• Title, Summary, Keyword: epoxy

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Mechanical properties of epoxy composites reinforced with ammonia-treated graphene oxides

  • Park, Mi-Seon;Lee, Sangmin;Lee, Young-Seak
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.21
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • The effects of ammonia-treated graphene oxide (GO) on composites based on epoxy resin were investigated. Ammonia solutions of different concentrations (14-28%) were used to modify GO. Nitrogen functional groups were introduced on the GO surfaces without significant structural changes. The ammonia-treated GO-based epoxy composites exhibited interesting changes in their mechanical properties related to the presence of nitrogen functional groups, particularly amine ($C-NH_2$) groups on the GO surfaces. The highest tensile and impact strength values were 42.1 MPa and 12.3 J/m, respectively, which were observed in an epoxy composite prepared with GO treated with a 28% ammonia solution. This improved tensile strength was 2.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of the neat epoxy and the non-treated GO-based epoxy composite, respectively. The amine groups on the GO ensure its participation in the cross-linking reaction of the epoxy resin under amine curing agent condition and enhance its interfacial bonding with the epoxy resin.

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Package and Solder Ball Crack Reliability using Solid Epoxy Material (Solid Epoxy를 이용한 패키지 및 솔더 크랙 신뢰성 확보를 위한 실험 및 수치해석 연구)

  • Cho, Youngmin;Choa, Sung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 2020
  • The use of underfill materials in semiconductor packages is not only important for stress relieving of the package, but also for improving the reliability of the package during shock and vibration. However, in recent years, as the size of the package becomes larger and very thin, the use of the underfill shows adverse effects and rather deteriorates the reliability of the package. To resolve these issues, we developed the package using a solid epoxy material to improve the reliability of the package as a substitute for underfill material. The developed solid epoxy was applied to the package of the application processor in smart phone, and the reliability of the package was evaluated using thermal cycling reliability tests and numerical analysis. In order to find the optimal solid epoxy material and process conditions for improving the reliability, the effects of various factors on the reliability, such as the application number of solid epoxy, type of PCB pad, and different solid epoxy materials, were investigated. The reliability test results indicated that the package with solid epoxy exhibited higher reliability than that without solid epoxy. The application of solid epoxy at six locations showed higher reliability than that of solid epoxy at four locations indicating that the solid epoxy plays a role in relieving stress of the package, thereby improving the reliability of the package. For the different types of PCB pad, NSMD (non-solder mask defined) pad showed higher reliability than the SMD (solder mask defined) pad. This is because the application of the NSMD pad is more advantageous in terms of thermomechanical stress reliability because the solderpad bond area is larger. In addition, for the different solid epoxy materials with different thermal expansion coefficients, the reliability was more improved when solid epoxy having lower thermal expansion coefficient was used.

Synthesis and Properties of Waterborne Polyurethane Using Epoxy Group (WPUE) (Epoxy를 사용한 수분산 폴리우레탄의 합성 및 물성)

  • Park, Ji-Yeon;Jeong, Boo-Young;Cheon, Jung-Mi;Ha, Chang-Sik;Chun, Jae-Hwan
    • Journal of Adhesion and Interface
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2015
  • In this study, Waterborne polyurethanes (WPU) using Epoxy group were synthesized with polyester polyol, epoxy resin, 4,4-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate ($H_{12}MDI$), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) to improve the hydrolysis resistance and adhesion. In addition, the properties of the synthesized waterborne polyurethane was evaluated through DSC, UTM, adhesion strength. Tg of the synthesized waterborne polyurethane is shown in the vicinity of $-50^{\circ}C$. Tg were increased with as epoxy resin contents increased. The tensile strength was increased as the content of epoxy resin increases, elongation was decreased. Optimum adhesion and hydrolysis-resistance strength were obtained when polyol : epoxy ratio was 99 : 1.

Evaluation of Bonding Properties of Epoxy Solder Joints by High Temperature Aging Test (고온 시효 시험에 따른 Epoxy 솔더 접합부의 접합 특성 평가)

  • Kang, Min-Soo;Kim, Do-Seok;Shin, Young-Eui
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.6-12
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    • 2019
  • Bonding properties of epoxy-containing solder joints were investigated by a high temperature aging test. Specimens were prepared by bonding an R3216 standard chip resistor to an OSP-finished PCB by a reflow process with two basic types of solder (SAC305 & Sn58Bi) pastes and two epoxy-solder (SAC305+epoxy & Sn58Bi+epoxy) pastes. In all epoxy solder joints, an epoxy fillet was formed in the hardened epoxy, lying around the outer edge of the solder joint, between the chip and the Cu pad. In order to analyze the bonding characteristics of solder joints at high temperatures, a high-temperature aging test at $150^{\circ}C$ was carried out for 14 days (336 h). After aging, the intermetallic compound $Cu_6Sn_5$ was found to have formed in the solder joint on the Cu pad, and the shear stress on the conventional solder joint was reduced by a significant amount. The reason that the shear force did not decrease much, even though in epoxy solder, was thatbecause epoxy hardened at the outer edge of the supported solder joints. Using epoxy solder, strong bonding behavior can be ensured due to this resistance to shear force, even in metallurgical changes such as those where intermetallic compounds form at solder joints.

Hardening Properties of Hardener-Free Epoxy-Modified Mortars by Curing Conditions (양생조건에 따른 경화제 무첨가 에폭시수지 혼입 PMM의 경화특성)

  • Lee, Jae-Hwa;Kim, Joo-Young;Kim, Wan-Ki
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.255-257
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    • 2012
  • Epoxy resin without any hardener can harden in the presence of hydroxide ions in cement mortars and concretes at ambient temperature. The purpose of present study is to examine the hardening properties of hardener-free epoxy-modified mortars by curing conditions. The hardener-free epoxy-modified mortars using diglycidyl ether of A epoxy resin are prepared with various polymer-cement ratios, and subjected to initial moist/dry curing, initial steam(90℃) curing, initial steam/heat(80℃, 100℃) curing.As a result, degree of hardening of epoxy resin in initial moist/dry cured, initial steam cured and initial steam/heat(80℃) cured hardener-free epoxy-modified mortars is decreased with increasing polymer-cement ratio. However, it is markedly improved with additional dry-curing periods. On the other hand, regardless of the polymer-cement ratio and dry curing periods, degree of hardening of hardener-free epoxy-modified mortars with initial steam/heat(100℃) cure is over 95%.

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Wear Properties of Epoxy Matrix Nanocomposites (에폭시 기지 나노복합재료의 마모 특성)

  • Kim, J.D.;Kim, H.J.;Koh, S.W.;Kim, Y.S.
    • Journal of Power System Engineering
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2010
  • The wear behavior of epoxy matrix composites filled with nano sized silica particles is discussed in this paper. Especially, the variation of the coefficient of friction and the wear resistance according to the change of apply load and sliding velocity were investigated for these materials. Wear tests of pin-on-disc mode were carried out and the wear test results exhibited as following ; The epoxy matrix composites showed lower coefficient of friction compared to the neat epoxy through the whole sliding distance. As increasing the sliding velocity the epoxy matrix composites indicated lower coefficient of friction, whereas the neat epoxy showed higher coefficient of friction as increasing the sliding velocity. The specific friction work of both materials were increased with apply load. In case of the epoxy matrix composites, the running in periods of friction were reduced as increase in apply load. The epoxy matrix composites were improved the wear resistance by adding the nano silica particles remarkably. It is expected that the load carrying capacity of the epoxy matrix composites will be improved by increase of Pv factor.

Effect of Electron Beam and ${\gamma}$-Ray Irradiation on the Curing of Epoxy Resin

  • Kang, Phil-Hyun;Park, Jong-Seok;Nho, Young-Chang
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.332-338
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    • 2002
  • The effect of an electron beam and ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation on the curing of epoxy resins was investigated. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) as epoxy resin were used. The epoxy resins containing 1.0-3.() wt% of triarylsulphonium hexafluoroantimonate(TASHFA) and triarylsulphonium hexafluorophosphate(TASHFP) as initiator were irradiated under nitrogen at room temperature with different dosage of EB and ${\gamma}$-rays from a Co$^{60}$ u source. The chemical and mechanical characteristics of irradiated epoxy resins were compared after curing of EB and ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation. The thermal properties of cured epoxy were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The chemical structures of cured epoxy were characterized using near infrared spectroscopy. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength, modulus were measured. The gel fraction of DGEBA with ${\gamma}$-ray was higher than that of the epoxy with EB at the same dose. Young's modulus of the sample irradiated by ${\gamma}$-ray is higher than that of sample cured by EB. From the result of strain at yield, it was found that the epoxy cured by ${\gamma}$-ray had a higher stiff property compared with the irradiated by EB.

Effect of Atmospheric Plasma Treatments on Mechanical Properties of VGCF/Epoxy

  • Khuyen, Nguyen Quang;Kim, Jin-Bong;Kim, Byung-Sun;Lee, Soo
    • Advanced Composite Materials
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2008
  • Vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were treated with atmospheric plasma enhancing the surface area in order to improve the bonding to the matrix in epoxy composites. The changes in the mechanical properties of VGCF/epoxy nanocompostes, such as tensile modulus and tensile strength were investigated in this study. VGCF with and without atmospheric plasma treatment for surface modification were used in this investigation. The interdependence of these properties on the VGCF contents and interfacial bonding between VGCF/epoxy matrix were discussed. The mechanical properties of atmospheric plasma treated (APT) VGCF/epoxy were compared with raw VGCF/epoxy. The tensile strength of APT VGCF/epoxy nanocomposites showed higher value than that of raw VGCF. The tensile strength was increased with atmospheric plasma treatment, due to better adhesion at VGCF/epoxy interface. The tensile modulus of raw VGCF and APT VGCF/epoxy matrix were of the similar value. The dispersion of the VGCF was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM micrographs showed an excellent dispersion of VGCF in epoxy matrix by ultrasonic method.

Determination of Epoxy/Anhydride Mixing Ratio for the Highly Silica Filled Compounds with Chromium (III) Octoate Catalyst

  • Lee, Noori;Lee, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Jung Hoon;Min, Kyeong-sik;Kang, Sung Yun;Seo, Seungkil;Rho, Byung Lae;Kim, Wonho
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2015
  • In this study, epoxy/anhydride mixing ratio for the highly silica filled compounds with chromium (III) octoate catalyst was investigated at a low curing temperature ($71^{\circ}C$ for 40 hr) by evaluating the compressive strength with the weight ratio ranges from 0.3/1.0 to 1.0/1.0 of epoxy part (Part A)/anhydride part (Part B). In case of epoxy/anhydride compounds used surface unmodified silica by coupling agent, these compounds need excess anhydride unlike the weight ratio in the conventional epoxy/anhydride compounds. In curing behavior, the epoxy/anhydride compounds containing chromium (III) octoate showed high conversions at $71^{\circ}C$ for 40 hr, even if a dipropylene glycol (DPG) was not used as a polymerization initiator. Also, DPG leads to a poor epoxy network structure. In conclusion, the appropriate weight ratio of Part A/Part B of highly silica filled epoxy/anhydride compounds with chromium (III) octoate catalyst is 0.5/1.0 and the maximum amounts of silica is 1470 phr of epoxy resin.

Mechanical Characteristics of CF Laminated Prepreg with UV-thermal Dual Curable Epoxy Resin (광·열경화형 수지를 이용한 탄소섬유 프리프레그의 물리적 특성)

  • Sim, Ji-hyun;Kim, Ji-hye;Park, Sung-min;Koo, Kwang-hoe;Jang, Key-wook;Bae, Jin-seok
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2017
  • An issue of major concern in the utilization of laminated composites based epoxy resin is associated with the occurrence of delaminations or interlaminar cracks, which may be related to manufacturing defects or are induced in service by low-velocity impacts. A strong interfacial filament/brittle epoxy resin bonding can, however, be combined with the high fracture toughness of weak interfacial bonding, when the filaments are arranged to have alternate sections of shear stress. To improve this drawback of the epoxy resin, UV-thermal dual curable resin were developed. This paper presents UV-thermal dual curable resin which were prepared using epoxy acrylate oligomer, photoinitiators, a thermal-curing agent and thermoset epoxy resin. The UV curing behaviors and characteristics of UV-thermal dual curable epoxy resin were investigated using Photo-DSC, DMA and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of UV-thermal dual curable epoxy resin impregnated CF prepreg by UV curable resin content were measured with Tensile, Flextural, ILSS and Sharpy impact test. The obtained results showed that UV curable resin content improves the epoxy toughness.