• Title, Summary, Keyword: feed conversion ratio

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Effect of Aflatoxin on Feed Conversion Ratio in Broilers: A Meta-analysis

  • Suganthi, R. Umaya;Suresh, K.P.;Parvatham, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1757-1762
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    • 2011
  • Aflatoxins are natural contaminants of poultry feeds and feed ingredients and cause liver damage, immunosuppression, reduction in performance and mortality in broilers. A number of studies have been carried out to study the effects of aflatoxin on feed conversion ratio in broilers. The results on feed conversion ratio of 10 research articles in broilers fed with aflatoxin from first day of age to six weeks of age were compiled and were subjected to meta-analysis. Chi-square test and $Tau^2$ (heterogeneity co-efficient) were applied to test for significance of heterogeneity of studies. To integrate results, fixed effect model by Inverse Variance method (IV method) was used when heterogeneity was insignificant and otherwise random effect model by DerSimonian and Laird Method (DL method) was used. The results of meta-analysis showed that the adverse effect of aflatoxin on feed conversion ratio at the end of first week was negligible, second week was medium and third to six weeks was very large.

Esterification of High Concentration Free Fatty Acid in Rice Bran Oil (미강유 중 고농도 자유지방산의 에스테르화)

  • Shin, Yong-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.211-224
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    • 2008
  • Characteristics of the esterification reaction between free fatty acid in rice bran oil and methanol was investigated in the presence of catalysts, such as PTS(p-toluene sulfonic acid), Amberlyst 15 dry and SCX(silica gel based strong cation exchange resin). While reaction temperature was kept constant at $65^{\circ}C$, initial feed content of free fatty acid was varied from 100% to 1% by addition of pure free fatty acid which was previously made from rice bran oil. Also, the effect of mole ratio of methanol to fatty acid on the final conversion was examined. When esterification of pure free fatty acid was catalyzed by several acids, final conversions were increased in order of Amberlyst 15 dry, SCX and PTS. Using PTS catalyst, initially the reaction proceeded in homogeneous 2nd oder reaction mechanism. However, phase of reaction mixture changed from homogeneous to heterogeneous along the reaction time and then reaction rate was retarded by mass transfer resistance of methanol. Final conversion of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was depended on initial feed content of free fatty acid, and had maximum value at 30% of initial feed free fatty acid content for all kinds of catalysts used. And the final conversion was increased with mole ratio of methanol by the improvement of reaction rate. When initial feed free fatty acid content below 10% and the reaction was catalyzed by PTS, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was increased in the middle of reaction time by hydrolysis of triglyceride in reaction mixture. Also, if silica gel was added into the reaction mixture which had initial feed free fatty acid content below 50%, final conversion was increased by the adsorption of moisture produced. The SCX catalyst made the esterification reaction of free fatty acid to progress like in case of PTS catalyst. However, when initial feed free fatty acid content below 10%, concentration of free fatty acid in. reaction mixture was decreased monotonically and not increased in the middle of reaction time on the contrary to the case of PTS. Thus, SCX catalyst accomplished more high value of final conversion than PTS catalyst for the initial feed fatty acid content range from 50% to 5% In case of initial feed free fatty acid content of 1% and mole ratio of methanol was 2, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture increased over the initial feed free fatty acid content for all kind of catalysts used. Although SCX catalyst was added into reaction mixture which had 1% of initial feed fatty acid content, final conversion was hardly raised by mole ratio of methanol.

Effects of Feeing Extracts from Rhus trees on Performance, Microflora Population and Noxious Gas Emission in the Cecum of Broiler (옻나무 추출액의 급여가 육계의 생산성, 맹장내 균총 및 유해가스 발생량에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Jang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.81-92
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    • 2004
  • The effect of feeding extracts from rhus trees on performance of broiler were performed to investigate development of natural antibiotic in process of broilers production. A total of 320 broiler chicks at 7 day of age were fed the commercial diet and water, water containing 0 ppm (control), 300 ppm (T1), 600 ppm (T2) and 1000 ppm (T3) of extracts from rims trees for 7 weeks. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improvement by feeding extracts from rims trees at 7 to 21 days of age (P<0.05), but amount of feed intake and mortality were not different among the four group. When 21 to 35 days of age, body weight gain, amount of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality were almost same results when 7 to 21days of age, but it was not significantly different. When 35 to 49 days of age, body weight gain in T1 and T3 group was significantly improvement than control group (P<0.05), also feed conversion ratio was improve by feeding extracts from rhus trees. There was a decrease in the microflora population of both E coli. and salmonella in the cecum contents and feaces in broilers by feeding extracts from rhus trees. Emission of ammonia and VFA gas from excreta were significantly decreased at 5 to 10 days of storaged period (P<0.05). The digestibility of dry matter, crude fat, and crude ash of feed were tend to increased in broiler feeding extracts from rims trees. Digestibility of crude protein of feed in broiler three treatmental groups was significantly improved (P<0.05) as compared with those in control group. These results indicated that the feeding extracts from rhus trees of 300 to 1000 ppm of broiler production were improvement in th6 body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality due to increasing nutrients digestibility from feed, decreasing of microflora population of both E coll. and salmonella in the cecum contents and feaces, decreasing emission of ammonia and VFA gas from excreta.

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Genetics of Residual Feed Intake in Cattle and Pigs: A Review

  • Hoque, M.A.;Suzuki, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.747-755
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    • 2009
  • The feed resource for animals is a major cost determinant for profitability in livestock production enterprises, and thus any effort at improving the efficiency of feed use will help to reduce feed cost. Feed conversion ratio, expressed as feed inputs per unit output, is a traditional measure of efficiency that has significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake and growth traits. The use of ratio traits for genetic selection may cause problems associated with prediction of change in the component traits in future generations. Residual feed intake, a linear index, is a trait derived from the difference between actual feed intake and that predicted on the basis of the requirements for maintenance of body weight and production. Considerable genetic variation exists in residual feed intake for cattle and pigs, which should respond to selection. Phenotypic independence of phenotypic residual feed intake with body weight and weight gain can be obligatory. Genetic residual feed intake is genetically independent of its component traits (body weight and weight gain). Genetic correlations of residual feed intake with daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency have been strong and positive in both cattle and pigs. Residual feed intake is favorably genetically correlated with eye muscle area and carcass weight in cattle and with eye muscle area and backfat in pigs. Selection to reduce residual feed intake (excessive intake of feed) will improve the efficiency of feed and most of the economically important carcass traits in cattle and pigs. Therefore, residual feed intake can be used to replace traditional feed conversion ratio as a selection criterion of feed efficiency in breeding programs. However, further studies are required on the variation of residual feed intake during different developmental stage of production.

Effects of Benzoic Acid and Dietary Calcium:Phosphorus Ratio on Performance and Mineral Metabolism of Weanling Pigs

  • Gutzwiller, A.;Schlegel, P.;Guggisberg, D.;Stoll, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.530-536
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    • 2014
  • In a $2{\times}2$ factorial experiment the hypotheses tested were that the metabolic acid load caused by benzoic acid (BA) added to the feed affects bone mineralization of weanling pigs, and that a wide dietary calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio in phytase-supplemented feeds with a marginal P concentration has a positive effect on bone mineralization. The four experimental diets, which contained 0.4% P and were supplemented with 1,000 FTU phytase/kg, contained either 5 g BA/kg or no BA and either 0.77% Ca or 0.57% Ca. The 68 four-week-old Large White pigs were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for six weeks and were then slaughtered. Benzoic acid increased feed intake (p = 0.009) and growth rate (p = 0.051), but did not influence the feed conversion ratio (p>0.10). Benzoic acid decreased the pH of the urine (p = 0.031), but did not affect breaking strength and mineralization of the tibia (p>0.10). The wide Ca:P ratio decreased feed intake (p = 0.034) and growth rate (p = 0.007) and impaired feed the conversion ratio (p = 0.027), but increased the mineral concentration in the fat-free DM of the tibia (p = 0.013) without influencing its breaking strength (p>0.10). The observed positive effect of the wide Ca:P ratio on bone mineralization may be attributed, at least in part, to the impaired feed conversion ratio, i.e. to the higher feed intake and consequently to the higher mineral intake per kg BW gain. The negative impact on animal performance of the wide dietary Ca:P ratio outweighs its potentially positive effect on bone mineralization, precluding its implementation under practical feeding conditions.

EVALUATION OF BEST SEX AND ECONOMIC SLAUGHTER WEIGHT ON STANDARD FEEDING IN LARGE WHITE PIGS UNDER INDIAN CONDITIONS

  • Kumar, A.;Barsaul, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.227-230
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    • 1991
  • A comparative study was conducted in total thirty six large while weaner pigs of about 15 kg body weight namely boars, barrows and gilts to evaluate best sex and economic slaughter weight with one standard ration. In 159 days study period feed consumption, growth, feed conversion ratio and carcass quality were judged in all sexes of pigs at 50, 70 and 90 kg body weight. It was noted that upto 70 kg body weight the growth in boars and gills 46.0 and 49.0 kg and feed conversion ratio 4.83 and 4.81 were superior and economical over the barrows, which were 45.5 kg and 4.95. Later on there were too many fluctuations in growth and feed conversion ratio in all sexes of pigs, which would be uneconomical. Carcass quality was also better in boars and gilts than barrows, No boar taint was noted in most of the boar carcasses. Hence it is concluded that boars and gilts can be raised upto the 70 kg body weight for economic pork production.

Food Ingestion, Assimilation and Conversion Efficiency of Mulberry Silk­worm, Bombyx mori L.

  • Rahmathulla V. K.;Haque Rufaiel S. Z.;Himantharaj M. T.;Vindya G S.;Rajan R. K.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2005
  • Feed conversion efficiency contributes directly or indirectly on the cost benefit ratio of silkworm rearing and is considered to be an important physiological criterion for evaluating the superiority of silkworm breeds/hybrids. Food intake, assimilation and conversion of indigenous as well as exotic silkworm races are well studied by many researchers. In this review, an attempt has been made to consolidate works on feed conversion aspects of indigenous and exotic silkworm races. The paper also deals with the effect of various factors viz., nutritional, environmental and feeding on food assimilation and conversion parameters of mulberry silkworm.

Investigation of Duck Production Distribution in Duck Housing As a Function of Breeding Period (사육기간에 따른 오리사 내 오리 생산성 분포도 조사)

  • Choi, In-Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 2021
  • This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of duck production in duck housing as a function of the breeding period. The items in duck production distribution included body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and average duck production. All data were based on eight cycles (June and December, 2017; February, June, August, September, and November, 2018; February, 2019) at Farm Site 1 through 7. The most optimal results in the duck production distribution were observed at Site 1 for weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency. This could be explained by the fact that Site 1 was well managed in environmental improvement and sustainability. Based on these data, selective alternatives to improve duck production in duck farms are recommended as follows: first, proper management and recording of litter used as a flooring material are required, and second, continuous management such as temperature, relative humidity and ventilation is needed. Lastly, it is necessary to change duck facilities by introducing environmental management techniques. Furthermore, efforts to improve the overall facilities and management of duck breeding farms through additional field studies are needed in the future.

Comparative Study on the Resistance of Three Commercial Strains and Balady (Local) Breed of Chickens to Infection With Salmonella gallinarum

  • Alshawabkeh, K.;Tabbaa, M.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.96-100
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    • 2001
  • Three commercial strains bred in the US (Hubbard), Holland (Lohman), and Canada (Shaver) and Balady breed of chickens were orally infected with $10^6$ cfu of Salmonella gallinarum per chick. Chicks were compared for weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate and contamination of the liver, spleen and intestine with Salmonella gallinarum on the day of slaughter. The Balady chicks had significantly the lowest mortality rate (p<0.01) and weight gain (p<0.001) and poorest feed conversion ratio (p<0.001). Salmonella gallinarum could be shed from the liver, spleen and intestine with alternative rates in all strains. Lohman was the most resistance over the other two commercial strains, while Hubbard had the highest susceptibility. The Balady chicks were the most resistance. However, they may serve as a possible reservoir of Salmonella gallinarum and it may play a role of spreading the infection to the commercial farms in Jordan.

Effects of Dietary Liquid Chitosan on the Performance of Broiler Chickens (액상 키토산의 급여가 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, B.K.;Son, J.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2006
  • This study were conducted to evaluate effects of drinking concentrated liquid chitosan on performance of broiler. A total of 240 broiler chicks at 7 days of age were fed the commercial diet and water until 47 days of age, drinking water divided into three treatments, 0 ppm (control), 200 ppm (200) and 400 ppm (400) of concentrated liquid chitosan. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not different by drinking concentrated liquid chitosan until 28 days of age, but body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improve by drinking concentrated liquid chitosan over 28 days of age. Both body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were tend to improve and significantly improved (p<0.05) in 200 and 400 than control at 29 to 35 days of age, respectively. While body weight gain was tended to improve and significantly improved (p<0.05) in 400 and 200 than control at 36 to 47 days of age, respectively. There was a decrease in the microflora population of E coli. in the cecum contents and feaces of broilers by drinking concentrated liquid chitosan. This effect is higher in 400 than 200. The digestibility of dry matter and crude fat of feed were tend to increased in broiler by drinking concentrated liquid chitosan. Digestibility of crude protein of feed of broiler in 200 and 400 was significantly improved (p<0.05) as compared with those in control. These results indicated that when broiler chicks drinking concentrated liquid chitosan of 400 ppm, the improvement of the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed nutrients digestibility, decreasing of microflora population of both E coli. and Salmonella in the cecum contents and feaces.