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Effects of Bisphenol A to interspecific hybrids between marine medaka Oryzias dancena and javanese medaka O. javanicus (바다송사리, Oryzias dancena와 자바송사리, O. javanicus 간 잡종에 대한 비스페놀 A의 효과)

  • Kim, Bong-Seok;Song, Ha-Yeun;Nam, Yoon-Kwon;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 2011
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, which is a known endocrine disruptor and acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. In this study, estrogenic effect of BPA was investigated on hybrid between Oryzias dancena and O. javanicus (ODJ). ODJ were exposed to BPA of various concentrations (eg. 2.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L and 10.0 mg/L) for 56 days. The growth rate, abnormality and the ratio of female and male were observed in test group and control group. As a result, the growth was $14.7{\pm}2.0$ mm in total length (TL) in 2.5 mg/L, $13.7{\pm}2.5$ mm in 5.0 mg/L, $12.8{\pm}2.5$ mm in 10.0 mg/L in test group while it was $18.0{\pm}1.2$ mm in TL in control group which was not treated with bisphenol A. The result showed that the growth decreased as the concentration of BPA increased. The abnormality rate was 13.6% in control group, 65.4% in 2.5 mg/L, 81.3% in 5.0 mg/L and 98.1 % in 10.0 mg/L which showed increase in abnormality as an increase of BPA concentration. As a result of analyzing ratio of sex in the test group and control group, 6.0% was examined to be interspecific in controls, 76.9% in 2.5 mg/L and 100.0% in 5.0 mg/L and 10.0 mg/L. In conclusion, these results suggest that BPA has estrogenic effect on ODJ.

In Vitro Evaluation of Shear Bond Strengths of Zirconia Cerami with Various Types of Cement after Thermocycling on Bovine Dentin Surface (지르코니아 표면 처리와 시멘트 종류에 따른 치면과의 전단 결합 강도 비교 연구)

  • Cho, Soo-Hyun;Cho, In-Ho;Lee, Jong-Hyuk;Nam, Ki-Young;Kim, Jong-Bae;Hwang, Sang-Hee
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.249-257
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    • 2007
  • State of problem : The use of zirconium oxide all-ceramic material provides several advantages, including a high flexural strength(>1000MPa) and desirable optical properties, such as shading adaptation to the basic shades and a reduction in the layer thickness. Along with the strength of the materials, the cementation technique is also important to the clinical success of a restoration. Nevertheless, little information is available on the effect of different surface treatments on the bonding of zirconium high-crystalline ceramics and resin luting agents. Purpose : The aim of this study was to test the effects of surface treatments of zirconium on shear bond strengths between bovine teeth and a zirconia ceramic and evaluate differences among cements Material and methods : 54 sound bovine teeth extracted within a 1 months, were used. They were frozen in distilled water. These were rinsed by tap water to confirm that no granulation tissues have left. These were kept refrigerated at $4^{\circ}C$ until tested. Each tooth was placed horizontally at a plastic cylinder (diameter 20mm), and embedded in epoxy resin. Teeth were sectioned with diamond burs to expose dentin and grinded with #600 silicon carbide paper. To make sure there was no enamel left, each was observed under an optical microscope. 54 prefabricated zirconium oxide ceramic copings(Lava, 3M ESPE, USA) were assigned into 3 groups ; control, airborne-abraded with $110{\mu}m$ $Al_2O_3$ and scratched with diamond burs at 4 directions. They were cemented with a seating force of 10 ㎏ per tooth, using resin luting cement(Panavia $F^{(R)}$), resin cement(Superbond $C&B^{(R)}$), and resin modified GI cement(Rely X $Luting^{(R)}$). Those were thermocycled at $5^{\circ}C$ and $55^{\circ}C$ for 5000 cycles with a 30 second dwell time, and then shear bond strength was determined in a universal test machine(Model 4200, Instron Co., Canton, USA). The crosshead speed was 1 mm/min. The result was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) and the Tukey test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results : Superbond $C&B^{(R)}$ at scratching with diamond burs showed the highest shear bond strength than others (p<.05). For Panavia $F^{(R)}$, groups of scratching and sandblasting showed significantly higher shear bond strength than control group(p<.05). For Rely X $Luting^{(R)}$, only between scratching & control group, significantly different shear bond strength was observed(p<.05). Conclusion : Within the limitation of this study, Superbond $C&B^{(R)}$ showed clinically acceptable shear bond between bovine teeth & zirconia ceramics regardless of surface treatments. For the surface treatment, scratching increased shear bond strength. Increase of shear bond strength by sandblasting with $110{\mu}m$ $Al_2O_3$ was not statistically different.

A comparative study on the fit and screw joint stability of ready-made abutment and CAD-CAM custom-made abutment (기성 지대주와 맞춤형 CAD-CAM 지대주의 적합 및 나사 안정성 비교)

  • Kim, Jong-Wook;Heo, Yu-Ri;Kim, Hee-Jung;Chung, Chae-Heon
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.276-283
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the fit and screw joint stability between Ready-made abutment and CAD-CAM custom-made abutment. Materials and methods: Osstem implant system was used. Ready-made abutment (Transfer abutment, Osstem Implant Co. Ltd, Busan, Korea), CAD-CAM custom-made abutment (CustomFit abutment, Osstem Implant Co. Ltd, Busan, Korea) and domestically manufactured CAD-CAM custom-made abutment (Myplant, Raphabio Co., Seoul, Korea) were fabricated five each and screws were provided by each company. Fixture and abutments were tightening with 30Ncm according to the manufacturer's instruction and then preloding reverse torque values were measured 3 times repeatedly. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis of the preloading reverse torque values (${\alpha}=.05$). After specimens were embedded into epoxy resin, wet cutting and polishing was performed and FE-SEM imaging was performed, on the contact interface. Results: The pre-loading reverse torque values were $26.0{\pm}0.30Ncm$ (ready-made abutment; Transfer abutment) and $26.3{\pm}0.32Ncm$ (CAD-CAM custom-made abutment; CustomFit abutment) and $24.7{\pm}0.67Ncm$ (CAD-CAM custom-made abutment; Myplant). The domestically manufactured CAD-CAM custom-made abutment (Myplant abutment) presented lower pre-loading reverse torque value with statistically significant difference than that of the ready-made abutment (Transfer abutment) and CAD-CAM custom-made abutment (CustomFit abutment) manufactured from the same company (P=.027) and showed marginal gap in the fixture-abutment interface. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present in-vitro study, in domestically manufactured CAD-CAM custom-made abutment (Myplant abutment) showed lower screw joint stability and fitness between fixture and abutment.

A Study on the Characteristic and Manufacture Technique for the Gold wire of Phoenix-Shaped Glass Ewer by National Treasure No. 193 (국보 제193호 봉수형유리병 금사의 특성과 제작기법 연구)

  • Hwang, Hyun Sung;Yun, Eun Young
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2015
  • The Phoenix-shaped Glass Ewer, which is No. 193 National Treasure, was seriously damaged by a unique form of green glass pieces when excavated among a number of burial accessories of Hwangnamdaechong known to have been formed in the 5th century. While it has long been exhibited at the National Museum of Korea since its treatment for conservation treatment at conservation science laboratory in 1984, the existing adhesive materials seriously deteriorated for the 30 years, and the condition was quite unstable. The epoxy resin used as a restorative materials turned yellowing due to the light and heat so much that it was no longer able to exhibit it in a stable and effective manner. As a result, a re-treatment for conservation was conducted lately. This study focuses on the three pieces of Gold wires used to carefully wrap up the handle of the Phoenix-shaped Glass Ewer broken into three pieces, which has not been studied so far. As for the analysis method for Gold wires, SEM-EDS and Stereo Microscope were used for nondestructive analysis. First of all, the result of the SEM-EDS analysis shows that the composition was Au 91.9 wt.%-Au 92.8 w.t% and Ag 5.9 wt.%-Ag 6.5 wt.%, which indicates that it was an alloy made of Au and Ag. The production technique of Gold wires was also observed by means of optical microscopes. In general, Gold wires were manufactured by a drawing process in which a lump of gold was beaten or pulled out of a hole or by a process of twisting a gold plate. However, Gold wires separated from the handle of the Phoenix-shaped Glass Ewer did not involve any trace of twisting on the surface. Rather, fine vertical stripes were observed with the sections filled up. Hence, it is thought that this Ewer went through a drawing process and then was mended. As a result, no certain relation with the golden mending material used for the Phoenix-shaped Glass Ewer was verified. The findings above indicate that most of the existing researches on Gold wires recognized them, not as separate remains, but merely as a component of other golden remains. Thus, there has been little systematic study on the manufacturing techniques of Gold wires. The future study on Gold wires may verify the correlation between the Gold wires used to fix the handle of the Phoenix-shaped Glass Ewer, which is examined in this study, with that of golden remains in the Silla era.

Deterioration Diagnosis and Source Area of Rock Properties at the West Stone Pagoda, Gameunsaji Temple Site, Korea (감은사지 서탑의 풍화훼손도 진단 및 석재의 산지추정)

  • Lee Chan Hee;Lee Myeong Seong;Suh Mancheol;Choi Seok-Won;Kim Man Gap
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.569-583
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    • 2004
  • The rock properties of the West pagoda in the Gameunsaji temple site are composed mainly of dark grey porphyritic granodiorite with medium grained equigranular texture and developed with small numerous dioritic xenoliths. These xenoliths occurred with small holes due to different weathering processes. As a weathering results, the rock properties of this pagoda occur wholly softened to physical hardness because of a complex result of petrological, meteorological and biological causes. Southeastern part of the pagoda deteriorated seriously that the surface of rock blocks showed partially exfoliations, fractures, open cavities in course of granular decomposition of minerals, sea water spray and crystallization of salt from the eastern coast. The Joint between blocks has small or large fracture cross each other, contaminated and corrupted for inserting with concrete, cement mortar, rock fragments and iron plates, and partially accelerated coloration and fractures. There are serious contamination materials of algae, fungus, lichen and bryophytes on the margin and the surface on the roof stone of the pagoda, so it'll require conservation treatment biochemically for releasing vegetation inhabiting on the surface and the discontinuous plane of the blocks because of adding the weathering activity of stones and growing weeds naturally by soil processing on the fissure zone. Consisting rock for the conservation and restoration of the pagoda would be careful choice of new rock properties and epoxy to reinforce for the deterioration surfaces. For the attenuation of secondary contamination and surface humidity, the possible conservation treatments are needed.

Packaging Technology for the Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexed Sensors (광섬유 브래그 격자 다중화 센서 패키징 기술에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang Mae
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2017
  • The packaged optical fiber Bragg grating sensors which were networked by multiplexing the Bragg grating sensors with WDM technology were investigated in application for the structural health monitoring of the marine trestle structure transporting the ship. The optical fiber Bragg grating sensor was packaged in a cylindrical shape made of aluminum tubes. Furthermore, after the packaged optical fiber sensor was inserted in polymeric tube, the epoxy was filled inside the tube so that the sensor has resistance and durability against sea water. The packaged optical fiber sensor component was investigated under 0.2 MPa of hydraulic pressure and was found to be robust. The number and location of Bragg gratings attached at the trestle were determined where the trestle was subject to high displacement obtained by the finite element simulation. Strain of the part in the trestle being subjected to the maximum load was analyzed to be ${\sim}1000{\mu}{\varepsilon}$ and thus shift in Bragg wavelength of the sensor caused by the maximum load of the trestle was found to be ~1,200 pm. According to results of the finite element analysis, the Bragg wavelength spacings of the sensors were determined to have 3~5 nm without overlapping of grating wavelengths between sensors when the trestle was under loads and thus 50 of the grating sensors with each module consisting of 5 sensors could be networked within 150 nm optical window at 1550 nm wavelength of the Bragg wavelength interrogator. Shifts in Bragg wavelength of the 5 packaged optical fiber sensors attached at the mock trestle unit were well interrogated by the grating interrogator which used the optical fiber loop mirror, and the maximum strain rate was measured to be about $235.650{\mu}{\varepsilon}$. The modelling result of the sensor packaging and networking was in good agreements with experimental result each other.

Residue Study for Bisphenol A in Agricultural Reservoirs (농업용 저수지에서 Bisphenol A의 잔류실태조사)

  • Cho, Il Kyu;Nam, Hyo Song;Jeon, Yongbae;Park, Jun sung;Na, Tae Wong;Kim, Back Jong;Kan, Eunsung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.270-277
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: Significant amount of bisphenol A has been released from the manufacturing process of plastics, epoxy resins, dental material and flame retardants. Bisphenol A has been detected at trace levels in wastewater, surface water, landfill leachate and drinking water. However, the residual survey of bisphenol A has not been performed in agricultural reservoir beside agricultural environment cultivating crops. This study was conducted to monitor the residual bisphenol A in national agricultural reservoirs and understand a level of contamination of bisphenol A in the agricultural environment in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: The water and water sediment were collected at agricultural reservoirs in Chungnam, Chungbuk, Kyunggi, Jeonnam, Jeonbuk, Kyungnam and Kyungbuk province. Bisphenol A was analyzed by the LC-MS/MS with triple quad 4500. The recovery of water and water sediment in the agricultural reservoirs showed the level of 95.7~97.2% and 91.5~100.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bisphenol A was detected at the level of $0.05{\mu}g/L{\sim}0.18{\mu}g/L$ and $0.1{\mu}g/kg{\sim}34{\mu}g/kg$ in water and water sediment of the reservoirs, respectively. Based on the results, the residue of bisphenol A will be tried in the crops surrounding these agricultural reservoirs where bisphenol A detected above $10{\mu}g/kg$ of bisphenol A.

REMINERALIZATION DEPTH OF CPP-ACP ON DEMINERALIZATION HUMAN ENAMEL IN VITRO (탈회된 법랑질에서 CPP-ACP의 재광화 깊이)

  • Choi, Han-Ju;Choi, Yeong-Chul;Kim, Kwang-Chul;Choi, Sung-Chul
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.278-286
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    • 2008
  • Many studies regarding Casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP) have demonstrated the remineralization ability on the demineralized enamel surface. A question is still remained that how deep can the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) ions supplied by the CPP-ACP paste penetrate into the enamel subsurface. The aims of this study were to measure the penetrating depth of Ca and P ions in the demineralized human enamel in vitro, and were to determine the amount and depth of Ca and P ions according to the duration. The amount and depth of Ca and P ions were measured by microscopic observation with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM; LEO SUPRA 55, Carl Zeiss, Germany) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS; GENESIS 2000, EDAX, USA: Linescan of Calcium and Phosphorus). Freshly extracted four human 1st premolars were obtained from the Dept. of Pediatric Dent., Kyung Hee Univ. Buccal surfaces of the 1st premolars were covered with nail varnish to form a window on the middle third of buccal surface. All of the teeth with enamel windows were immersed in a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid, Carbopol C907 (carboxypolymethylene BF Goodrich, Cleveland, OH, USA) at pH 4.8, and then incubated for 7 days. Each tooth crown was sawn in half through the midline of buccal window along the long axis of premolar. The four blocks of premolars were immersed in a 10-times diluted solution of CPP-ACP paste (Tooth Mousse, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan) for 1, 2, 3 and 5 weeks while the rests were immersed in a placebo solution (distilled water) for the same duration. Each specimen was embedded in epoxy resin, and was sectioned perpendicular to the window, using a water-cooled diamond blade saw. The spectrum density indices of Ca and P were measured in the sound, de- and remineralized enamels by FE-SEM and EDS. The Student's t test was performed to compare the Spectrum Density Indices (SDI) of sound, re-and demineralized enamels, and to compare the differences among the durations. Followings are the conclusion : 1. The penetration depth of the remineralizing ions (Ca & P) of CPP-ACP paste is related to the depth of demineralized enamel (approximately $1050{\sim}1350{\mu}m$). It is revealed that the penetration depth of both ions reaches full thickness of decalcification and even slightly into the sound enamel. 2. The Ca & P levels of remineralized enamels in 1, 2 weeks were significantly higher than those of the sound enamels (p<0.05). 3. No statistically significant difference of Ca & P levels was found in relation with the increasing duration of remineralization (p>0.05).

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Flexural strength of various kinds of the resin bridges fabricated with 3D printing (3D 프린팅으로 제작된 여러 종류의 레진브릿지의 굴곡강도에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Mo;Kim, Seong-Kyun;Park, Ji-Man;Kim, Jang-Hyun;Jeon, Yoon-Tae;Koak, Jai-Young
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.260-268
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Manufacturing with AM (Additive manufacturing) technique has many advantages; but, due to insufficient study in the area, it is not being widely used in the general clinic. In this study, differences of flexural strength among various materials of 3 unit fixed dental prosthesis were analyzed. Materials and Methods: A metal jig for specimens that had a 3-unit-fixed dental prosthesis figure were fabricated. The jigs were made appropriately to the specifications of the specimens. Three different kinds of materials of specimens which were NC (mathacrylic esther based), DP-1 (Bisphenol A epoxy acrylate type oligomer based), and DT-1 (urethane acrylate based) were printed with DLP machine. Five specimens for each kind of material were printed with an angle of $30^{\circ}$ from the horizontal surface. The specimens were placed on the jig and the flexural strength was measured and recorded using Universal testing machine. The recorded data was analyzed in SPSS using One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD to determine the significance of the differences of flexural strength among the groups. Results: The flexural strengths of each group were the followings: NC, $1119{\pm}305$ N; DP-1, $619{\pm}150$ N; DT-1, $413{\pm}65N$. Using One-way ANOVA and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test, significant difference was found between NC and the other groups (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between DP-1 and DT-1 (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Higher flexural strength was shown in 3-unit-fixed dental prosthesis that were 3D printed using a DLP machine with NC material.

A Study on the Tree Surgery Problem and Protection Measures in Monumental Old Trees (천연기념물 노거수 외과수술 문제점 및 보존 관리방안에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Jong Soo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.122-142
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    • 2009
  • This study explored all domestic and international theories for maintenance and health enhancement of an old and big tree, and carried out the anatomical survey of the operation part of the tree toward he current status of domestic surgery and the perception survey of an expert group, and drew out following conclusion through the process of suggesting its reform plan. First, as a result of analyzing the correlation of the 67 subject trees with their ages, growth status. surroundings, it revealed that they were closely related to positional characteristic, damage size, whereas were little related to materials by fillers. Second, the size of the affected part was the most frequent at the bough sheared part under $0.09m^2$, and the hollow size by position(part) was the biggest at 'root + stem' starting from the behind of the main root and stem As a result of analyzing the correlation, the same result was elicited at the group with low correlation. Third, the problem was serious in charging the fillers (especially urethane) in the big hollow or exposed root produced at the behind of the root and stem part, or surface-processing it. The benefit by charging the hollow part was analyzed as not so much. Fourth, the surface-processing of fillers currently used (artificial bark) is mainly 'epoxy+woven fabric+cork', but it is not flexible, so it has brought forth problems of frequent cracks and cracked surface at the joint part with the treetextured part. Fifth, the correlation with the external status of the operated part was very high with the closeness, surface condition, formation of adhesive tissue and internal survey result. Sixth, the most influential thing on flushing by the wrong management of an old and big tree was banking, and a wrong pruning was the source of the ground part damage. In pruning a small bough can easily recover itself from its damage as its formation of adhesive tissue when it is cut by a standard method. Seventh, the parameters affecting the times of related business handling of an old and big tree are 'the need of the conscious reform of the manager and related business'. Eighth, a reform plan in an institutional aspect can include the arrangement of the law and organization of the old and big tree management and preservation at an institutional aspect. This study for preparing a reform plan through the status survey of the designated old and big tree, has a limit inducing a reform plan based on the status survey through individual research, and a weak point suggesting grounds by any statistical data. This can be complemented by subsequent studies.