• Title/Summary/Keyword: evapotranspiration

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The Latent Heat Exchange on the Ground (지표면 잠열 이동에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Bu-Yong;Haginoya, Shigenori
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1061-1068
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    • 2011
  • Evapotranspiration is one of the important elements related water cycle and there is many kind of measurement method of evapotranspiration today. This study developed mini lysimeter for the purpose of direct measurement of evapotranspiration and installed on 5th, July, 2010 at the field of MRI which located at Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan for continuous measurement and understand relation between evapotranspiration and meteorological elements expecially radiation elements. And compared the evapotranspiration data of lysimeter with Bowen Ratio Method. The result of this study is as follows; There is high related with solar radiation and evapotranspiration with $R^2$=0.947. and 46 % of solar radiation converted into evapotranspiration during clear 5 days. In net radiation also highly related with evapotranspiration, we can derive evapotranspiration is mainly controlled by radiation energy in clear days. From the 104 days data, there is only 9 % difference between Bowen Ratio Method and evapotranspiration of lysimeter which was developed from this study is very useful to estimate evapotranspiration at field site with simple and high accuracy. High accuracy and resolution measurement of evapotranspiration by lysimeter can give a chance further study of meteorological phenomena of on ground expecially in night time condensation which means abnormal energy flow.

On the Evapotranspiration Model derived from the Meteorological Elements and Penman equation (Penman 식과 기상요소를 이용한 증발산모델에 관하여)

  • 이광호
    • Water for future
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 1973
  • This paper include the hydrometeorological analyses of evapotranspiration which is import factor concerning the estimate of water budgest over a certain basin. Evapotranspiration model mode by the multiple regression analysis between the evapotranspiration measured on various kinds of ground cover (water, bare soil and lawn) and the other meteorological elements affecting the evapotranspiration process, and the simple regression analysis between the evapo transpiration measured on each ground cover and the evapotranspiration on water and vegetables calculated from the Penman equation. It is expected that the evapotranspiration models are a very useful formulae estimating ten days amounts or a month's amounts.

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Assessment of Actual Evapotranspiration in the Hancheon Watershed, Jeju Island (제주 한천유역의 실제 증발산량 평가)

  • Kim, Nam Won;Lee, Jeong Eun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.533-542
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    • 2013
  • In this study, estimation methods for actual evapotranspiration have been studied using the concept of potential and actual evapotranspiration. Among the diverse estimation methods, SWAT-K application is chosen for hydrological modeling. For Jeju island we have characterized annual and monthly evapotranspiration using SWAT-K. In the results, simulated potential evapotranspiration reached to the 91% of small pan evaporation. With respect to the temperature lapse rate($-6^{\circ}C/km$) depending on the altitude of Halla mountain, evapotranspiration rate decreased by 7.5% compared to the status when the temperature data from the Jeju weather station were applied to the watershed. As the average of annual rainfall increased, potential evapotranspiration was increased, actual evapotranspiration was, however, decreased.

Evaluation of Reference Evapotranspiration in South Korea according to CMIP5 GCMs and Estimation Methods (CMIP5 GCMs과 추정 방법에 따른 우리나라 기준증발산량 평가)

  • Park, Jihoon;Cho, Jaepil;Lee, Eun-Jeong;Jung, Imgook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.153-168
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    • 2017
  • The main objective of this study was to assess reference evapotranspiration based on multiple GCMs (General Circulation Models) and estimation methods. In this study, 10 GCMs based on the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario were used to estimate reference evapotranspiration. 54 ASOS (Automated Synoptic Observing System) data were constructed by statistical downscaling techniques. The meteorological variables of precipitation, maximum temperature and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation were produced using GCMs. For the past and future periods, we estimated reference evapotranspiration by GCMs and analyzed the statistical characteristics and analyzed its uncertainty. Five methods (BC: Blaney-Criddle, HS: Hargreaves-Samani, MK: Makkink, MS: Matt-Shuttleworth, and PM: Penman-Monteith) were selected to analyze the uncertainty by reference evapotranspiration estimation methods. We compared the uncertainty of reference evapotranspiration method by the variable expansion and analyzed which variables greatly influence reference evapotranspiration estimation. The posterior probabilities of five methods were estimated as BC: 0.1792, HS: 0.1775, MK: 0.2361, MS: 0.2054, and PM: 0.2018. The posterior probability indicated how well reference evapotranspiration estimated with 10 GCMs for five methods reflected the estimated reference evapotranspiration using the observed data. Through this study, we analyzed the overall characteristics of reference evapotranspiration according to GCMs and reference evapotranspiration estimation methods The results of this study might be used as a basic data for preparing the standard method of reference evapotranspiration to derive the water management method under climate change.

A SIMPLE APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING ANNUAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION WITH CLIMATE DATA IN KOREA

  • Im Sangjun;Kim Hyeonjun;Kim Chulgyum;Jang Cheolhee
    • Water Engineering Research
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.185-193
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    • 2004
  • Estimates of annual actual evapotranspiration are needed in water balance studies, water resources management projects, and many different types of hydrologic studies. This study validated a set of 5 empirical equations of estimating annual actual evapotranspiration with climate data on 11 watersheds, and evaluated the further applicability of these forms in estimating annual runoff on watershed level. Five empirical equations generally overestimated annual evapotranspiration, with relative errors ranging $3.3\%$ to $47.2\%$. The results show that Schreiber formula can be applicable in determining annual evapotranspiration in sub-humid region that is classified by aridity index, while Zhang equation gave better results than the remaining methods in humid region. The mean differences for annual evapotranspiration bias over 11 watersheds are Zhang, Schreiber, Budyko, Pike, and Ol'dekop formula from lowest to highest. The empirical equations provide a practical tool to help water resources managers in estimating regional water resources on ungauged large watershed.

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A Study on the Hydroclimatic Effects on the Estimation of Annual Actual Evapotranspiration Using Watershed Water Balance (유역 물수지를 이용한 연 실제증발산 산정에 미치는 수문기후 영향 연구)

  • Rim, Chang-Soo;Lim, Ga-Hui;Yoon, Sei-Eui
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.44 no.12
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    • pp.915-928
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    • 2011
  • The main purpose of this study is to understand the effects of hydroclimatic factors on annual actual evapotranspiration and to suggest the multiple linear regression (MLR) equations for the estimation of annual actual evapotranspiration from watershed. To accomplish this study purpose, 5 dam watersheds (Goesan dam, Seomjingang dam, Soyanggang dam, Andong dam, Hapcheon dam) were selected as study watersheds and annual actual evapotranspiration was estimated based on annual water balance analysis from each watershed. The estimated annual actual evapotranspiration from water balance analysis was used to evaluate the MLR equations. Furthermore, the possibility of the estimation of actual evapotranspiration using potential evapotranspiration equations (Penman equation, FAO P-M equation, Makkink equation, Preistley-Taylor equation, Hargreaves equation) was evaluated. It has turned out that it is not appropriate to use potential evapotranspiration for the estimation of actual evapotranspiration because the correlation between actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration is very low. The comparison of MLR equations with current actual evapotranspiration equations indicates that MLR equations can be used for the estimation of annual actual evapotranspiration. Furthermore, it has turned out that the effects of hydroclimatic factors on annual actual evapotranspiration from dam watersheds are different in each watershed; however, for all watersheds in common precipitation has turned out to be the most important climatic factor affecting on the estimation of annual actual evapotranspiration.

Evapotranspiration Estimation Study Based on Coupled Water-energy Balance Theory in River Basin

  • Xue, Lijun;Kim, JooCheol;Li, Hongyan;Jung, Kwansue
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.146-146
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    • 2018
  • Basin evapotranspiration is the result of water balance and energy balance, which is affected by climate and underlying surface characteristics, the process is complex, and spatial and temporal variability is large, the evapotranspiration estimation of river basin is an important but difficult problem in the field of hydrology, over the years, many scholars devoted to the basin actual evapotranspiration estimation and achieved excellent results. We discuss Budyko coupled water-energy balance theory and evaporation paradox, then use the Fu's equation to estimate actual evapotranspiration yearly in different areas with different dryness. The result shows that Fu's equation has high precision for estimating evapotranspiration yearly in our selected study area, and the estimation result has higher precision in the area with high dryness. Then, we propose an improved formula which can be used to estimate actual evapotranspiration monthly. Furthermore, we found that the parameter in the formula reflects general conditions of underlying surface and it is affected by several factors, at last, we tried to propose the calculation formula. The study indicates that Fu's equation provides a reliable method for evapotranspiration estimation in dry regions as well as semi-humid and semi-arid regions, which has great significance for forecasting river basin water resources and inquiring into ecological water requirement.

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A Study on the Method for Estimating Evapotranspiration from Paddy Fields (수도의 증발산량 추정방법에 관한 연구)

  • 허재석;정하우
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.86-95
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    • 1983
  • Evapotranspiration is a major factor determining the water consumption in the rice fields. Therefore, realistic evapotranspiration estimates are important to the agricultural water resources planning. In Korea, however, the Blaney-Criddle formula, which was developed under the meteorological condition of western arid United States and the upland cultivation, has been widely used to estimate evapotranspiration from paddy fields. Hence, it has considered that the Blaney-Criddle formula would not be the proper method for the Korean paddy condition. The purpose of this study is to select the most appropriate and realistic method for estimating evapotranspiraion from paddy field in Korea and to derive crop coefficients using the chosen method. The results are summerized as follows. 1. Total seasonal-average evapotranspiration by the field observation was 660mm for Tongil and 621. Ornm for the Japonica variety of rice. The amount of evapotranspiration for Tongil variety was 6% larger than that of the Japonica variety. 2. There was no significant differences in the amount of evapotranspiration among early, middle and late mature varieties, that is, early 638mm, middle 627mm and late 630mm for the whole growing season. 3. The rate of peak evapotranspiration appeared at the beginning of August and was in the range of 7.7-8. Omm/day according to the different mature varieties. 4. The correlation between pan evaporation data and the calculated evapotranspiration using related meteorological data from various methods suggested such as Radiation (FAO), Hargreaves, Christiansen, Hargreaves-Christiansen, Jensen-Haise, showed high statistic significance. Therefore, it seemed to use those formulars in estimating evapotranspiration inste4 of using pan evaporation data. 5. It was concluded from the analysis of field data that the evapotranspiration estimate for Blaney-Criddle method might not be appropriate in Korea. On the other hand, Penman equation showed more accurate estimation at the flourishing stage of rice than the pan evaporation method. 6. The crop coefficients for the Penman and pan-evaporation method were obtained by graphical representation.

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Pan Evaporation and Reference Evapotranspiration Modeling using Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm (인공신경망과 유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 증발접시 증발량과 증발산량의 모형화)

  • Kim, Seong-Won;Kim, Hyeong-Su;Ji, Hong-Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2006
  • The goal of this research is to develop and apply the generalized regression neural networks model (GRNNM) embedding genetic algorithm (GA) for pan evaporation, which is missed or ungaged and for the alfalfa reference evapotranspiration, which is not measured in South Korea. The GRNNM-GA is evaluated using the training, the testing, and reproduction performance respectively for the estimation of the PE and the alfalfa reference evapotranspiration. Since the observed data of the alfalfa reference evapotranspiration using lysimeter have not been measured for a long time in South Korea, the PM method is used to assume and estimate the observed alfalfa reference evapotranspiration. From this research, we evaluate the impact of the limited climatical variables on the accuracy of the GRNNM-GA. We should, furthermore, construct the credible data of the PE and the alfalfa reference evapotranspiration and suggest the reference data for irrigation and drainage networks system in South Korea.

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Evapotranspiration and Grain Yield in Responses to Different Soil Water Conditions in Soybean

  • Yang, Jae-Hwang;Kim, Wook-Han;Seong, Rak-Chun;Hong, Byung-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.241-244
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect on evapotranspiration and yield of soybean according to different soil water conditions, and to find the optimum time and amount for irrigation in soybean cultivation. The difference between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and maximum evapotranspiration (MET) during growing season of soybean planted in lysimeter was higher during reproductive stage than during vegetative one. The maximum crop coefficient was obtained at beginning seed stage of soybean. Soil water coefficient of irrigation treatment was higher than that of non-irrigation treatment during soybean growth stage in field experiment. Grain yield was highest in lysimeter due to its high water use efficiency and evapotranspiration rate.

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