Code (TSC-2007) and the 2018 Turkey Building Earthquake Code (TBEC-2018). Vulnerability evaluation of these buildings was performed using fragility curves based on the results of incremental dynamic analyses. Fragility curves were generated in terms of damage levels occurring in confined concrete and reinforcement bar of structural members with a lognormal distribution assumption. The fragility curves show that the probability of damage occurring is more according to TBEC-2018 than according to TSC-2007 for selected buildings.

Seismic retrofitting by base-isolation of r.c. framed buildings exposed to different fire scenarios

  • Mazza, Fabio;Mazza, Mirko
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.267-277
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    • 2017
  • Base-isolation is now being adopted as a retrofitting strategy to improve seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed structures subjected to far-fault earthquakes. However, the increase in deformability of a base-isolated framed building may lead to amplification in the structural response under the long-duration horizontal pulses of high-magnitude near-fault earthquakes, which can become critical once the strength level of a fire-weakened r.c. superstructure is reduced. The aim of the present work is to investigate the nonlinear seismic response of fire-damaged r.c. framed structures retrofitted by base-isolation. For this purpose, a five-storey r.c. framed building primarily designed (as fixed-base) in compliance with a former Italian seismic code for a medium-risk zone, is to be retrofitted by the insertion of elastomeric bearings to meet the requirements of the current Italian code in a high-risk seismic zone. The nonlinear seismic response of the original (fixed-base) and retrofitted (base-isolated) test structures in a no fire situation are compared with those in the event of fire in the superstructure, where parametric temperature-time curves are defined at the first level, the first two and the upper levels. A lumped plasticity model describes the inelastic behaviour of the fire-damaged r.c. frame members, while a nonlinear force-displacement law is adopted for the elastomeric bearings. The average root-mean-square deviation of the observed spectrum from the target design spectrum together with a suitable intensity measure are chosen to select and scale near- and far-fault earthquakes on the basis of the design hypotheses adopted.