• Title/Summary/Keyword: cooked rice

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Varietal Difference in Retrogradation of Cooked Rice and Its Association with Physicochemical Properties of Rice Grain

  • Choi, Hae Chune;Hong, Ha Cheal;Cho, Soo Yeon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 1999
  • The experiments were carried out to elucidate the varietal variation of retrogradation in aged cooked rice and its association with some physicochemical properties of milled rice. The fifteen rice materials were selected from forty-three low-amylose japonica and Tongil-type rice cultivars based on palatability and retrogradation of cooked rice stratified by preliminary sensory evaluation of warm and cooled cooked rice. One japonica glutinous rice variety was included for comparison of retrogradation of cooked rice. The $\alpha$-amylase-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The desirable checking time for evaluating the varietal difference in deterioration of aged cooked rice was four hours after storing in room temperature and two hours after preserving in refrigerator based on the largest coefficients of variations in degree of retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. The retrogadation index represented by the percentage of retrogradation difference between warm and cooled cooked rice to original estimates of warm cooked rice was significantly affected by the degree of retrogradation of cooled cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked nce. The varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice can be effectively classified by scatter diagram on the plane of upper two principal components based on some retrogradation properties of cooked rice. The deteriorated structural change in cooled cooked rice by observing through the scanning electron microscope was more conspicuous in the fastly retrograded cooked rice than in the slower one.

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The Effect of Medium-Cooked Rice on the Production of Korean Traditional Yakju (한국 전통 약주의 제조시 반숙미의 사용효과)

  • 소명환;유태종
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.189-198
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    • 1993
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of medium-cooked rice on brewing of yakju which was a traditional rice wine in Korea. The influences of cooking temperature of rice on hydrolysis of rice starch and rice protein were tested, and experimental brewings were done according to the traditional brewing method of Bangmunju in which some medium-cooked rice was used. The results obtained were as follows The hydrolysis of starch and protein in medium-cooked rice at 60~$65^{\circ}C$ was easier than that of full-cooked rice at 80~10$0^{\circ}C$. The amounts of saccharides, total amino acids and extracts In Yakju brewed with the combined use of medium-cooked rice and full-cooked rice were twice as much as those brewed with full-cooked rice only. The results of sensory test of Yakju brewed with the combined use of medium-cooked rice and full-cooked rice were better in taste, color and flavor than those brewed with full-cooked rice only. It was thought that our ancestor's traditional brewing method of Yakju in which medium cooked rice and full-cooked rice were used combinedly was excellent Judging from zymological point of views.

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A Study on the Menu Patterns of Residents in Kangbukgu(II) -Compared by the Sex, Age and Health Risk- (서울시 강북구 주민의 메뉴패턴에 관한 연구(II) -성별, 연령, 위험요인 중심으로-)

  • 허인영;문현경
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.809-818
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to fad the specific character of menu patterns by sex, age and health risk of subjects for the basic data of a nutrition education program. The dietary intake of the subjects was investigated by the 24-hour recall method. Subjects consisted of male 94, female 394, total 488. To analyze patterns, dishes were classified into major staple foods ; kimchi, soup and side dishes and also classified into 24 categories by the cooking method. For the men, a frequently served pattern was cooked rice + soup + kimchi. For the women, the pattern was also cooked rice + soup + kimchi. For the 20-49 year olds and the 50-64 year olds, frequently served patterns were cooked rice + soup + kimchi > noodle + kimchi. For the 65-74 year olds, those patterns were cooked rice + stew > cooked rice + kimchi. For the normal group and the risk group, the frequently served pattern was cooked rice + soup + kimchi. The most used menu pattern by the number of dishes was cooked rice + soup + kimchi in the male, female, normal group and risk group. For the 20-49 year olds, the pattern was cooked rice + soup + kimchi and noodle + kimchi. For the 50-64 year olds, it was cooked rice + soup + kimchi. For the 65-74 years old, it was cooked rice + stew. The result of analyzing patterns for the most used main staple food was cooked rice in all groups. The results of analyzing patterns, with those considered basic food, cooked rice, soup and stew, showed that frequently served patterns were cooked rice + soup > cooked rice > cooked rice + stew in all groups. With these results, we can summarize that the menu patterns of people in Kangbukgu was the younger, the more non-traditional. Also, the normal group had more various patterns than those of the risk group. Thus, we need further research about menu patterns to provide adequate nutrition education.

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A Study on the Menu Patterns of Residents in Kangbukgu( I ) -Whole Menu Patterns and Menu Patterns by Meal- (서울시 강북구 주민의 메뉴패턴에 관한 연구(I) -전체 메뉴패턴과 끼니별 메뉴패턴 중심으로-)

  • 허인영;문현경
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.686-702
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to suggest the menu patters of people in Kangbukgu for the basic data of the nutrition education program in its health center. The dietary intake was investigated by the 24-hour recall method for 488 subjects. To analyze patterns, dishes were classified into major staple food, kimchi, soup and side dishes and also classified into 24 categories by cooking method. Patterns by the kind of dishes for the subjects were cooked rice + soup + kimchi 〉noodle + kimchi > cooked rice + kimchi in the order of frequency of use. Patterns for breakfast were, cooked rice + soup + kimchi > coated rice + soup + two dishes of kimchi. For lunch, patterns were, noodle + kimchi > footed rice + kimchi = cooked rice + soup + kimchi. For dinner, patterns were, cooked rice + soup + kimchi = cooked rice + kimchi > noodle + kimchi. Results of analyzing by the number of dishes, were cooked rice + soup + kimchi + one side dish 〉cooked rice + soup + kimchi + two side dishes. It was significantly different by meal(p<0.01). The results of analyzing patterns for the main staple foods were cooked rice〉noodle > bread in that order. It was significantly different by meal(p<0.01). The results of analyzing patterns, with those considered basic food, cooked rice, soup and stew, were cooked rice + soup > cooked rice > cooked rice + stew. It was significantly different by meal(p < 0.01). With these results, the menu patterns of people in Kangbukgu were different by meal. The main dish was mostly cooked rice and the menu has the traditional menu patters, composed of cooked rice, soup and kimchi.

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Eating Qualities of Frozen Cooked Rice on the Thawing Condition (해동조건에 따른 냉동밥의 밥맛 비교)

  • 오명숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.147-157
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    • 1997
  • It attempted to determine the effect of various thawing methods, such as pressure cooking, conventional cooking, microwave heating and thawing at room temperature, on the quality of frozen cooked rice using Nongan variety of rice. These effects were analysed at three different periods-after 10 days, 30 days and 90 days. It conducted a physico-chemical analysis(moisture content, dehydration rates, color value and texture) and sensory evaluation o the frozen-thawed cooked rice. The study showed that there were no significant differences on the frozen-thawed cooked rice. The study showed that there were no significant differences on the quality characteristics of frozen-thawed cooked rice during the storage of 90 days. However, the thawing method of pressure cooking caused high moisture content and decrease in hardness on the cooked rice, the desirability for the rice didn't diminish compared with the cooked rice just after cooking. the quality characteristics of the cooked rice after frozen-thawing by conventional cooking and microwave heating were similar with that of the cooked rice just after cooking. thawing at room temperature caused a significant decrease in quality characteristics.

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The Effects of Sucrose, NaCl and Acetic acid on the Quality Characteristics of Stored Cooked Rice (설탕, 식염, 초산 첨가가 보존중의 밥의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김윤경;오명숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2000
  • This study attempted to determine the effects of sucrose, NaCl and acetic acid on the quality characteristics of cooked rice stored at 20$\^{C}$ for 72 hours. It conducted a moisture content, color value, texture and RVA(Rapid Visco Analyser) viscosity on stored cooked rice. Moisture contents of all groups ecreased during storage and that of cooked rice with NaCl were significantly lower than that of other groups. In color, lightness(L) of cooked rice with various additives seemed higher than that of control group and reduced b value of cooked rice with acetic acid showed that the color became less yellow. In texture, the hardness of cooked rice with NaCl and sucrose was higher than that of control group, whereas that of cooked rice with acetic acid was similar to that of control group. Adhesiveness of cooked rice with acetic acid was higher than that of other groups and it was shown that texture could be improved by the addition of acetic acid. The initial viscosity of cooked rice with acetic acid was markedly higher than that of other groups and finial viscosity was lower than that of other groups. It seemed that addition of acetic acid could retard the retrogradation of stored cooked rice.

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Influence of Cultivar on Rice Cooking Properties (품종별에 따른 쌀밥의 제조에 관한 연구)

  • 민경찬;김평재
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.330-334
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    • 1995
  • A various aseptic packaged cooked rice prepared In Korean rice was developed for extending shelf-life at room temperature. Data of proximate composition showed no significant difference between cultivars except moisture of cooked rice. The optimal condition of added water content for aseptic packaged cooked rice was 1.3 times of rice while 1.5 times for cooked rice and microwave heating. Hardeness of cooked rice was decreased in order of Dongjin, Odae, Chuchung, Kyaehwa, Ilpoom. Sensory evaluation results showed that Ilpoom had a best result while Odae for storage time (7 days).

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Effects of Adding Sugars and Lipids on Characteristics of Cooked Rice (당류 및 유지류 첨가가 밥의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 권혜진;김영아
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 1999
  • To investigate the effect of adding sugars and lipids on characteristics of cooked rice, the solubility, swelling power, blue value, amylogram and sensory evaluation characteristics of cooked rices with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% level of sugars and lipids additives were measured. The solubility, swelling power and blue value of cooked rice with sugars were increased as the more sugars were added. Those parameters of the cooked rice with isomalto oligosaccharide were higher than sucrose. The solubility decreased as the more lipids were added. The swelling power decreased as the more lipids were added. As the result of amylograph analysis, addition of isomalto oligosaccharide accelerates the gelatinization and retards the retrogradation. In sensory evaluation, the cooked rice with 0.5% level of sucrose and isomalto oligosaccharide were showed better acceptability than the others. In conclusion, the additions of sugars and lipids affect characteristics of cooked rice. Especially, the cooked rice with 0.5% isomalto oligosaccharide was showed the best physiochemical and sensory properties.

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Varietal Improvement Related to Palatability of Cooked Rice or Suitability to Food Processing in Rice (쌀 식미 및 가공적성에 관련된 이화학적 특성)

  • 최해춘
    • Proceedings of the Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition Conference
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    • 2001.12a
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    • pp.39-74
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    • 2001
  • The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s∼1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great, progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and qualify evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice caltivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and torture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak. hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscogram with year difference. The high-quality rice variety “Ilpumbyeo” showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic mcroscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high Probability of determination. The ${\alpha}$ -amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, shelved the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogiadation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice bread. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large gram rices showed better suitability for fermentation and brewing. Our breeding efforts on rice quality improvement for the future should focus on enhancement of palatability of cooked rice and marketing qualify as well as the diversification in morphological and physicochemical characteristics of rice grain for various value-added rice food processings.

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Effect of Microwave Reheating on the Quality of Cooked Rice (마이크로파 재가열이 쌀밥의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kum, Jun-Seok;Han, Ouk;Kim, Yong-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.504-512
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    • 1996
  • Changes in quality of cooked rice after microwave reheating were evaluated. Ceramic coated microwave oven reduced a reheating time(1 min). Storage temperature, storage time and microwave reheating did not affect the color value of cooked rice after microwave reheating. Hardness of cooked rice after microwave reheating decreased in frozen storage treatment. Photomicrographs of cross-section of cooked rice after microwave reheating showed restoration of starch. Effect of storage temperature and time were not significant in appearance, aroma, taste and texture of cooked rice after microwave reheating for sensory evaluation test.

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