• Title, Summary, Keyword: deployment

Search Result 1,792, Processing Time 0.037 seconds

A Smoothing Data Cleaning based on Adaptive Window Sliding for Intelligent RFID Middleware Systems (지능적인 RFID 미들웨어 시스템을 위한 적응형 윈도우 슬라이딩 기반의 유연한 데이터 정제)

  • Shin, DongCheon;Oh, Dongok;Ryu, SeungWan;Park, Seikwon
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.1-18
    • /
    • 2014
  • Over the past years RFID/SN has been an elementary technology in a diversity of applications for the ubiquitous environments, especially for Internet of Things. However, one of obstacles for widespread deployment of RFID technology is the inherent unreliability of the RFID data streams by tag readers. In particular, the problem of false readings such as lost readings and mistaken readings needs to be treated by RFID middleware systems because false readings ultimately degrade the quality of application services due to the dirty data delivered by middleware systems. As a result, for the higher quality of services, an RFID middleware system is responsible for intelligently dealing with false readings for the delivery of clean data to the applications in accordance with the tag reading environment. One of popular techniques used to compensate false readings is a sliding window filter. In a sliding window scheme, it is evident that determining optimal window size intelligently is a nontrivial important task in RFID middleware systems in order to reduce false readings, especially in mobile environments. In this paper, for the purpose of reducing false readings by intelligent window adaption, we propose a new adaptive RFID data cleaning scheme based on window sliding for a single tag. Unlike previous works based on a binomial sampling model, we introduce the weight averaging. Our insight starts from the need to differentiate the past readings and the current readings, since the more recent readings may indicate the more accurate tag transitions. Owing to weight averaging, our scheme is expected to dynamically adapt the window size in an efficient manner even for non-homogeneous reading patterns in mobile environments. In addition, we analyze reading patterns in the window and effects of decreased window so that a more accurate and efficient decision on window adaption can be made. With our scheme, we can expect to obtain the ultimate goal that RFID middleware systems can provide applications with more clean data so that they can ensure high quality of intended services.

Comparative Analysis of ViSCa Platform-based Mobile Payment Service with other Cases (스마트카드 가상화(ViSCa) 플랫폼 기반 모바일 결제 서비스 제안 및 타 사례와의 비교분석)

  • Lee, June-Yeop;Lee, Kyoung-Jun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.163-178
    • /
    • 2014
  • Following research proposes "Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa)" which is a security system that aims to provide a multi-device platform for the deployment of services that require a strong security protocol, both for the access & authentication and execution of its applications and focuses on analyzing Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service by comparing with other similar cases. At the present day, the appearance of new ICT, the diffusion of new user devices (such as smartphones, tablet PC, and so on) and the growth of internet penetration rate are creating many world-shaking services yet in the most of these applications' private information has to be shared, which means that security breaches and illegal access to that information are real threats that have to be solved. Also mobile payment service is, one of the innovative services, has same issues which are real threats for users because mobile payment service sometimes requires user identification, an authentication procedure and confidential data sharing. Thus, an extra layer of security is needed in their communication and execution protocols. The Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa), concept is a holistic approach and centralized management for a security system that pursues to provide a ubiquitous multi-device platform for the arrangement of mobile payment services that demand a powerful security protocol, both for the access & authentication and execution of its applications. In this sense, Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) offers full interoperability and full access from any user device without any loss of security. The concept prevents possible attacks by third parties, guaranteeing the confidentiality of personal data, bank accounts or private financial information. The Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) concept is split in two different phases: the execution of the user authentication protocol on the user device and the cloud architecture that executes the secure application. Thus, the secure service access is guaranteed at anytime, anywhere and through any device supporting previously required security mechanisms. The security level is improved by using virtualization technology in the cloud. This virtualization technology is used terminal virtualization to virtualize smart card hardware and thrive to manage virtualized smart cards as a whole, through mobile cloud technology in Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service. This entire process is referred to as Smart Card as a Service (SCaaS). Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service virtualizes smart card, which is used as payment mean, and loads it in to the mobile cloud. Authentication takes place through application and helps log on to mobile cloud and chooses one of virtualized smart card as a payment method. To decide the scope of the research, which is comparing Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service with other similar cases, we categorized the prior researches' mobile payment service groups into distinct feature and service type. Both groups store credit card's data in the mobile device and settle the payment process at the offline market. By the location where the electronic financial transaction information (data) is stored, the groups can be categorized into two main service types. First is "App Method" which loads the data in the server connected to the application. Second "Mobile Card Method" stores its data in the Integrated Circuit (IC) chip, which holds financial transaction data, which is inbuilt in the mobile device secure element (SE). Through prior researches on accept factors of mobile payment service and its market environment, we came up with six key factors of comparative analysis which are economic, generality, security, convenience(ease of use), applicability and efficiency. Within the chosen group, we compared and analyzed the selected cases and Virtualization of Smart Cards (ViSCa) platform-based mobile payment service.

Performance of Drip Irrigation System in Banana Cultuivation - Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

  • Kumar, K. Nirmal Ravi;Kumar, M. Suresh
    • Agribusiness and Information Management
    • /
    • v.8 no.1
    • /
    • pp.17-26
    • /
    • 2016
  • India is largest producer of banana in the world producing 29.72 million tonnes from an area of 0.803 million ha with a productivity of 35.7 MT ha-1 and accounted for 15.48 and 27.01 per cent of the world's area and production respectively (www.nhb.gov.in). In India, Tamil Nadu leads other states both in terms of area and production followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. In Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, Kurnool district had special reputation in the cultivation of banana in an area of 5765 hectares with an annual production of 2.01 lakh tonnes in the year 2012-13 and hence, it was purposively chosen for the study. On $23^{rd}$ November 2003, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has commenced a comprehensive project called 'Andhra Pradesh Micro Irrigation Project (APMIP)', first of its kind in the world so as to promote water use efficiency. APMIP is offering 100 per cent of subsidy in case of SC, ST and 90 per cent in case of other categories of farmers up to 5.0 acres of land. In case of acreage between 5-10 acres, 70 per cent subsidy and acreage above 10, 50 per cent of subsidy is given to the farmer beneficiaries. The sampling frame consists of Kurnool district, two mandals, four villages and 180 sample farmers comprising of 60 farmers each from Marginal (<1ha), Small (1-2ha) and Other (>2ha) categories. A well structured pre-tested schedule was employed to collect the requisite information pertaining to the performance of drip irrigation among the sample farmers and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model was employed to analyze the performance of drip irrigation in banana farms. The performance of drip irrigation was assessed based on the parameters like: Land Development Works (LDW), Fertigation costs (FC), Volume of water supplied (VWS), Annual maintenance costs of drip irrigation (AMC), Economic Status of the farmer (ES), Crop Productivity (CP) etc. The first four parameters are considered as inputs and last two as outputs for DEA modelling purposes. The findings revealed that, the number of farms operating at CRS are more in number in other farms (46.66%) followed by marginal (45%) and small farms (28.33%). Similarly, regarding the number of farmers operating at VRS, the other farms are again more in number with 61.66 per cent followed by marginal (53.33%) and small farms (35%). With reference to scale efficiency, marginal farms dominate the scenario with 57 per cent followed by others (55%) and small farms (50%). At pooled level, 26.11 per cent of the farms are being operated at CRS with an average technical efficiency score of 0.6138 i.e., 47 out of 180 farms. Nearly 40 per cent of the farmers at pooled level are being operated at VRS with an average technical efficiency score of 0.7241. As regards to scale efficiency, nearly 52 per cent of the farmers (94 out of 180 farmers) at pooled level, either performed at the optimum scale or were close to the optimum scale (farms having scale efficiency values equal to or more than 0.90). Majority of the farms (39.44%) are operating at IRS and only 29 per cent of the farmers are operating at DRS. This signifies that, more resources should be provided to these farms operating at IRS and the same should be decreased towards the farms operating at DRS. Nearly 32 per cent of the farms are operating at CRS indicating efficient utilization of resources. Log linear regression model was used to analyze the major determinants of input use efficiency in banana farms. The input variables considered under DEA model were again considered as influential factors for the CRS obtained for the three categories of farmers. Volume of water supplied ($X_1$) and fertigation cost ($X_2$) are the major determinants of banana farms across all the farmer categories and even at pooled level. In view of their positive influence on the CRS, it is essential to strengthen modern irrigation infrastructure like drip irrigation and offer more fertilizer subsidies to the farmer to enhance the crop production on cost-effective basis in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study further suggests that, the present era of Information Technology will help the irrigation management in the context of generating new techniques, extension, adoption and information. It will also guide the farmers in irrigation scheduling and quantifying the irrigation water requirements in accordance with the water availability in a particular season. So, it is high time for the Government of India to pay adequate attention towards the applications of 'Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its applications in irrigation water management' for facilitating the deployment of Decision Supports Systems (DSSs) at various levels of planning and management of water resources in the country.

Development of a Prototype System for Aquaculture Facility Auto Detection Using KOMPSAT-3 Satellite Imagery (KOMPSAT-3 위성영상 기반 양식시설물 자동 검출 프로토타입 시스템 개발)

  • KIM, Do-Ryeong;KIM, Hyeong-Hun;KIM, Woo-Hyeon;RYU, Dong-Ha;GANG, Su-Myung;CHOUNG, Yun-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.63-75
    • /
    • 2016
  • Aquaculture has historically delivered marine products because the country is surrounded by ocean on three sides. Surveys on production have been conducted recently to systematically manage aquaculture facilities. Based on survey results, pricing controls on marine products has been implemented to stabilize local fishery resources and to ensure minimum income for fishermen. Such surveys on aquaculture facilities depend on manual digitization of aerial photographs each year. These surveys that incorporate manual digitization using high-resolution aerial photographs can accurately evaluate aquaculture with the knowledge of experts, who are aware of each aquaculture facility's characteristics and deployment of those facilities. However, using aerial photographs has monetary and time limitations for monitoring aquaculture resources with different life cycles, and also requires a number of experts. Therefore, in this study, we investigated an automatic prototype system for detecting boundary information and monitoring aquaculture facilities based on satellite images. KOMPSAT-3 (13 Scene), a local high-resolution satellite provided the satellite imagery collected between October and April, a time period in which many aquaculture facilities were operating. The ANN classification method was used for automatic detecting such as cage, longline and buoy type. Furthermore, shape files were generated using a digitizing image processing method that incorporates polygon generation techniques. In this study, our newly developed prototype method detected aquaculture facilities at a rate of 93%. The suggested method overcomes the limits of existing monitoring method using aerial photographs, but also assists experts in detecting aquaculture facilities. Aquaculture facility detection systems must be developed in the future through application of image processing techniques and classification of aquaculture facilities. Such systems will assist in related decision-making through aquaculture facility monitoring.

Demonstration-scale Offshore CO2 Storage Project in the Pohang Basin, Korea (포항분지 해상 중소규모 CO2 저장 실증연구)

  • Kwon, Yi Kyun
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.133-160
    • /
    • 2018
  • $CO_2$ storage is a very important technology for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and has been considered as almost the only viable and effective option for immediate large-scale $CO_2$ sequestration. Small-scale demonstration project for offshore $CO_2$ storage in the Pohang Basin is the transitional stage R&D program for technological preparation of large-scale $CO_2$ storage project in Korea. Through the extensive exploration research for prospective $CO_2$ storage sites, the offshore strata in the Pohang Basin was recommended for the storage formation of the small-scale demonstration project. The Pohang Offshore Storage Project launched at 2013, and has accomplished the technical demonstration and technological independence in a wide range of $CO_2$ storage technology, such as geophysical exploration, storage site characterization, storage design, offshore platform construction, injection-well drilling and completion, deployment of injection facility, operation of $CO_2$ injection, and $CO_2$ monitoring. The project successfully carried out $CO_2$ test injection in early 2017, and achieved its final goal for technical development and demonstration of $CO_2$ storage in Korea. The realization of $CO_2$ injection in this project is the measurable result and has been recorded as the first success in Korea. The Pohang Offshore Storage Project has a future plan for the continuous operation of $CO_2$ injection and completion of $CO_2$ monitoring system. The project has provided in-house technical and practical expertises, which will be a solid foundation for the commercial-scale $CO_2$ storage business in Korea. Additionally, the project will help to secure national technical competitiveness in growing international technology market for $CO_2$ storage.

Legal Status of Space Weaponization (우주공간에서의 무기배치와 사용의 법적 지위)

  • Shin, Hong-Kyun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.247-276
    • /
    • 2017
  • The protection of space asset has been new major cause of space militarization. For such purpose, it has been officially announced that a policy of deterring and denying any adversaries from accessing the outer space. Space militarization is to be conversed into a new concept of space weaponization. The USA has announced its policy of space weaponization, while China and Russia have not revealed their plan or policy. Latter States, however, have proposed a draft treaty limiting the deployment of warfare in the outer space. The terms of the Outer Space Treaty, reflecting three significant United Nations General Assembly resolutions from the 1960s, support the position that ground rules must be observed in the exploration and the use of outer space, particularly in the absence of specific space law rules. Yet the combination (and culmination) of these two approaches to the legal regulation of outer space-specific rules as and when agreed by the international community and the translation of principles developed for terrestrial regulation to outer space-still leaves much room for uncertainty and exploitation for military and strategic purposes. As space weaponization may contribute to deterring the use of weapon, it may be not against the UN Charter Article 2(4). If space weaponization might generate the space debris such that the outer space is no more available for exploration and use, it is against the proportionality principle and discrimination principle enshrined in the laws of the war. But, if the limitation upon the kind and use of space weaponization is agreed among the States, then the space weaponization may not be against the laws of the war, and be considered permissible within the rationale of limited war.

  • PDF

Militarization and Weaponization of Outer Space in International Law

  • Kim, Han-Taek
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.261-284
    • /
    • 2018
  • The current international legal system does not provide a safeguard against the militarization and the weaponization of outer space. Although the term "peaceful use of outer space" in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty(OST) appears in official government statements or in multilateral space treaties, it is still without an authoritative definition in reviewing national practices. The ambiguous ban on weapons in Article IV of the OST allows countries to loophole on the deployment of other weapons other than nuclear weapons. Meanwhile "Draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapon in Outer Space and of the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects(PPWT)" to Conference on Disarmament (CD) commissioned by the UN General Assembly's Special Session jointly submitted by China and Russia in 2008 and later revised in 2014, attempting to define and prohibit the proliferation of weapons in outer space and provided definitions of prohibited weapons, are opposed by the US on the grounds that currently there is no arms race in outer space. Some experts support a hard law approach in which binding laws aimed at ultimately creating integrated and binding legal instruments in all aspects of the use of outer space should be adopted to regulate the military use of space. However as a temporary measure the soft law guidelines should be developed for the non liquiet, a situation where there is no applicable law. The soft law could be used to create support for the declaration of the treaties and to create international customary law. For example, the 1963 Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space that regulates the activities of the state in the exploration and use of the universe, and the 1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space will illustrated. While substantial portions of the former was codified later in the 1967 OST, the latter which, although written in somewhat mandatory terms, have been consistently complied with by states, have arguably become part of customary international law. On November 12, 1974, the General Assembly reaffirmed that the development of international law may be reflected inter alia, by declarations and resolutions of the General Assembly which may to that extent be taken into consideration by the International Court of Justice.

A Performance Evaluation of the e-Gov Standard Framework on PaaS Cloud Computing Environment: A Geo-based Image Processing Case (PaaS 클라우드 컴퓨팅 환경에서 전자정부 표준프레임워크 성능평가: 공간영상 정보처리 사례)

  • KIM, Kwang-Seob;LEE, Ki-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1-13
    • /
    • 2018
  • Both Platform as a Service (PaaS) as one of the cloud computing service models and the e-government (e-Gov) standard framework from the Ministry of the Interior and Safety (MOIS) provide developers with practical computing environments to build their applications in every web-based services. Web application developers in the geo-spatial information field can utilize and deploy many middleware software or common functions provided by either the cloud-based service or the e-Gov standard framework. However, there are few studies for their applicability and performance in the field of actual geo-spatial information application yet. Therefore, the motivation of this study was to investigate the relevance of these technologies or platform. The applicability of these computing environments and the performance evaluation were performed after a test application deployment of the spatial image processing case service using Web Processing Service (WPS) 2.0 on the e-Gov standard framework. This system was a test service supported by a cloud environment of Cloud Foundry, one of open source PaaS cloud platforms. Using these components, the performance of the test system in two cases of 300 and 500 threads was assessed through a comparison test with two kinds of service: a service case for only the PaaS and that on the e-Gov on the PaaS. The performance measurements were based on the recording of response time with respect to users' requests during 3,600 seconds. According to the experimental results, all the test cases of the e-Gov on PaaS considered showed a greater performance. It is expected that the e-Gov standard framework on the PaaS cloud would be important factors to build the web-based spatial information service, especially in public sectors.

Analysis of doctors' cognition of patient safety at general hospitals (일개 상급종합병원 의사들의 환자안전문화에 대한 인식 분석)

  • Yu, Eun-Yeong;Jung, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.13 no.6
    • /
    • pp.2607-2616
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was designed to figure out patient safety culture of medical institutions and try to utilize the study results as basic data for analyzing doctor's awareness of patient safety culture. To this end, questionnaire survey was conducted from August 1st to September 5th, 2011, targeting doctors working at senior general hospitals located in G city, and 194 questionnaires were utilized for final analysis. The research results are as follows. First, there was a difference in awareness of deployment of staffs depending on gender, age, term of service in the hospital, contact with patients and working hours per week in relationship between subjects, wards and hospital safety culture, and organizational learning and teamwork in the ward turned out to be significant in accordance with working hours per week, and all sub-areas of the ward safety culture by departments. Second, feedback about the malpractice, communication, report on malpractice frequency and overall safety awareness were found to be significant by departments in relationship of subjects, medical incident reporting system, patient safety evaluation and overall level of consciousness, and the overall safety awareness showed significant results according to contact with patients and working hours per week. Third, there was a positive corelation in sub-areas of the ward and hospital safety culture awareness, overall recognition and patient safety evaluation, and a positive corelation with medical incident reporting system was found in all areas except for attitude of managers/immediate supervisors and that of hospital executives. Fourth, sub-areas of patient safety culture which has a effect on patient safety showed significant results in organizational learning, openness of communication, overall safety awareness, systematic cooperation between departments, feedback/communication and non-punitive response. In conclusion, to increase the level of the ward and hospital patient safety culture of doctors and implement medical incident reporting system faithfully, it is necessary to activate teamwork through organizational learning in the ward based on the adequate staffing and working hours, promote open communication between departments and provide feedback on medical malpractice, thereby establishing a cooperative system by departments and active support of hospital executives for patient safet.

Effect of economic growth, industrial structure, efficiency improvement, decarbonization of power sector and fuel substitution for the transition to low carbon society by 2050 (2050년 저탄소 사회로의 전환을 위한 경제성장, 산업구조, 효율개선, 전력 탈탄소화와 연료 대체의 효과)

  • Park, Nyun-Bae;Hong, Sungjun;Park, Sang Yong
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.61-72
    • /
    • 2014
  • This paper analyzed transition pathways toward a low carbon society in Korea to meet global $2^{\circ}C$ climate target. Lower economic growth, industrial structure change, enhance of energy demand management, decarbonization of power sector, and replacement of low carbon fuel could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from fuel combustion in 2050 by 67% against in 2011, or by 74% against in BAU (Business-As-Usual). Lower economic growth contributes to 13% of cumulative emission reduction relative to BAU, industrial structure change 9%, enhance of energy demand management 72%, decarbonization of power sector 5% and replacement of low carbon fuel 1% respectively. Final energy consumption in 2050 needs to be reduced to 50% relative to 2011, or to 41% relative to BAU. Nuclear, coal and renewable energy represent 31%, 40%, 2% respectively among electricity generation in 2011, but 38%, 2%, 32% in 2050. CCS represents 23% of total generation in 2050. Emission intensity of electricity in 2050 was decreased to 19% relative to 2011, or to 24% relative to BAU. Primary energy in 2050 was decreased to 64% compared to 2011, or to 44% compared to BAU. Final energy consumption, primary energy supply and GHG emission from fuel combustion from 1990 to 2011 increased by 176%, 197%, 146%. Radical change from historical trend is required to transit toward a low carbon society by 2050. Appropriate economic growth, structural change to non-energy intensive industries, energy technology research, development and deployment (RD&D) in terms of enhancement of energy efficiency and low carbon energy supply technologies, and fuel change to electricity and renewable energy are key instruments.