• Title/Summary/Keyword: colorectal carcinoma

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Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma: an Immunohistochemical and Histopathological Study

  • Mahmoud, Abla Sayed;Umair, Ayesha;Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser;Alqahtani, Fahad Hussain;Hanouneh, Salah;Tarakji, Bassel
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6787-6790
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    • 2014
  • Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) immunoreactivity in colorectal adenocarcinomas and to find correlations with different pathological features. Materials and Methods: This study included 35 cases of colorectal carcinoma foir which surgical colectomy specimens were collected. Immunohistochemical staining of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) is done by using the Streptavidin-biotin technique. Results: This work reveals that COX-2 is positive in most cases of colorectal carcinoma and negative in normal colon tissue with statistically non significant relations between COX-2 immunostaining and different pathological features. Conclusions: Our data suggest over expression of COX-2 protein in colorectal carcinoma in contrast to normal mucosa, with a possible role in cell proliferation in carcinogenesis.

Expression of Oncogene Product in the Colorectal Carcinoma (결장암 및 직장암에서 암유전자 산물의 발현)

  • Shim, Young-Ran;Jang, Woo-Young;Choi, Kyoung-Chan;Choi, Joon-Hyuk;Choi, Won-Hee;Shim, Min-Chul
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.210-225
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    • 1995
  • The expression of $p62^{c-myc}$ and $p21^{ras}$ can be seen in many solid tumor, but the pattern and incidence of expression were different according to organ, countries, and examiners, thus it is not definitely defined. Total 67 colorectal carcinoma in paraffin sections are analysed by immunohistochemically for evaluation of the $p62^{c-myc}$ and $p21^{ras}$ expression according to the age, sex, chief complaints, location, differentiation, modified Dukes stage, using the specific monoclonal antibodies. The results were summarized as follows : The age of patients ranged from 32 years to 82 years. The mean age was 57.6 years. The expression of $p62^{c-myc}$ and $p21^{ras}$ was not correlated with age. Male was 29 cases(43.3%) and female was 38 cases(56.7%). The male to female ratio was 1:1.31. The expression of $p21^{ras}$ was increased in female(p<0.05). Abdominal pain(43.7%) was the most frequent chief complaint. The most frequent tumor location was rectum(44.8%). The expression of $p62^{c-myc}$ was increased in the rectum(p<0.05). The 65 cases(97.0%) out of 67 cases showed positive reaction of $p62^{c-myc}$ in the nucleus, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytoplasm. The 62 cases(92.5%) out of 67 cases showed positive reaction of $p21^{ras}$ in the cytoplasmic membrane and cytoplasm. The positive rate of $p62^{c-myc}$ and $p21^{ras}$ was 97.0% and 91.4% in well differentiated adenocarcinoma, 100.0% and 95.0% in moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, 90.0% and 90.0% in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, 100.0% and 100.0% in mucinous carcinoma. The positive rate of $p62^{c-myc}$ and $p21^{ras}$ was 94.1% and 88.2% in Dukes stage $B_1$, 96.0% and 96.0% in Dukes stage $B_2$, 100.0% and 100.0% in Dukes stage $C_1$, 100.0% and 88.9% in Dukes stage $C_2$, and 100.0% and 100.0% in Dukes stage D. The expression of $p62^{c-myc}$ in metastatic colorectal carcinoma showed diffuse and strongly positive reaction than primary colorectal carcinoma. The expression of $p21^{ras}$ in primary colorectal carcinoma showed diffuse and strongly positive reaction than metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

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Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects in Advanced Colorectal Carcinoma Patients Treated with Different Schedules of FOLFOX

  • Bano, Nusrat;Najam, Rahila;Qazi, Faaiza;Mateen, Ahmed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8089-8093
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    • 2014
  • Background: To assess the frequency and severity of gastrointestinal adverse effects in advanced colorectal carcinoma patients treated with four different schedules of FOLFOX. Materials and Methods: Patients (median age 61 years) who underwent surgery were included in the study. All had measureable disease at CT scan, ultrasonography or clinical examination. Toxicity was graded on a scale of 1-5 according to the general grade definition of CTC v2.0. The severity of adverse effects (Grade 3 and 4) assessed in each treatment arm was compared. Results: Differences between the incidence rates of 3 and 4 toxicity and all grades of toxicity for all parameters in GI toxicity were very highly significant (p<0.001). Severe gastrointestinal symptoms of toxicity were noted with FOLFOX7 (oxaliplatin $130mg/m^2$). Grade 3 diarrhea was reported in 25% patients and grade 4 diarrhea in 4% in the FOLFOX7 treatment arm. Grade 2 vomiting was very frequently reported in the FOLFOX4 treatment arm (oxaliplatin $85mg/m^2$). Grade 2 stomatitis was reported in 42% patients treated with mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin $100mg/m^2$). Differences in the incidence rate of nausea, diarrhea and stomatitis among all treatment arms of FOLFOX were significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: Severe diarrhea is associated with FOLFOX7 treatment. No grade 3 or 4 GI toxicity was reported in patients of the mFOLFOX6 arm.

Increased Free Circulating DNA Integrity Index as a Serum Biomarker in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma

  • El-Gayar, Dina;El-Abd, Nevine;Hassan, Noha;Ali, Reem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.939-944
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cell-free DNA circulating in blood is a candidate biomarker for malignant tumors. Unlike uniformly truncated DNA released from apoptotic non diseased cells, DNA released from necrotic cancer cells varies in size. Objectives: To measure the DNA integrity index in serum and the absolute DNA concentration to assess their clinical utility as potential serum biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) compared to CEA and CA19-9. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with CRC, 10 with benign colonic polyps and 20 healthy sex and age matched volunteers, were investigated by real time PCR of ALU repeats (ALU q-PCR) using two sets of primers (115 and 247 bp) amplifying different lengths of DNA fragments. The DNA integrity index was calculated as the ratio of q-PCR results of ALU 247/ALU 115bp. Results: Serum DNA integrity was statistically significantly higher in CRC patients compared to the benign and control groups (p<0.001). ROC curves for differentiating CRC patients from normal controls and benign groups had areas under curves of 0.90 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusions: The DNA integrity index is superior to the absolute DNA concentration as a potential serum biomarker for screening and diagnosis of CRC. It may also serve as an indicator for monitoring the progression of CRC patients. Combining CEA and CA19-9 with either of the genetic markers studied is better than either of them alone.

The C-terminal domain of PLD2 participates in degradation of protein kinase CKII β subunit in human colorectal carcinoma cells

  • Lee, Young-Hoon;Uhm, Jong-Su;Yoon, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Ji-Young;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Kang, Beom-Sik;Min, Do-Sik;Bae, Young-Seuk
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.9
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    • pp.572-577
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    • 2011
  • Elevated phospholipase D (PLD) expression prevents cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the roles of PLD isoforms in cell proliferation and apoptosis are incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the physiological significance of the interaction between PLD2 and protein kinase CKII (CKII) in HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. PLD2 interacted with the CKII${\beta}$ subunit in HCT116 cells. The C-terminal domain (residues 578-933) of PLD2 and the N-terminal domain of CKII${\beta}$ were necessary for interaction between the two proteins. PLD2 relocalized CKII${\beta}$ to the plasma membrane area. Overexpression of PLD2 reduced CKII${\beta}$ protein level, whereas knockdown of PLD2 led to an increase in CKII${\beta}$ expression. PLD2-induced CKII${\beta}$ reduction was mediated by ubiquitin-dependent degradation. The C-terminal domain of PLD2 was sufficient for CKII${\beta}$ degradation as the catalytic activity of PLD2 was not required. Taken together, the results indicate that the C-terminal domain of PLD2 can regulate CKII by accelerating CKII${\beta}$ degradation in HCT116 cells.

Lack of Relation of AKAP12 with p53 and Bcl-2 in Colorectal Carcinoma

  • Suren, Dinc;Yildirim, Mustafa;Alikanoglu, Arsenal Sezgin;Kaya, Vildan;Yildiz, Mustafa;Dilli, Utku Donem;Sezer, Cem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3415-3418
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    • 2014
  • Background: AKAP12 inhibits oncogenic proliferation, invasion, chemotaxis and neovascularization. Bcl-2 and p53 are two important apoptotic markers that play roles in apoptotic processes. It has been found that AKAP12 blocks the cell cycle and induces apoptosis in fibrosarcoma cells. In our study we assessed the relationship of AKAP12 with apoptotic markers, Bcl-2 and p53. Materials and Methods: Our study included 45 cases that were histopathologically diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma from the tissue samples acquired by surgical resection. AKAP 12, Bcl-2, and p53 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: A total of 45 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients - 17 (37.8%) females and 28 (62.2%) males - were included in this study. AKAP12 expression was found to be negative in 8 patients (17.8%), and positive in 37 patients (82.2%). Bcl-2 was found positive in 6 patients (13.3%) and p53 in 29 patients (55.6%). AKAP12 expression had no significant relation with Bcl-2 and p53 expression (p:0.939, p:0.079, respectively). Conclusions: Although various studies have pointed to apoptotic activity of AKAP12, the literature is limited regarding relations with p53 or Bcl-2 expression. In the present study, we found no relation in colorectal carcinomas.

Colorectal Carcinoma in Malaysians: DNA Mismatch Repair Pattern in a Multiethnic Population

  • Cheah, Phaik-Leng;Looi, Lai-Meng;Teoh, Kean-Hooi;Rahman, Nazarina Abdul;Wong, Li-Xuan;Tan, Soo-Yong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3287-3291
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    • 2014
  • Background: The interesting preponderance of Chinese with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) amongst the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia prompted a study to determine DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status in our CRC and attempt correlation with patient age, gender and ethnicity as well as location, grade, histological type and stage of tumour. Histologically re-confirmed CRC, diagnosed between $1^{st} $January 2005 and $31^{st}$ December 2007 at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre, were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies to MMR proteins, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 on the Ventana Benchmark XT autostainer. Of the 142 CRC cases entered into the study, there were 82 males and 60 females (M:F=1.4:1). Ethnically, 81 (57.0%) were Chinese, 32 (22.5%) Malays and 29 (20.4%) Indians. The patient ages ranged between 15-87 years (mean=62.4 years) with 21 cases <50-years and 121 ${\geq}50$-years of age. 14 (9.9%) CRC showed deficient MMR (dMMR). Concurrent loss of MLH1 and PMS2 occurred in 10, MSH2 and MSH6 in 2 with isolated loss of MSH6 in 1 and PMS2 in 1. dMMR was noted less frequently amongst the Chinese (6.2%) in comparison with their combined Malay and Indian counterparts (14.8%), and was associated with right sided and poorly differentiated tumours (p<0.05). 3 of the 5 (60.0%) dMMR CRC cases amongst the Chinese and 1 of 9 cases (11.1%) amongst the combined Malay and Indian group were <50-years of age. No significant association of dMMR was noted with patient age and gender, tumour stage or mucinous type.

Schistosomiasis Combined with Colorectal Carcinoma Diagnosed Based on Endoscopic Findings and Clinicopathological Characteristics: A Report on 32 Cases

  • Liu, Wei;Zeng, Hong-Ze;Wang, Qi-Ming;Yi, Hang;Mou, Yi;Wu, Chun-Cheng;Hu, Bing;Tang, Cheng-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4839-4842
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    • 2013
  • Aims and Background: To improve understanding of the relationship between schistosome-related enteropathy and colorectal carcinoma with particular focus on endoscopic findings and clinicopathological characteristics of colonic schistosomiasis. Materials and Methods: All cases of intestinal schistosomiasis diagnosed at West China Hospital, Chengdu, China, between October 2006 and October 2012 were included in this study. A total of 179 cases of colonic schistosomiasis diagnosed through colonoscopy and pathological examinations were collected for analysis and the demographics, symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinicopathological characteristics were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 179 colonic schistosomiasis patients, 32 combined with colorectal cancer (CRC) were found, between the ages of 44 and 85 years (24 males, 75%). These 32 lesions were classified as 12 endophytic/ulcerative (37.5%), 10 exophytic/fungating (31.2%), 4 annular (12.5%), 3 giant polypus (9.4%), and 3 IIc (superficial depressed type) (9.4%). The segments of rectum and sigmoid colon were involved in 19 patients (59.4%) and 6 patients (18.8%), respectively. The histopathologic types were classified as follows: 30 welldifferentiated adenocarcinomas, one mucinous adenocarcinoma and one poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings suggest colorectal malignancy with deposited schistosome ova. Conclusions: Chronic schistosomal infestation has a probable etiological role in promoting genesis of colorectal neoplasms.

The Caudal-Related Homeodomain Proteins Upregulate catalase Expression in Drosophila Hindgut and Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells (초파리 대장조직과 인간 대장암세포주에서의 caudal 단백질에 의한 catalase 발현 조절)

  • Park, Jae-Hong;Park, So-Young;Lee, Dong-Ho;Kim, Young-Shin;Yoo, Mi-Ae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2011
  • Caudal-related homeodomain proteins play critical roles in intestine development and maintenance from Drosophila to humans. The loss or reduction of CDX1 and CDX2 are known to be associated with colon cancers. It has been well known that colorectal carcinogenesis is associated with serious oxidative stress and that catalase is decreased in colon carcinomas. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that Caudal-related homeodomain proteins positively regulate catalase expression in both Drosophila and humans. We found that Drosophila caudal heterozygotes have a decreased catalase expression and increased ROS generation in the hindgut, and that the overexpression of Caudal increases catalase promoter activity and catalase mRNA levels. We also found that CDX1 and CDX2 up-regulate catalase promoter activity and protein levels in HCT116 cells - human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The level of catalase protein in several colorectal carcinoma cell lines was associated with CDX1 expression. These results suggest that CDX1 and CDX2 may be involved in intestinal homeostasis and tumorigenesis via regulation of catalase expression.