• Title/Summary/Keyword: cholelithiasis

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Association of Cytochrome-17 (MspA1) Gene Polymorphism with Risk of Gall Bladder Stones and Cancer in North India

  • Dwivedi, Shipra;Agrawal, Sarita;Singh, Shraddha;Madeshiya, Amit Kumar;Singh, Devendra;Mahdi, Abbas Ali;Chandra, Abhjeet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5557-5563
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cholelithiasis is associated in 54%-98% of patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder, and a high incidence among females suggests a role of female hormones in the etiology of the disease. Cytochrome $P450C17{\alpha}$ (CYP-17) is a key enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and polymorphisms in CYP-17 are associated with altered serum levels of estrogens. Thus, we investigated whether the CYP-17 MspA1 gene polymorphism might impact on risk of gall bladder cancers or gallstones, as well as to determine if this gene polymorphism might be linked with estrogen serum levels and lipid profile among the North Indian gall bladder cancer or gallstone patients. Materials and Methods: CYP-17 gene polymorphisms (MspA1) were genotyped with PCR-RFLP in cancer patients (n=96), stone patients (n=102), cancer + stone patients (n=52) and age/sex matched control subjects (n= 256). Lipid profile was estimated using a commercial kit and serum estrogen was measured using ELISA. Results: The majority of the patients in all groups were females. The lipid profile and estrogen level were significantly higher among the study as compared to control groups. The frequency of mutant allele A2 of CYP17 MspA1 gene polymorphism was higher among cancer (OR=5.13, 95% CI+3.10-8.51, p=0.0001), stone (OR=5.69, 95%CI=3.46-9.37, p=0.0001) and cancer + stone (OR=3.54, 95%CI=1.90-6.60, p=0.0001) when compared with the control group. However there was no significant association between genotypes of CYP17 MspA1 gene polymorphism and circulating serum level of estrogen and lipid profile. Conclusions: A higher frequency of mutant genotype A1A2 as well as mutant allele A2 of CYP-17 gene polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of gallbladder cancer and stones. Elevated levels of estrogen and an altered lipid profile can be used as predictors ofgall bladder stones and cancer in post menopausal females in India.

Distribution of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Bua Yai District, Nakhon Ratchasima of Thailand Using Google Map

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Sangkudloa, Amnat;Kaewthani, Sarochinee;Khemplila, Kritsakorn;Cherdjirapong, Karuna;Kujapun, Jirawoot;Norkaew, Jun;Chavengkun, Wasugree;Ponphimai, Sukanya;Polsripradist, Poowadol;Padchasuwan, Natnapa;Joosiri, Apinya;Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart;Loyd, Ryan A;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1433-1436
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a major problem of health in Thailand, particularly in Northeastern and Northern regions, is generally incurable and rapidly lethal because of presentation in stage 3 or 4. Early diagnosis of stage 1 and 2 could allow better survival. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a distribution map of populations at risk for CCA in BuaYai district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeast Thailand. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 10 sub-districts and 122 villages, during June and November 2015. The populations at risk for CCA were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) and then risk areas were displayed by using Google map (GM). Results: A total of 11,435 individuals from a 26,198 population completed the KCVST. The majority had a low score of risk for CCA (1-4 points; 93.3%). High scores with 6, 7 and 8 points accounted for 1.20%, 0.13% and 0.02%. The population at risk was found frequently in sub-district municipalities, followed by sub-district administrative organization and town municipalities, (F=396.220, P-value=0.000). Distribution mapping comprised 11 layers: 1, district; 2, local administrative organization; 3, hospital; 4, KCVST opisthorchiasis; 5, KCVST praziquantel used; 6, KCVST cholelithiasis; 7, KCVST raw fish consumption; 8, KCVST alcohol consumption; 9, KCVST pesticide used; 10, KCVST relative family with CCA; and 11, KCVST naive northeastern people. Geovisual display is now available online. Conclusions: This study indicated that the population at high risk of CCA in Bua Yai district is low, therefore setting a zero model project is possible. Key success factors for disease prevention and control need further study. GM production is suitable for further CCA surveillance and monitoring of the population with a high risk score in this area.

Clinical, Laboratory Biomarkers and Imaging Findings of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Iran

  • Hadizadeh, Mohammad;Padashi, Maryam;Alizadeh, Amir Houshang Mohammad;Zali, Mohammad Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.4349-4352
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    • 2014
  • Background: Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate because it is usually diagnosed late. Since little is known about this cancer in Iran, with the aim of improving this knowledge deficiency, we evaluated clinical, laboratory biomarkers, imaging findings and treatment modalities in Iranian patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: 131 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in 2010-2013 were obtained from the Taleghani Hospital Record Department. Cases confirmed by histopathology from CT-guided biopsy, EUS-FNA and surgery examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Results: The study included 131 subjects between 24 and 97 years of age and a mean age of $63{\pm}13.4$ years. Eighty (61.1%) were male and 51 (38.9%) female. Previous history included diabetes mellitus in 36 (27.5%), alcohol drinking in 5 (3.9%), smoker in 28 (21.4%) and opium addiction in 13 (10%). The common presenting history included weight loss in 79 (60.3%), abdominal pain in 77 (58.8%), fever in 11 (8.4%), nausea in 30 (22.9%), jaundice in 72 (55%), pruritus in 52 (39.7) and anemia in 33 (25.2%). CA19-9 levels with cut offs of 50, 100 and 200 U/ml were increased in 81%, 72% and 66% of patients, respectively. Tumor staging was: stage I, 3 (2.3%); stage II, 10 (7.6%); stage III, 58 (44.3%); and stage IV, 60 (45.8%). From 45 patients, 17 received ERCP inserted metallic stents and 22 plastic stents, the remaining 6 failed that PTC was done. Whipple surgery and chemotherapy were conducted for 10 and 29 patients, respectively. Conclusions: This disease affected older people and there was a male preponderance. The commonest risk factors were diabetes mellitus, smoking and cholelithiasis. The majority of patients presented with loss of appetite, loss of weight, jaundice, abdominal pain and discomfort. Almost all presented at late stages of the disease so that curative surgery was impossible. Also chemotherapy was only performed in a few patients as a neoadjuant treatment.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gallstones in Adult Health Screening Population (건강한 성인의 담석 유병률과 위험인자)

  • Lee, Mi-Hwa;Kwon, Duck-Moon;Cho, Pyong-Kon
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2014
  • Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT III. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women 1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not displayed in relation to the metabolic syndrome but in order to clarify this, not only the subject of a health examination is needed but, a further study of the general public when possible.

Dynamic Study on the Hepatobiliary Diseases with Combination of $^{131}I$-Rose bengal and $^{198}Au$-Colloid Scintiphotography (간담도질환(肝膽道疾患)의 Scintiphotography 상(像)에 있어서 $^{131}I$-Rose bengal 및 $^{198}Au$-colloid의 섭취(攝取)와 배설(排泄)에 관(關)한 역동학적(力動學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Rhee, Yong-Kook
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.49-64
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    • 1971
  • The radioactive $^{131}I$-rose bengal serial scintiphotography was performed in 62 patients with the hepatobiliary diseases and in 20 normal subjects. This approach permitted visualization of the hepatic uptake of $^{131}I$-rose bengal from the circulation and its excretion into the biliary trees and the intestines. In some of these patients, gallbladder function was examined, using eggs as a gallbladder constrictor. The time of maximum hepatic uptake was well correlated to the conventional biochemical liver function tests. In addition to $^{131}I$-rose bengal scintiphotography, $^{198}Au$-colloid scintiphotography was also performed to make comparison of these two tests. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In normal subjects, the maximum hepatic uptake of $^{131}I$-rose bengal occurred at $23{\pm}2.9$ minutes, the initial hepatic excretion at $34{\pm}5.1$ minutes, the visualization of the gallbladder at $29{\pm}5.7$ minutes and the intestinal visualization at $54{\pm}25.8$ minutes. The radioactivity in the gallbladder decreased to $10.7{\pm}5.0%$ one hour after the ingestion of eggs. 2. In the patients with cirrhosis of the liver, there was a delayed and decreased hepatic uptake. The maximun hepatic upake occurred at $43{\pm}12.9$ minutes. The differences in the results of uptake between the cirrhotic and the normal group were statistically significant. The initial hepatic excretion occurred at $60{\pm}18.5$ minutes and had tendency of delaying compared with the normal controls. The gallbladder was visualized in 13 of 16 cases (81%) and its visualization occurred at $49{\pm}14.6$ minutes with a tendency to be delayed compared with the normal controls. The intestinal visualization occurred at $63{\pm}15.8$ minutes and its delaying tendency was somewhat more prominent. 3. In patients with hepatitis, the maximum hepatic uptake occurred at $59{\pm}21.4$ minutes and was significantly delayed. The initial hepatic excretion occurred at $82{\pm}34.3$ minutes and the results revealed a delaying tendency. The gallbladder was visualized in 15 of 20 cases (75%) at $57{\pm}18.7$ minutes, which was significantly delayed. The Intestinal visualization was noted in all cases with marked delay. 4. In patients with obstructive jaundice, the maximum hepatic uptake was noted at $83{\pm}14.7$ minutes, showing the most significant delay. The hepatic excretion into biliary trees and intestines was not entirely noted in all cases except the only one case with gallbladder visualization. 5. In patients with cholelithiasis, the maximum hepatic upake and the initial hepatic excretion were slightly delayed with mean times of $39{\pm}11.2\;and\;48{\pm}17.1$ minutes respectively. The visualization of the gallbladder was demonstrated in 10 of 17 cases (59%) and occurred at $52{\pm}25.6$ minutes with a slight delay. The intestinal visualization occurred at $67{\pm}47.7$ minutes and was slightly delayed. $^{131}I$-rose bengal in the gallbladder remained high, $49.3{\pm}21.3%$, which suggested quantitatively decreased power of gallbladder constriction. 6. The time of the maximum hepetic uptake was correlated well to BSP retention and serum alkaline phosphatase ativity. However, the maximum hepatic uptake had no definite correlation with serum albumin, serum globulin, TTT, serum cholesterol, SGPT or SGOT. 7. In the diagnosis of the hepatobiliary diseases with jaundice, $^{131}I$-rose bengel serial scintiphotography has proved to be more useful than $^{198}Au$-colloid scintiphotography. With these results, it could be justified that $^{131}I$-rose bengal scintiphotography is an excellent diagnostic aid for dynamic hepatobiliary function studies in the clinical practice.

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A Study on the Efficiency of Hand-Knee Position in GB Stone Ultrasonography (담낭결석 초음파검사에서 Hand-Knee position의 효율성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Soung-Ock;Do, Yun-Su
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.267-274
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    • 2006
  • The evaluation of GB stones with ultrasound has proved to be useful procedure in patient with symptoms of cholelithiasis. GB is evaluated for size, wall thickness, presence of internal reflections within the lumen and posterior acoustic shadowing or enhancement in Ultrsonography. The patient position should be shifted during procedure to demonstrate further the presence of stone within the GB. Patient scanned at the Rt. subcostal region in supine, right lateral, Lt. down decubitus, and upright sitting position. So GB stone should shift to dependent area of GB. Often, GB is not markedly distended in the presence of cholethiasis, and so the diagnosis becomes more difficult. One of the more difficult areas for detection of a GB stones are embeded in the cystic duct region. And since the GB is adjacent to the duodenum and hepatic flexure, its may be difficult to visualizing a GB stone. When patient study position changes frome supine to other position, stones displaced the site. But if its are polyps, not changes the site whatever patient positions. It is very important to what make different GB stones or polyps. We have studied about mobility of GB stones according to the patients position(supine, Lt. down decubitus, $30^{\circ} LAO. sitting and hand-knee). So we have a result, stones wherever localized within the GB, changed 100% its position in the hand-knee position and the others appeared at least 90%. In this study, when a large stones are located through fundus-body and body-neck, does not changing the stones position in spite of varied patient's positions. But hand-knee positions can identified GB stones, because its make changed the position of stons from posterior wall to anterior wall within the GB. We recommend the hand-knee position for differentiation GB stones from polyps.

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The Role of Hepatobiliary Scintiuaphy and Oral Cholecystography in Predicting the Performance of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (복강경담낭절제술에서 수술전 간담도신티그라피와 경구담낭조영술의 의의)

  • Won, Kyoung-Sook;Moon, Dae-Hyuk;Yang, Seoung-Oh;Han, Dong-Bok;Park, Cheol-Min;Lee, Moon-Gyu;Lee, Hee-Kyung;Park, Kwang-Min;Lee, Sung-Gyu;Ryu, Jin-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 1997
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectorny can be performed safely in most patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Preoperative evaluation should assess the potential problems that affect the performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy or oral cholecystography can assess the gallbladder function and nonvisualization of gallbladder usually indicates acute or severe chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of preoperative hepatobiliary scintigraphy or oral cholecystography in predicting the performance of laparoscopic cholecystectorny. The study group consists of 176 patients who underwent both hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m DISIDA and oral cholecystography within one month before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Nonvisualization of gallbladder was defined as persistent nonvisualization of gallbladder until 4 hours on hepatobiliary scintigraphy or 12 hours on oral cholecystography. Among 176 patients, gallbladder was not visualized in 38 patients on hepatobiliary scintigraphy and 41 patients on oral cholecystography. Concordance rate between hepatobiliary scintigraphy and oral cholecystography was 89.2%. The conversion rate to open cholocystectomy was significantly higher in patients with nonvisualization of gallbladder than in patients with gallbladder visualization(15.8% vs 2.9% on hepatobiliary scintigraphy, 12.2% vs 3.7% on oral cholecystography p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively). The operative complication rate was also significantly higher in patients with nonvisualization of gallbladder (13.2% vs 2.9% on hepatobiliary scintigraphy, 14.6% vs 2.2% on oral cholecystography p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Similarly, operation time was significantly prolonged in patients with nonvisualization of gallbladder ($88.8{\pm}41.9min$ vs $62.5{\pm}23.6min$ on hepatobiliary scintigraphy : p<0.001, $89.4{\pm}41.3$ min vs $61.8{\pm}22.8$ min on oral cholecystography : p<0.001). It is concluded that nonvisualization of gallbladder on hepatobiliary scintigraphy or oral cholecystography is a valuable preoperative clinical risk factor in predicting increased conversion rate to open cholecystectomy, increased operative complication and prolonged operation time.

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The Patient Recognition, Acceptability and Evaluation of Feasibility for Day Surgery (종합병원 일부 입원환자의 당일수술에 대한 태도와 당일수술 적용 가능성 평가)

  • Beak, Young-Ran;Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Kim, Seok-Beom;Kang, Pock-Soo;Kang, Young-Ah
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.334-342
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    • 2000
  • Objectives . This study was conducted in order to investigate the degree of recognition, acceptability, and altitude towards day surgery of patients who were hospitalized with diseases that were candidates for day surgery; in order to analyze the average length of stay for treatment of the ailments; and to analyze the percentage of patients who could be discharged on the same day after the surgery ,using the post-anesthesia discharge scoring system. Methods : Data was collected between February 1 and March 31, 1999 from 353 patients who received surgery for cataract, adenoid hypertrophy, inguinal hernia, strabismus, ptosis, cholelithiasis, hemorrhoid, or anal fistula, at a general hospital in Daegu city. The patients were interviewed and surveyed by a post-anesthesia discharge scoring system(PADS) in order to collect data on patient condition such as vital signs, activity and mental status, pain, nausea and vomiting, surgical bleeding, intake and output after the surgery. Results : Among the 353 patients, 52.7% were after of the day surgery and 52.7% were interested in day surgery. Of the respondents, 43.1% said 'my ailment was not serious and the surgery was simple' and 30.4% said 'according to my condition rest at home was desirable' as the reasons for wanting day surgery Alternatively, 56.5% of those declining day surgery said the 'uncertainty of staying home' was the reason. The greatest concern in discharging within 24 hours after surgery was a post-op emergency situation. On the other hand, the shortened hospitalization was the largest advantage of day surgery with 39.1% responding this way, followed by the savings in hospitalization costs (25.8%) and emotional stability (13.7%). The majority of those surveyed (47.6%) believed that discharge should be determined within 1-2 days after the surgery. The average hospital stay was 3.1 days for dischargeable ailments. Pain (45.6%), nausea and vomiting (10.5%), and headache (7.9%) were the common symptoms following surgery. The percentage of patients who were able to be discharged within 24 hours after surgery revealed 95.2% were dischargeable after approximately 3 hours, 99.2% dischargeable after 12 hours, and 100% dischargeable after 24 hours. Conclusions : According to the PADS score, the cataract extract and strabismus correction patients were eligible for day surgery and the further evaluation concerning the reason for delayed recovery of the other diseases is needed.

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