• Title/Summary/Keyword: convergence

### Bayesian inference of longitudinal Markov binary regression models with t-link function (t-링크를 갖는 마코프 이항 회귀 모형을 이용한 인도네시아 어린이 종단 자료에 대한 베이지안 분석)

• Sim, Bohyun;Chung, Younshik
• The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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• v.33 no.1
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• pp.47-59
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• 2020
• In this paper, we present the longitudinal Markov binary regression model with t-link function when its transition order is known or unknown. It is assumed that logit or probit models are considered in binary regression models. Here, t-link function can be used for more flexibility instead of the probit model since the t distribution approaches to normal distribution as the degree of freedom goes to infinity. A Markov regression model is considered because of the longitudinal data of each individual data set. We propose Bayesian method to determine the transition order of Markov regression model. In particular, we use the deviance information criterion (DIC) (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) of possible models in order to determine the transition order of the Markov binary regression model if the transition order is known; however, we compute and compare their posterior probabilities if unknown. In order to overcome the complicated Bayesian computation, our proposed model is reconstructed by the ideas of Albert and Chib (1993), Kuo and Mallick (1998), and Erkanli et al. (2001). Our proposed method is applied to the simulated data and real data examined by Sommer et al. (1984). Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to determine the optimal model are used assuming that the transition order of the Markov regression model are known or unknown. Gelman and Rubin's method (1992) is also employed to check the convergence of the Metropolis Hastings algorithm.

### An Analysis of the Quality Attributes of Semiconductor Deposition Equipment Using Kano Model: Implications from the Perspective of Complex Products and Systems (CoPS) (카노(Kano) 모델을 활용한 반도체 증착장비 분야 품질 만족 특성 분석: 복합제품시스템(CoPS) 관점에서의 시사점)

• Lee, Seung Hwan;Kim, Byung-Keun;Ji, Ilyong
• Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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• v.21 no.5
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• pp.28-38
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• 2020
• Semiconductor deposition equipment is an important example of Complex Products and Systems (CoPS) and requires in-depth understanding of user requirements. For this reason, we analyzed and compared users' and producers' perspectives on the quality attributes of semiconductor deposition equipment using the Kano model. The results show that the patterns of users' perspectives were different from those of producers. Out of 22 level-2 quality attributes, producers evaluated all 22 attributes as attractive qualities, but users evaluated only 6 as "attractive," 10 as "indifferent," 2 as "must have," and 4 as "other." Although all quality attributes were attractive for producers, only those related to reliability were attractive or must-have qualities, and all others were "indifferent." This result implies that the perspectives on quality attributes may be different between users and producers, and producers should revise their perspectives and strategies. In addition, the results support the characteristics of CoPS suggested by literature implying that performance is more important than economies of scale and cost reduction. It is suggested that producers of semiconductor deposition equipment strategize their approaches to users by considering the characteristics of CoPS.

### Gastroprotective Activity of Curcumae Longae Rhizoma against Gastric Ulcer in Mice (위궤양 유발 마우스모델에서 강황(薑黃) 추출물의 위 보호 효과)

• Oh, Min Hyuck;Kim, Min Ju;Shin, Mi-Rae;Park, Hae-Jin;Seo, Bu-Il;Roh, Seong-Soo
• The Korea Journal of Herbology
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• v.35 no.3
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• pp.17-24
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• 2020
• Objectives : The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastric protective effect of Curcuma Longae Rhizoma (CLR) in 150 mM HCl/60% ethanol induced gastric ulcer (GU) in mice. Methods : Forty ICR mice were divided into five groups (n=8/Group): Nor group; Normal, Veh group; GU control, SC group; GU + sucralfate 10 mg/kg, CL; GU + CLR 30% ethanol extract 100 mg/kg, CH group; GU + CLR 30% ethanol extract 200 mg/kg. Then, mice were orally administered with 150 mM HCl/60% ethanol and caused GU. After 1 hr, mice were sacrificed, and blood and stomach tissue were collected. Results : CLR showed significance scavenging effects in 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities (DPPH IC50; 78.18 ± 0.60 ㎍/㎖, ABTS IC50; 55.91 ± 1.86 ㎍/㎖). CLR significance reduce inflammatory-related factors such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inactivation. In addition, the activation of nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) significantly led to up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes including factors heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), super oxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase-1/2 (GPx-1/2). Conclusions : Our discovery provides that CLR possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Hence, CLR may ameliorate the development of gastric ulcer though the inhibition of NF-κB inflammatory pathway and the elevation of Nrf2 anti-oxidant pathway.

### NCS-based Education & Training and Qualification Proposal for Work-Learning Parallel Companies Introducing Smart Manufacturing Technology (스마트 제조기술을 도입하는 일학습병행 학습기업을 위한 NCS 기반 교육훈련 및 자격 제안)

• Choi, Hwan Young
• Journal of Practical Engineering Education
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• v.12 no.1
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• pp.117-125
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• 2020
• According to the government's smart factory promotion project for small and medium-sized enterprises, more than 10,000 intelligent factories are scheduled or already built in the country and the government-led goal is to nurture 100,000 skilled workers by 2022. Smart Factory introduces numerous types of education and training courses from the supplier's point of view, such as training institutions belonging to local governments, some universities, and public organizations, in the form of an efficient resource management system and ICT technology convergence in the automated manufacturing equipment. The lack of linkage with the NCS, the standard for training, seems to have room for rethinking and direction. Results of survey is provided for the family companies of K-University in the metropolitan area and Chungnam area, and analyzes job demands by identifying whether or not they want to introduce smart factories. Defining the practitioners who will serve as a window for the introduction of smart factory technology within the company, setting up a training goal in consideration of the career path, and including the level of training required competency units, optional competency units, and training time suitable for introducing and operating smart factories. Author would like to present an NCS-based qualification design plan.

### Effects of Self-esteem, Nursing Professionalism, Cognitive Emotion Control Strategy on Clinical Practice Stress in Nursing Students (간호대학생의 자아존중감, 간호전문직관, 인지적 정서조절 전략이 임상실습스트레스에 미치는 영향)

• Kang, Mi-Ran;Jeong, Kyeong-Sook
• Journal of Digital Convergence
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• v.18 no.6
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• pp.353-361
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• 2020
• The aim of this study was to identify the factors related to clinical practice stress in nursing college students. The participants comprised 160 students in a nursing college. Data collection was conducted from December 1, 2019 to December 15, 2019. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient and a multiple regression analysis. The average score for clinical practice stress was 3.19 out of a maximum of 5. clinical practice stress had a statistically significant relationship with self-esteem(r=.22, p=.005), nursing professionalism(r=-.26, p=.001) and cognitive emotion control strategy(r=.38, p<.001). The factors affecting clinical practice stress were maladaptive cognitive emotion control strategy(β=.46, p<.001), nursing professionalism(β=-.20, <.001), grade(β=.20, p=.002), motivation for nursing choice(β=-.15, p=.019); the explanatory power of the model was 35.5%. Therefore, in order to reduce the stress on clinical practice, it is necessary to develop a program that can lower the maladaptive cognitive emotion control strategy along with improving the nursing professionalism in stress situations.

### Teacher Training Program and Analysis of Teacher's Demands to Strengthen Artificial Intelligence Education (인공지능교육 역량 강화를 위한 교원 연수 프로그램과 교사 요구분석)

• Jeon, In-Seong;Jun, Soo-Jin;Song, Ki-Sang
• Journal of The Korean Association of Information Education
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• v.24 no.4
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• pp.279-289
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• 2020
• The purpose of this study is to apply the training program for teachers to strengthen the competence of artificial intelligence education in primary and secondary school teachers and to analyze its effectiveness and analyze teachers' demands for artificial intelligence education to provide basic research data. The referenced training program was designed based on the ADDIE model by selecting the educational contents based on the five core elements of AI, and teachers from the G Metropolitan Office of Education and the AI Education Research Association collaborated to develop the program. The effectiveness of the developed program and questionnaire of teacher needs analysis for AI teaching were examined for content validity. As a result of the training conducted by applying the developed program, satisfaction with each curriculum of the training and the possibility of application to the field were highly evaluated. It was found that teachers consider the need of teaching unplugged activities for AI education and basic AI experiences in elementary school level, and AI education contents including block programming languages and physical computing activities are needed to teach in middle school level.

### The Effect of College-Language Small Group Cooperative Learning on English Reading Comprehension, English Reading Motivation and Cooperative Learning Awareness (대학 교양영어 소집단 협동학습이 영어독해력, 영어읽기동기, 협동학습인식에 미치는 영향)

• Lee, Young-Eun
• Journal of Digital Convergence
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• v.18 no.6
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• pp.81-91
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• 2020
• The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of group co-learning on English reading ability and motivation and the change in group co-learning perception after planning and applying a group co-study class program that can be applied in university liberal arts English class. In order to achieve this goal, the experiment team (34 students) conducted the class from September 2 to December 13, 2019 for 62 freshmen who participated in the compulsory liberal arts English class at the four-year university in North Chungcheong Province, and the control team (28 students) conducted the class as a typical lecture class based on the basis of cooperative learning. The English proficiency of the learners was approached by dividing the area of academic proficiency into English reading skills and the area of justice into English reading motivations. The pre-experimental learners' English reading skills were measured by excerpting the national level educational achievement assessment (high 2). The research results are as follows. First, it was shown that the English reading ability score of a group that applied group cooperative learning and the English reading ability score of a group that did not apply group cooperative learning were statistically significant differences. Second, there was a difference between the English reading motivation score of the group applying the convocation group cooperative learning and the English reading motivation score of the group not applied. Third, the change in the perception of groups applying the convocation group cooperative learning occurred before and after the experiment. This study found that the awareness of English reading, English reading motivation, and cooperative learning increased through cooperative learning among university students during liberal arts English classes, which has a positive effect on self-identity and so on.

### Research on Influencing Factors of Consumer Behavior of Fresh Agricultural Products E-commerce in China (중국 신선 농산품 전자상거래 소비자행동 영향요인에 관한 연구)

• Gao, Ze;Kim, Hyung-Ho;Sim, Jae-yeon
• Journal of Digital Convergence
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• v.18 no.6
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• pp.167-175
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• 2020
• The purpose of this paper is to provide directional and policy references to develop a higher level of service quality and consumer-oriented e-commerce platform. This paper has established a model of consumer behavior of Chinese fresh agricultural e-commerce using customer satisfaction theory and cognitive value theory, and used survey and SPS23.0 to verify hypothesis. Studies have shown that when consumers consume fresh agricultural products, product quality, logistics and distribution service quality, interactive quality of e-commerce platform, and product price and cognitive value have a positive effect on consumer behavior. This study is meaningful in the study of consumer behavior of fresh agricultural e-commerce, and in the case of fresh agricultural e-commerce companies, consumer behavior can be understood. In the model constructed in this paper, the relationship between each influencing factor and consumer behavior is considered comprehensively, but the possible relationship between fine molecular factors has not been studied and analyzed. In the future learning process, it is necessary to make clear the characteristics and particularity of the industry, think about its influencing factors comprehensively and make in-depth analysis.

### Factors Affecting Learning Methods and Flipped Learning by Flipped Learning (플립러닝이 학습방법과 플립러닝에 영향을 미치는 요인)

• Yi, Eun-Seon;Lim, Heui-Seok
• Journal of Digital Convergence
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• v.18 no.6
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• pp.45-52
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• 2020
• This study ranked the degree to which flipped learning contributes to each learning area and, in contrast, to quantitatively examine how effectively these learning methods are used in flipped learning, had four-year university computer majors receive flipped learning. Existing flipped learning experiments have proven effectiveness, while there are also negative effects on effectiveness, which has led to a lot of debate. Effective experiments and classes therefore require more research and an accurate understanding of flipped learning. Analysis of the 123 samples recruited shows that flipped learning contributes to learning is in order of self-directing, collaboration, watching videos, and learning by teachers. Regression analysis of the degree to which learning method affects flipped learning effectiveness resulted in order of self-directed learning, lecture videos, and collaborative learning. This shows that flipped learning not only has the greatest influence on self-directed learning, but also self-directed learning has the greatest influence on flipped learning. It can also see that a collaborative learning and the role of video to prior learning tool is important. Through this study, we hope to understand flipped learning correctly and set learning methods and achievement goals. It is necessary to analyze the interaction between flipped learning and subdivided classroom activities.

### The Effects of Design Thinking in High School Chemistry Classes (디자인씽킹 기반 고등학교 화학 수업의 효과 연구)

• Yang, Heesun;Kim, Mi-Yong;Kang, Seong-Joo
• Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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• v.64 no.3
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• pp.159-174
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• 2020
• The purpose of this study is to examine 'Design Thinking' based Chemistry Class program as an education strategy for core competence of creative convergence talent. The program stages were modified and supplemented into eight stages, including 'Knowledge Understand', 'Empathy', 'Sharing perspective', 'Ideate', '1st Prototype', '1st Test', '2nd Prototype', and '2nd Test', so that the 'Design Thinking Process in Science Education' can be applied to the chemistry class. Considering the linkage between the 2015 and 2009 revised national curriculum, the achievement criteria were selected, and the lesson plans and student activity sheet were developed according to the themes to be met. Four thematic educational programs were developed and applied to Chemistry I for the second grade of high school students from March to August. The results were verified through qualitative data analysis of the class scene and pre- and post-test based on inventories of 'Empathy' 'STEAM educational competence', 'Problem solving process'. As a result of applying the developed program, 'empathy' showed a significant improvement in empathy with others and empathy with the problem situation. In 'STEAM educational competence', there was a significant enhancement in science and design competence. In the 'problem finding process', the problem definition, problem solution design, and problem-solving review were significantly improved in the 'problem-solving process'. The results of this study provided implications for the applicability of design thinking - based chemistry classes and its educational effect.